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Volume 26 (2021): Issue 1-2 (December 2021)

Volume 25 (2020): Issue 1-2 (December 2020)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 1-2 (December 2019)

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 1-2 (December 2018)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 1-2 (December 2017)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 1-2 (December 2016)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 1-2 (December 2015)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 1-2 (December 2014)

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 1-2 (December 2013)

Volume 17 (2012): Issue 1-2 (December 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-4506
ISSN
2084-4506
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 17 (2012): Issue 1-2 (December 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-4506
ISSN
2084-4506
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

12 Articles
Open Access

Teaching Experimental Chemistry in English Schools / Nauczanie Chemii Doświadczalnej W Angielskich Szkołach

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 7 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

An historical background to the teaching of chemistry is presented, together with examples of great teachers from the past. Some aspects of the modern English school chemistry syllabus are discussed, both from the point of view of its theoretical content and its aim in helping children to develop practical skills. Chemistry Clubs, Open days and popular science lectures are also mentioned as a means of stimulating interest in chemistry as taught in schools.

Keywords

  • chemistry
  • experiment
  • demonstration
  • teacher
  • pupil

Słowa kluczowe

  • chemia
  • eksperyment
  • demonstracja
  • nauczyciel
  • uczeń
Open Access

Mathematical Cognition in Metaphors Expressed Through Photography / Matematyczne Poznanie Poprzez Metafory Wyrażone Fotografią

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 27 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

The paper signals the foundations of the new method of teaching mathematics that is currently emerging from the concept of human cognition and the constructivist paradigm. The presented examples of the hermeneutic research conducted for 17 years are concerned with an analysis of the formulated mathematical problems in the language of photographic metaphors. Thoughts expressed through the photographic image and text consisting of the caption and the description (dual coding) reveal the structure of cognitive networks of authors of photographs, which has a special significance in creation of the new didactics that will fulfil the needs of the contemporary photosociety. Mathematical photoeducation free transition between art and mathematics lies on the student’s artistic sensitivity and on enlivening the student’s cognitive expression in a space distant from the classroom (at a lake, in the playground, on the skating ring or during a field excursion to a mineral museum). It utilizes the student’s natural interest in observable natural phenomena and in man-made objects. This kind of creativity, which relies on independent uncovering or constructing of knowledge with the help of a photographic camera, opens the gates to an entirely new space of mathematical didactics, as it brings to students’ awareness specific ways of association leading to accomplishment cognitive processes in relation to abstract mathematical objects.

Keywords

  • teaching mathematics
  • mathematical culture
  • cognitive photography
  • mathematical photoeducation
  • student’s scientific creativity
  • area-specific and creative abilities in mathematics

Słowa kluczowe

  • nauczanie matematyki
  • kultura matematyczna
  • fotografia poznawcza
  • fotoedukacja matematyczna
  • naukowa twórczość ucznia
  • zdolności kierunkowe i twórcze w matematyce
Open Access

Pregradual Preparation of Teachers in Slovakia / Etapy Przygotowania Nauczycieli Do Zawodu Na Słowacji

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 41 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

The contribution deals with the quality of pregradual preparation of teachers in the Slovak Republic. It analysis the causes of continuously decreasing number of secondary school graduates interested in teaching profession. The contribution evaluates present situation in pregradual preparation of teachers regarding the proportion of professional, pedagogical and psychological and didactic part. As far as the didactic part is concerned, the contribution points out the need for new approaches to be applied supporting digital technologies.

Keywords

  • pregradual preparation
  • Slovak teachers
  • bachelor degree
  • master degree
  • curriculum

Słowa kluczowe

  • nauczyciele słowaccy
  • licencjat
  • magister
  • program nauczania
Open Access

Introduction of Inquiry Based Science Education into Polish Science Curriculum - General Findings of Teachers’ Attitude / Wdrożenie Nauczania Przez Odkrywanie Do Polskiej Podstawy Programowej W Zakresie Przedmiotów Przyrodniczych - Badanie Opinii Nauczycieli

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 49 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

The new Polish science curriculum was launched in the 2008 and currently is being implemented in upper secondary schools. The new general objectives of education, and students’ key competences that should be developed during science classes were defined in that document. Presented competences are in line with competences that might be developed by Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE). IBSE is currently a popular instructional method in many countries and it is being strongly promoted by European Union. In the article the role of IBSE in the new Polish science curriculum is described and related to the method of ‘Independent Investigation to Acquire Knowledge’ that was formerly known in the national pedagogy. The article also presents results of a survey questionnaire that was conducted among Polish science teachers. The aim of the study was to measure the attitude of Polish teachers, pupils and society to IBSE. Based on the results the current position and degree of implementation of IBSE in Polish schools was estimated. Additionally the positive and negative factors affecting the implementation of IBSE were presented.

