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AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 1-2 (December 2021)

Volume 25 (2020): Issue 1-2 (December 2020)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 1-2 (December 2019)

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 1-2 (December 2018)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 1-2 (December 2017)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 1-2 (December 2016)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 1-2 (December 2015)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 1-2 (December 2014)

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 1-2 (December 2013)

Volume 17 (2012): Issue 1-2 (December 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-4506
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 1-2 (December 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-4506
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

12 Articles
Open Access

Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate in the Anthropocene / Chemia Atmosferyczna I Klimat W Antropocenie

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 9 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

Humankind actions are exerting increasing effect on the environment on all scales, in a lot of ways overcoming natural processes. During the last 100 years human population went up from little more than one to six billion and economic activity increased nearly ten times between 1950 and the present time. In the last few decades of the twentieth century, anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbon release have led to a dramatic decrease in levels of stratospheric ozone, creating ozone hole over the Antarctic, as a result UV-B radiation from the sun increased, leading for example to enhanced risk of skin cancer. Releasing more of a greenhouse gases by mankind, such as CO2, CH4, NOx to the atmosphere increases the greenhouse effect. Even if emission increase has held back, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations would continue to raise and remain high for hundreds of years, thus warming Earth’s climate. Warming temperatures contribute to sea level growth by melting mountain glaciers and ice caps, because of these portions of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets melt or flow into the ocean. Ice loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets could contribute an additional 19-58 centimeters of sea level rise, hinge on how the ice sheets react. Taking into account these and many other major and still growing footprints of human activities on earth and atmosphere without any doubt we can conclude that we are living in new geological epoch named by P. Crutzen and E. Stoermer in 2000 - “Anthropocene”. For the benefit of our children and their future, we must do more to struggle climate changes that have had occurred gradually over the last century.

Keywords

  • greenhouse gases
  • greenhouse effect
  • climate changes
  • ozone hole
  • Anthropocene

Słowa kluczowe

  • gazy cieplarniane
  • efekt cieplarniany
  • zmiany klimatyczne
  • dziura ozonowa
Open Access

The Chemical Theatre - Education, Entertainment / Teatr Chemiczny - Edukacja, Rozrywka

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 29 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Seven simple demonstration experiments are described in this article, which can be used by teachers of chemistry for a wide variety of audiences. In addition to detailed instructions for each experiment, important background information is given, thus enabling the demonstrations to become part of a profound learning experience, which is the primary aim of the chemical theatre.

Keywords

  • experiment
  • learning by experiment
  • chemical theatre

Słowa kluczowe

  • eksperyment
  • uczenie się poprzez wykonywanie doświadczeń
  • teatr chemiczny
Open Access

Innovation in Study of Physical and Technical Measurements. Czech-Polish Cooperation of Universities / Innowacje Studiów Fizyczne I Techniczne Metody Pomiarowe. Czesko-Polska Współpraca Uniwersytetów

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 37 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

In the Faculty of Science (University of Hradec Králové) the innovative program in chemistry for the study specialization Physico-technical Measurements and Computer Technology was developed. The innovation of chemistry filed study has been focused especially on increase in competitiveness and in graduates employment. Design of innovation enables graduates applying for the position of experts in physical measurements and informatics and at the same time they expand their competence in the service of the physico-chemical instrumentation in industrial ecology. Because Faculty of Science is not equipped yet in expensive instrumentation for nuclear spectrometry, cross-border cooperation with the Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences (University of Opole) has been started. In the area of teaching about non-traditional energy sources the cross-border cooperation with the Department of Automation and Renewable Energy Sources, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Czestochowa University of Technology) has been initiated. Well-developed system of cooperation with companies, which are equipped with the latest technology of environmental protection, was created. In the exchange system Polish students attended for practicing in these companies. The aim of the contribution is to describe one of the means of innovation of chemistry field study in the frame of bachelor study specialization oriented in physics and computer technology. We believe that the new approach will lead to increase in graduate competitiveness as well as to development of their motivation to study and better understanding of regulation principles of chemical processes and patterns.