Keywords

  • Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE)
  • reform of science curriculum

Słowa kluczowe

  • nauczanie przez odkrywanie
  • reforma edukacji
  • nowa podstawa programowa
Open Access

Computerized Adaptive Testing in Poland / Komputerowe Testowanie Adaptacyjne W Polsce

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 61 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

New trends relating to computer-based testing of learners’ achievements are presented in the paper. It describes adaptive testing methods and results of studies in this problem area. Essential questions connected with the Item Response Theory (IRT) were also discussed. The presented data indicate that computer-based adaptive testing should be popularized in Poland to its fullest extent.

Keywords

  • education
  • adaptive testing
  • item response theory
  • item characteristic curve

Słowa kluczowe

  • kształcenie
  • testowanie adaptacyjne
  • teoria wyniku zadania
  • krzywa charakterystyczna zadania
Open Access

Determination of Degradation Products of Plant Origin Pigments in the Bottom Sediments of Lakes / Oznaczanie Zawartości Produktów Degradacji Barwników Pochodzenia Roślinnego W Osadach Dennych Jezior

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 69 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this exercise was to introduce students to one of the methods used for determination of the content of pigments’ degradation products in lake bottom sediments characterised by heterogeneous physical and chemical properties. The research revealed that the studied bottom sediments were characterised by diverse content of products produced during degradation of pigments of plant origin, whereas higher concentrations of these compounds were found in sediments containing inorganic carbon (carbonates). The obtained results also indicate that it is important to have the results properly presented, particularly in the case of samples containing the carbonates.

Keywords

  • exercise for students
  • plant pigments
  • bottom sediment

Słowa kluczowe

  • ćwiczenie dla studentów
  • barwniki roślinne
  • osady denne
Open Access

Pollution of the Ecosystem of the Rusalka City Lake with Heavy Metals / Zanieczyszczenie Ekosystemu Śródmiejskiego Jeziora Rusałka Metalami Ciężkimi

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 75 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

In the vegetation season April-October 2010, the value of and the changes in Zntot., Cutot., Cdtot. and Pbtot. concentrations in the water of the Rusalka flow-through lake (with average water retention of ca 30 days) situated in the city centre of Szczecin were determined. Water temperature, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen (with calculation of water saturation with O2), COD-Cr and BOD5, total hardness, - 3 HCO concentration (as total alkalinity), Cl-, - 24 SO , Mntot and Fetot were also determined. The data collected may be used to evaluate the ecological and chemical status of the surface waters under investigation. As far as the ecological status of the Rusalka Lake is concerned, the investigated waters were found, based on the official criteria being in force in Poland in evaluation of the ecological and chemical status of surface waters, to conform to water quality classes I and II considering total zinc and copper concentrations, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration (except water inflow to the lake in August) as well as BOD5, - 24 SO and Cl- concentrations and pH value; however, they were always worse than water quality class II while taking the COD-Cr values into account. Regarding the chemical status of the investigated waters, total cadmium and lead concentrations were the levels exceeding the admissible values according to the official criteria in Poland. Changes in the values of indices being investigated along water flow path allowed stating that the equilibriums between the sedimentation and the resuspension and the dissolution processes during the research period were shifted towards sedimentation in case of Zn and Cd only, as well as of the organic matter sedimenting in the form of divalent cation- and divalent anion-sorbing gels. Although three phytoplankton blooms occurred in the body of water, unfortunately weak ones, the dissimilation processes prevailed over assimilation.

Keywords

  • water pollution
  • metals in waters
  • city lakes
  • Rusalka Lake in Szczecin

Słowa kluczowe

  • zanieczyszczenie wód
  • metale w wodach
  • jeziora śródmiejskie
  • jezioro Rusałka w Szczecinie
Open Access

Current Trends in Recycling of Photovoltaic Solar Cells and Modules Waste / Recykling Zużytych Ogniw I Modułów Fotowoltaicznych - Stan Obecny

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 89 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

In comparison to other energy producing techniques, photovoltaics (PV) is one of the most promising options: no emission of any matter into the environment during operation; extremely long operation period (estimated average: 25 years), minimum maintenance, robust technique, aesthetic aspects. The use of photovoltaics is rapidly increasing, and the respective market is developing accordingly. Although PV manufacturing equipment is now excluded from the scope of RoHS, according to the Kyoto Protocol and the EU Directives WEEE and RoHS the use of hazardous substances in electric/electronic devices has to be reduced stepwise to approximately zero level. Furthermore, a total recycling of nearly all materials involved is aimed. Thus, major attention is directed to avoidance of environmental pollution through combustion or landfill, to regain valuable material, to promote the development and use of renewable energy sources. As the lifetime of PV cells themselves is much longer than that of PV modules and the manufacturing process of cells requires much energy consumption, the reuse of base material of the cells is economically justified. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate existing methods of PV cells and modules recycling. The article discusses the main outcomes and analyses the significance of recycling in relation to the environmental profile of the production and total life cycle of photovoltaic cells and modules

Keywords

  • recycling
  • photovoltaic cells
  • photovoltaic modules
  • waste
  • renewable energy sources

Słowa kluczowe

  • recykling
  • ogniwa fotowoltaiczne
  • moduły fotowoltaiczne
  • zagospodarowanie odpadów
  • odnawialne źródła energii
Open Access

„Good” and „Bad” Ozone - Evaluation on the Basis of Plant Reaction to Ozone / „Dobry” I „Zły” Ozon - Ocena Na Podstawie Reakcji Roślin Na Ozon

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 97 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

Ozone is a natural and artificial chemical compound of Earth’s atmosphere. O3 is an absorbent of ultraviolet and infrared radiation and has strong oxidative properties. In the stratosphere the ozone layer protects the planet’s surface from dangerous UV radiation, its indirect effect on plant organisms is positive so stratospheric ozone can be called “good” ozone. The depletion of the ozone layer, as a result of atmosphere pollution, described as an ozone “hole” is causing UVB radiation enhanced level on Earth’s surface. The genetic, cytological, physiological and morphological reaction of prolonged UVB exposure in plants is twofold: it damages plants and simultaneously plants protect themselves and repair their injuries. The ozone in the troposphere originates from natural sources and is also a secondary pollutant, formed in photochemical reactions, leading to “smog” and ozone “spots” occurrence. As a strong oxidant, O3 is directly toxic to plants and can be recognized as “bad” ozone. Ozone is also classified as a “greenhouse” gas, participating in global warming. It is difficult to value the impact of O3 as a “greenhouse” gas on plants. The combined effect of O3 changes in the stratosphere and troposphere on plants can be estimated as loss in crop yield and in productivity of natural ecosystems

Keywords

  • tropospheric and stratospheric ozone
  • ozone “hole”
  • excess of ultraviolet radaition
  • „greenhouse” effect
  • “greenhouse” gas
  • excess of ozone
  • photochemical „smog”
  • ozone “spots”

Słowa kluczowe

  • ozon stratosferyczny i troposferyczny
  • „dziura” ozonowa
  • nadmiar promieniowania UV
  • efekt „cieplarniany”
  • gaz „cieplarniany”
  • nadmiar ozonu
  • „smog” fotochemiczny
  • „plamy” ozonowe
Open Access

Insecticide and Food Consumption of Spanish Slug (Arion Lusitanicus Mabille 1868) / Insektycydy A Konsumpcja Pokarmu Przez Ślinika Luzytańskiego (Arion Lusitanicus Mabille 1868)