Keywords

  • physico-technical measurements
  • innovation
  • chemical education
  • cross-border cooperation

Słowa kluczowe

  • pomiary fizyko-techniczne
  • innowacja
  • edukacja chemiczna
  • współpraca transgraniczna
Open Access

Michelangelo Merisi Da Caravaggio and Multimedia Presentations - A Marriage of Beauty of Art and The Art of Presentation / Michelangelo Merisi Da Caravaggio I Prezentacje Multimedialne - Mariaż Piękna Sztuki I Sztuki Prezentacji

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 47 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, the evolution of the style of Caravaggio had been traced and, focusing on the selected images it had been proved that the methods used by that eminent painter can successfully be applied during the creation of modern, effective multimedia presentations. The strength of Caravaggio was in its simplicity and mundane. For indicated formal measures may be included, inter alia: the elimination of tonally extended second plan and replace it with a dark, uniform background. Caravaggio calmed down composition painting almost monochromatic paintings, which emphasizes the foreground, as well as the keynote message. In the paper it was emphasized that exactly the same objectives should be guided in the creation of multimedia presentations, extracted from unnecessary embellishments that irrupt to the fore dispersing attention. Based on the analysis of selected paintings, in the article, review of procedures associated with the colors of multimedia presentations, extremely important in creating multimedia presentations and highlighting media had been proposed. Several theories related to the psychology of color had been also presented, and also sought to answer the question of why we should not trust psychologists boundlessly.

Keywords

  • art
  • background
  • Caravaggio
  • color
  • multimedia
  • paintings
  • presentations

Słowa kluczowe

  • barwa
  • Caravaggio
  • multimedia
  • obrazy
  • prezentacje
  • sztuka
  • tło
Open Access

The Main Controversies Over the Modernisation Process of the Ukrainian Higher Education System from the Perspective of Globalization / Główne Kontrowersje Procesu Modernizacji Systemu Szkolnictwa Wyższego Na Ukrainie W Aspekcie Globalizacji

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 59 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

The most significant process of the modern civilization advancement is globalization. The crucial tendencies of the world educational system development aim at strengthening the main role of knowledge as a component of employee workshop, often much more precious than the material part, originating from the employer. In 1991, due to globalization processes, Ukraine abandoned the Soviet higher education model, following the international scenario of the higher education development. In the last few years some propositions for reforms of the above system have appeared. The Draft Law on Higher Education approved in December 2012 has made the situation less clear. Currently, the provisional Government of Ukraine declares an intention to tackle the situation properly. It seems necessary to conduct further work on the basis of certain fundamental assumptions and the experiences of countries trying to achieve the mentioned objectives in similar conditions, like Poland or the Czech Republic, etc. In all these countries there is a need for change in order to abandon huge hierarchic and administrative structures by organizing small, self-controlling as well as adaptive structures, and to rethink not only teaching methods but the whole legal environment and organizational principles.

Keywords

  • modernization process of higher education
  • globalization

Słowa kluczowe

  • proces modernizacji szkolnictwa wyższego
  • globalizacja
Open Access

Study of Extraction Equilibria in the Reaction of Alkaline Hydrolysis of Activated Amino Acid Esters / Badanie Równowag Ekstrakcji W Reakcji Zasadowej Hydrolizy Aktywowanych Estrów Aminokwasów

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 69 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

Correlation between observed kinetic effects of phase-transfer catalytic reaction of the alkaline hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl ester of N-benzyloxycarbonylglycine-4 in the two-phase system chloroform-borate buffer pH = 10 and a content of ionic forms of catalyst was investigated. The phosphonium salts QX (X = Cl¯, Br¯, I¯) shows high catalytic reactivity. Dependence of the reaction kinetics discussed in the framework of the extraction mechanism with a competitive extraction of a nucleophile ОН¯, nucleofuge 4-NO2C6H4O¯ and anion X¯ of the phase-transfer catalyst.