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 113 - 120

Abstract

Abstract

In the years 2007 and 2011, research was carried out on the impact of: pyrethroid group agents (beta-cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin, bifenthrin) benzoylphenyl ureas (teflubenzuron), derivatives of pyridine (pyriproxyfen), organophosphorus (diazinon) and neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid) on the food consumption by Spanish slug (Arion lusitanicus Mab). The quantity of food consumed by animals treated by plant protection agents, the quantity of food treated by insecticides consumed and food preferences of A. lusitanicus individuals were analysed. The slugs were made available a selection between food with an addition of insecticide and without it. The results obtained indicate that the preparations which contained lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin with which the animals were treated increase the quantity of food consumed by the Spanish slug. It was also shown that the food treated with lambdacyhalothrin and alpha cypermethrin is consumed in a larger amount than the food not treated by this preparation. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin and pyriproxyfen probably constitute food attractants for A. lusitanicus individuals and also alpha-cypermethrin, bifenthrin, beta-cyfluthrin and esfenvalerate are additive, which reduces the attractiveness of food for slug.

Keywords

  • Spanish slug
  • Arion lusitanicus
  • insecticides
  • attractants

Słowa kluczowe

  • ślinik luzytański
  • Arion lusitanicus
  • insektycydy
  • atraktanty
Open Access

Changes in Water Chemistry as a Result of Rainfall Runoff from the Roofs of Various Coatings. Part I / Kształtowanie Się Chemizmu Wód Opadowych W Wyniku Spływu Z Dachów O Różnych Pokryciach. Część I

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 121 - 131

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the level of calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and potassium in the waters flowing from the roofs of houses with varying degrees of coverage on the background of their contents in rain waters. On the basis of the Minister of Environment Decree of 24 July 2006 on conditions to be met for the introduction of sewage into the water or ground and on substances particularly harmful to the aquatic environment, runoff from paved areas shall be treated as sewage, and runoff from roofs of buildings are treated as pure water and can be discharged into the environment without a permit. However, literature data indicate the possibility of a significant enrichment of rainwater at the time of contact with the roof covering. The study included 24 roofs of houses or small trade buildings. As background to the research used rainwater collected in two randomly selected locations within the area of research. The study was conducted in areas with low human impact, in order to best capture the effect of the type of roofing material on the formation of water chemistry. Research area was located in the Luslawice in the Tarnow county in Malopolska province. The study included the most common roofs in the surveyed area: cement tile, ceramic tile, bituminous, unpainted galvanized metal, copper and asbestos cement. The tested water samples to determine the content of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium. In addition, it was determined the pH value of water and electrolytic conductivity. The results of this study indicate that the water runs off the roofs of respondents in each case contained a greater quantity of the analyzed elements in comparison with rainwater. For example, while the average content of magnesium in the water flowing from the tile cement was almost ten times higher than in rain water, in the case of tile ceramic was almost five times more water from the bituminous coverings contained about three times more magnesium, and water from the galvanized metal contained about six times more as compared with rainwater. Also in the case of most other elements enrichment factors found in the waters cover the cement (tile, and asbestos cement) then galvanized and coated while the lowest were recorded in the enrichment of waters from the roofs of the covering of ceramic tiles. Also noted an increase in the conductivity values in waters from the roofs of the coverings of cement, galvanized steel and ceramic tiles. All runoff from the roofs were of generally higher pH value compared with rainwater, the biggest reaction - about 8 found in the water with cement tiles, slightly lower, about 7.0 in water from roofs with ceramic tiles and sheet copper. pH of the water in the coated sheet was lower than in water, rainwater and oscillating within 5.5. Rainwater pH was 5.94.

Keywords

  • rainwater tanks
  • water pollution
  • runoff from roofs
  • sodium
  • potassium
  • calcium
  • magnesium
  • phosphorus

Słowa kluczowe

  • zbiorniki wód opadowych
  • zanieczyszczenia wody
  • spływy z dachów
  • sód
  • potas
  • wapń
  • magnez
  • fosfor
Open Access

Functional Dependence Between Expectancy of People’S Life and Mankind Population During the Time of Demographic Transition / Funkcjonalna Zależność Trwałości Życia Ludzi Od Liczebności Ludzkości Świata W Okresie Przejścia Demograficznego

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 133 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

In this work is an attempt to mathematically prove the existence of the demographic transition taking into account one of its features, such as extension of human life dependent on the growth of the human population. Determined the functional form of this dependence, and the relationship between the probability of death, life expectancy, and social involving in the states of T (the influence of “traditional” values of concepts) and R (in the range of rules and possibilities of modern civilization).

Keywords

  • demographic transition
  • average life expectancy
  • world human population

Słowa kluczowe

  • przejście demograficzne
  • średnia długość życia
  • liczebność populacji ludzkiej
12 Articles
Open Access

Teaching Experimental Chemistry in English Schools / Nauczanie Chemii Doświadczalnej W Angielskich Szkołach

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 7 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

An historical background to the teaching of chemistry is presented, together with examples of great teachers from the past. Some aspects of the modern English school chemistry syllabus are discussed, both from the point of view of its theoretical content and its aim in helping children to develop practical skills. Chemistry Clubs, Open days and popular science lectures are also mentioned as a means of stimulating interest in chemistry as taught in schools.

Keywords

  • chemistry
  • experiment
  • demonstration
  • teacher
  • pupil

Słowa kluczowe

  • chemia
  • eksperyment
  • demonstracja
  • nauczyciel
  • uczeń
Open Access

Mathematical Cognition in Metaphors Expressed Through Photography / Matematyczne Poznanie Poprzez Metafory Wyrażone Fotografią

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 27 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

The paper signals the foundations of the new method of teaching mathematics that is currently emerging from the concept of human cognition and the constructivist paradigm. The presented examples of the hermeneutic research conducted for 17 years are concerned with an analysis of the formulated mathematical problems in the language of photographic metaphors. Thoughts expressed through the photographic image and text consisting of the caption and the description (dual coding) reveal the structure of cognitive networks of authors of photographs, which has a special significance in creation of the new didactics that will fulfil the needs of the contemporary photosociety. Mathematical photoeducation free transition between art and mathematics lies on the student’s artistic sensitivity and on enlivening the student’s cognitive expression in a space distant from the classroom (at a lake, in the playground, on the skating ring or during a field excursion to a mineral museum). It utilizes the student’s natural interest in observable natural phenomena and in man-made objects. This kind of creativity, which relies on independent uncovering or constructing of knowledge with the help of a photographic camera, opens the gates to an entirely new space of mathematical didactics, as it brings to students’ awareness specific ways of association leading to accomplishment cognitive processes in relation to abstract mathematical objects.

Keywords

  • teaching mathematics
  • mathematical culture
  • cognitive photography
  • mathematical photoeducation
  • student’s scientific creativity
  • area-specific and creative abilities in mathematics

Słowa kluczowe

  • nauczanie matematyki
  • kultura matematyczna
  • fotografia poznawcza
  • fotoedukacja matematyczna
  • naukowa twórczość ucznia
  • zdolności kierunkowe i twórcze w matematyce
Open Access

Pregradual Preparation of Teachers in Slovakia / Etapy Przygotowania Nauczycieli Do Zawodu Na Słowacji

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 41 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

The contribution deals with the quality of pregradual preparation of teachers in the Slovak Republic. It analysis the causes of continuously decreasing number of secondary school graduates interested in teaching profession. The contribution evaluates present situation in pregradual preparation of teachers regarding the proportion of professional, pedagogical and psychological and didactic part. As far as the didactic part is concerned, the contribution points out the need for new approaches to be applied supporting digital technologies.

Keywords

  • pregradual preparation
  • Slovak teachers
  • bachelor degree
  • master degree
  • curriculum

Słowa kluczowe

  • nauczyciele słowaccy
  • licencjat
  • magister
  • program nauczania
Open Access

Introduction of Inquiry Based Science Education into Polish Science Curriculum - General Findings of Teachers’ Attitude / Wdrożenie Nauczania Przez Odkrywanie Do Polskiej Podstawy Programowej W Zakresie Przedmiotów Przyrodniczych - Badanie Opinii Nauczycieli

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 49 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

The new Polish science curriculum was launched in the 2008 and currently is being implemented in upper secondary schools. The new general objectives of education, and students’ key competences that should be developed during science classes were defined in that document. Presented competences are in line with competences that might be developed by Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE). IBSE is currently a popular instructional method in many countries and it is being strongly promoted by European Union. In the article the role of IBSE in the new Polish science curriculum is described and related to the method of ‘Independent Investigation to Acquire Knowledge’ that was formerly known in the national pedagogy. The article also presents results of a survey questionnaire that was conducted among Polish science teachers. The aim of the study was to measure the attitude of Polish teachers, pupils and society to IBSE. Based on the results the current position and degree of implementation of IBSE in Polish schools was estimated. Additionally the positive and negative factors affecting the implementation of IBSE were presented.

Keywords

  • Inquiry Based Science Education (IBSE)
  • reform of science curriculum

Słowa kluczowe

  • nauczanie przez odkrywanie
  • reforma edukacji
  • nowa podstawa programowa
Open Access

Computerized Adaptive Testing in Poland / Komputerowe Testowanie Adaptacyjne W Polsce

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 61 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

New trends relating to computer-based testing of learners’ achievements are presented in the paper. It describes adaptive testing methods and results of studies in this problem area. Essential questions connected with the Item Response Theory (IRT) were also discussed. The presented data indicate that computer-based adaptive testing should be popularized in Poland to its fullest extent.

Keywords

  • education
  • adaptive testing
  • item response theory
  • item characteristic curve

Słowa kluczowe

  • kształcenie
  • testowanie adaptacyjne
  • teoria wyniku zadania
  • krzywa charakterystyczna zadania
Open Access

Determination of Degradation Products of Plant Origin Pigments in the Bottom Sediments of Lakes / Oznaczanie Zawartości Produktów Degradacji Barwników Pochodzenia Roślinnego W Osadach Dennych Jezior

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 69 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this exercise was to introduce students to one of the methods used for determination of the content of pigments’ degradation products in lake bottom sediments characterised by heterogeneous physical and chemical properties. The research revealed that the studied bottom sediments were characterised by diverse content of products produced during degradation of pigments of plant origin, whereas higher concentrations of these compounds were found in sediments containing inorganic carbon (carbonates). The obtained results also indicate that it is important to have the results properly presented, particularly in the case of samples containing the carbonates.

Keywords

  • exercise for students
  • plant pigments
  • bottom sediment

Słowa kluczowe

  • ćwiczenie dla studentów
  • barwniki roślinne
  • osady denne
Open Access

Pollution of the Ecosystem of the Rusalka City Lake with Heavy Metals / Zanieczyszczenie Ekosystemu Śródmiejskiego Jeziora Rusałka Metalami Ciężkimi

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 75 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

In the vegetation season April-October 2010, the value of and the changes in Zntot., Cutot., Cdtot. and Pbtot. concentrations in the water of the Rusalka flow-through lake (with average water retention of ca 30 days) situated in the city centre of Szczecin were determined. Water temperature, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen (with calculation of water saturation with O2), COD-Cr and BOD5, total hardness, - 3 HCO concentration (as total alkalinity), Cl-, - 24 SO , Mntot and Fetot were also determined. The data collected may be used to evaluate the ecological and chemical status of the surface waters under investigation. As far as the ecological status of the Rusalka Lake is concerned, the investigated waters were found, based on the official criteria being in force in Poland in evaluation of the ecological and chemical status of surface waters, to conform to water quality classes I and II considering total zinc and copper concentrations, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration (except water inflow to the lake in August) as well as BOD5, - 24 SO and Cl- concentrations and pH value; however, they were always worse than water quality class II while taking the COD-Cr values into account. Regarding the chemical status of the investigated waters, total cadmium and lead concentrations were the levels exceeding the admissible values according to the official criteria in Poland. Changes in the values of indices being investigated along water flow path allowed stating that the equilibriums between the sedimentation and the resuspension and the dissolution processes during the research period were shifted towards sedimentation in case of Zn and Cd only, as well as of the organic matter sedimenting in the form of divalent cation- and divalent anion-sorbing gels. Although three phytoplankton blooms occurred in the body of water, unfortunately weak ones, the dissimilation processes prevailed over assimilation.

Keywords

  • water pollution
  • metals in waters
  • city lakes
  • Rusalka Lake in Szczecin

Słowa kluczowe

  • zanieczyszczenie wód
  • metale w wodach
  • jeziora śródmiejskie
  • jezioro Rusałka w Szczecinie
Open Access

Current Trends in Recycling of Photovoltaic Solar Cells and Modules Waste / Recykling Zużytych Ogniw I Modułów Fotowoltaicznych - Stan Obecny

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 89 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

In comparison to other energy producing techniques, photovoltaics (PV) is one of the most promising options: no emission of any matter into the environment during operation; extremely long operation period (estimated average: 25 years), minimum maintenance, robust technique, aesthetic aspects. The use of photovoltaics is rapidly increasing, and the respective market is developing accordingly. Although PV manufacturing equipment is now excluded from the scope of RoHS, according to the Kyoto Protocol and the EU Directives WEEE and RoHS the use of hazardous substances in electric/electronic devices has to be reduced stepwise to approximately zero level. Furthermore, a total recycling of nearly all materials involved is aimed. Thus, major attention is directed to avoidance of environmental pollution through combustion or landfill, to regain valuable material, to promote the development and use of renewable energy sources. As the lifetime of PV cells themselves is much longer than that of PV modules and the manufacturing process of cells requires much energy consumption, the reuse of base material of the cells is economically justified. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate existing methods of PV cells and modules recycling. The article discusses the main outcomes and analyses the significance of recycling in relation to the environmental profile of the production and total life cycle of photovoltaic cells and modules

Keywords

  • recycling
  • photovoltaic cells
  • photovoltaic modules
  • waste
  • renewable energy sources

Słowa kluczowe

  • recykling
  • ogniwa fotowoltaiczne
  • moduły fotowoltaiczne
  • zagospodarowanie odpadów
  • odnawialne źródła energii
Open Access

„Good” and „Bad” Ozone - Evaluation on the Basis of Plant Reaction to Ozone / „Dobry” I „Zły” Ozon - Ocena Na Podstawie Reakcji Roślin Na Ozon

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 97 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

Ozone is a natural and artificial chemical compound of Earth’s atmosphere. O3 is an absorbent of ultraviolet and infrared radiation and has strong oxidative properties. In the stratosphere the ozone layer protects the planet’s surface from dangerous UV radiation, its indirect effect on plant organisms is positive so stratospheric ozone can be called “good” ozone. The depletion of the ozone layer, as a result of atmosphere pollution, described as an ozone “hole” is causing UVB radiation enhanced level on Earth’s surface. The genetic, cytological, physiological and morphological reaction of prolonged UVB exposure in plants is twofold: it damages plants and simultaneously plants protect themselves and repair their injuries. The ozone in the troposphere originates from natural sources and is also a secondary pollutant, formed in photochemical reactions, leading to “smog” and ozone “spots” occurrence. As a strong oxidant, O3 is directly toxic to plants and can be recognized as “bad” ozone. Ozone is also classified as a “greenhouse” gas, participating in global warming. It is difficult to value the impact of O3 as a “greenhouse” gas on plants. The combined effect of O3 changes in the stratosphere and troposphere on plants can be estimated as loss in crop yield and in productivity of natural ecosystems

Keywords

  • tropospheric and stratospheric ozone
  • ozone “hole”
  • excess of ultraviolet radaition
  • „greenhouse” effect
  • “greenhouse” gas
  • excess of ozone
  • photochemical „smog”
  • ozone “spots”

Słowa kluczowe

  • ozon stratosferyczny i troposferyczny
  • „dziura” ozonowa
  • nadmiar promieniowania UV
  • efekt „cieplarniany”
  • gaz „cieplarniany”
  • nadmiar ozonu
  • „smog” fotochemiczny
  • „plamy” ozonowe
Open Access

Insecticide and Food Consumption of Spanish Slug (Arion Lusitanicus Mabille 1868) / Insektycydy A Konsumpcja Pokarmu Przez Ślinika Luzytańskiego (Arion Lusitanicus Mabille 1868)

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 113 - 120

Abstract

Abstract

In the years 2007 and 2011, research was carried out on the impact of: pyrethroid group agents (beta-cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin, bifenthrin) benzoylphenyl ureas (teflubenzuron), derivatives of pyridine (pyriproxyfen), organophosphorus (diazinon) and neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid) on the food consumption by Spanish slug (Arion lusitanicus Mab). The quantity of food consumed by animals treated by plant protection agents, the quantity of food treated by insecticides consumed and food preferences of A. lusitanicus individuals were analysed. The slugs were made available a selection between food with an addition of insecticide and without it. The results obtained indicate that the preparations which contained lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin with which the animals were treated increase the quantity of food consumed by the Spanish slug. It was also shown that the food treated with lambdacyhalothrin and alpha cypermethrin is consumed in a larger amount than the food not treated by this preparation. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin and pyriproxyfen probably constitute food attractants for A. lusitanicus individuals and also alpha-cypermethrin, bifenthrin, beta-cyfluthrin and esfenvalerate are additive, which reduces the attractiveness of food for slug.

Keywords

  • Spanish slug
  • Arion lusitanicus
  • insecticides
  • attractants

Słowa kluczowe

  • ślinik luzytański
  • Arion lusitanicus
  • insektycydy
  • atraktanty
Open Access

Changes in Water Chemistry as a Result of Rainfall Runoff from the Roofs of Various Coatings. Part I / Kształtowanie Się Chemizmu Wód Opadowych W Wyniku Spływu Z Dachów O Różnych Pokryciach. Część I

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 121 - 131

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the level of calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and potassium in the waters flowing from the roofs of houses with varying degrees of coverage on the background of their contents in rain waters. On the basis of the Minister of Environment Decree of 24 July 2006 on conditions to be met for the introduction of sewage into the water or ground and on substances particularly harmful to the aquatic environment, runoff from paved areas shall be treated as sewage, and runoff from roofs of buildings are treated as pure water and can be discharged into the environment without a permit. However, literature data indicate the possibility of a significant enrichment of rainwater at the time of contact with the roof covering. The study included 24 roofs of houses or small trade buildings. As background to the research used rainwater collected in two randomly selected locations within the area of research. The study was conducted in areas with low human impact, in order to best capture the effect of the type of roofing material on the formation of water chemistry. Research area was located in the Luslawice in the Tarnow county in Malopolska province. The study included the most common roofs in the surveyed area: cement tile, ceramic tile, bituminous, unpainted galvanized metal, copper and asbestos cement. The tested water samples to determine the content of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium. In addition, it was determined the pH value of water and electrolytic conductivity. The results of this study indicate that the water runs off the roofs of respondents in each case contained a greater quantity of the analyzed elements in comparison with rainwater. For example, while the average content of magnesium in the water flowing from the tile cement was almost ten times higher than in rain water, in the case of tile ceramic was almost five times more water from the bituminous coverings contained about three times more magnesium, and water from the galvanized metal contained about six times more as compared with rainwater. Also in the case of most other elements enrichment factors found in the waters cover the cement (tile, and asbestos cement) then galvanized and coated while the lowest were recorded in the enrichment of waters from the roofs of the covering of ceramic tiles. Also noted an increase in the conductivity values in waters from the roofs of the coverings of cement, galvanized steel and ceramic tiles. All runoff from the roofs were of generally higher pH value compared with rainwater, the biggest reaction - about 8 found in the water with cement tiles, slightly lower, about 7.0 in water from roofs with ceramic tiles and sheet copper. pH of the water in the coated sheet was lower than in water, rainwater and oscillating within 5.5. Rainwater pH was 5.94.

Keywords

  • rainwater tanks
  • water pollution
  • runoff from roofs
  • sodium
  • potassium
  • calcium
  • magnesium
  • phosphorus

Słowa kluczowe

  • zbiorniki wód opadowych
  • zanieczyszczenia wody
  • spływy z dachów
  • sód
  • potas
  • wapń
  • magnez
  • fosfor
Open Access

Functional Dependence Between Expectancy of People’S Life and Mankind Population During the Time of Demographic Transition / Funkcjonalna Zależność Trwałości Życia Ludzi Od Liczebności Ludzkości Świata W Okresie Przejścia Demograficznego

Published Online: 17 Jan 2013
Page range: 133 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

In this work is an attempt to mathematically prove the existence of the demographic transition taking into account one of its features, such as extension of human life dependent on the growth of the human population. Determined the functional form of this dependence, and the relationship between the probability of death, life expectancy, and social involving in the states of T (the influence of “traditional” values of concepts) and R (in the range of rules and possibilities of modern civilization).

Keywords

  • demographic transition
  • average life expectancy
  • world human population

Słowa kluczowe

  • przejście demograficzne
  • średnia długość życia
  • liczebność populacji ludzkiej

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