Keywords

  • phase-transfer catalysis
  • kinetics
  • hydrolysis
  • quaternary phosphonium salts
  • branched catalytic cycle
  • extraction equilibria

Słowa kluczowe

  • kataliza przejścia fazowego
  • kinetyka
  • hydrolizy
  • czwartorzędowe sole fosfoniowe
  • rozgałęziony cykl katalityczny
  • równowagi ekstrakcji
Open Access

Escherichia Coli in Sewage Sludge - Detection Method / Escherichia Coli W Osadach Ściekowych - Metoda Wykrywania

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 79 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

Escherichia coli is Gram-negative optionally anaerobic roads which belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family. Includes in a physiological bacterial flora of human and warm-blooded animals large intestine. Escherichia coli is being met in abiotic elements of the environment so as waters, wastewater, sewage sludge, soil and the food. This bacterium is showing the pathogenicity in named terms for the peoples, triggering diseases mainly: gastrointestinal tract and urinary.

Quality and quantitative proposed detections method of the bacteria E. coli contains five/six steps:

- appointment dry suspended solid,

- preparation averaged, test of sample and resuscitation of bacteria,

- making dilutions,

- enrichment and differentiation in chromogenic-selective medium,

- enumerating the amount of cfu E. coli in 1 g of a dry weight,

- optionally, the biochemical identification

Keywords

  • E. coli
  • sewage sludge
  • enrichment of Escherichia coli
  • detection of Escherichia coli

Słowa kluczowe

  • E. coli
  • osady ściekowe
  • namnażanie Escherichia coli
  • wykrywanie Escherichia coli
Open Access

Changes in the Structure of Activated Sludge Protozoa Community at the Different Oxygen Condition / Zmiany W Strukturze Zbiorowiska Pierwotniaków Osadu Czynnego W Zróżnicowanych Warunkach Tlenowych

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 87 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

Several experiments were performed in the laboratory condition using an SBR bioreactor modelling the expected conditions, created by malfunction of certain bioreactor elements, thus the different oxygen condition. In the course of the experiments, the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, nitrates(III), nitrates(V), TOC, and TC were systematically measured. Besides physico-chemical parameters, the structure of activated sludge community was analyzed. In the samples, the number and species composition of protozoa (ciliates) were determined. Each of the three measuring series conducted for various types of process conditions was repeated three times. The activated sludge used for inoculation of the bioreactor was sampled at Hajdow WWTP in Lublin. The results obtained are the average of three repetitions of every experimental series. On this ground, we may conclude that the number of ciliates shows a high correlation with the O2 concentration, pH and TOC.

Keywords

  • SBR bioreactor
  • activated sludge
  • community
  • protozoa
  • wastewater purification
  • oxygen concentration

Słowa kluczowe

  • bioreaktor typu SBR
  • osad czynny
  • zespół organizmów
  • pierwotniaki
  • oczyszczanie ścieków
  • stężenie tlenu
Open Access

Methodology of Moisture Measurement in Porous Materials Using Time Domain Reflectometry / Metodyka Prowadzenia Badań Wilgotności W Ośrodkach Porowatych Za Pomocą Reflektometrii W Domenie Czasu

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 97 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the description of measurement methodology of moisture transport in unsaturated porous materials using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique on the example of measurement of capillary uptake phenomenon in the sample of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). In the paper there are presented basic principles of the TDR method as a technique applied in metrology, its potential for measurement of moisture in porous materials like soils and porous building materials. Second part of the article presents the experiment of capillary rise process in the sample of AAC. Within the experiment moisture content was monitored in the sample exposed on water influence. Monitoring was conducted using TDR FP/mts probes. Preparation of the measuring setup was presented in detail. The TDR readouts post-processing, graphical presentations of the obtained results, short discussion and comparison of TDR readouts to gravimetric measurement were also presented.

Keywords

  • Time Domain Reflectometry
  • TDR
  • porous materials
  • building materials
  • moisture

Słowa kluczowe

  • Reflektometria w Domenie Czasu
  • TDR
  • ośrodki porowate
  • materiały budowlane
  • wilgotność
Open Access

Soils Characteristics of Forest Phytocoenoses Occupied by Self-Regenerating Populations of Quercus Rubra in Silesian Upland / Właściwości Fizykochemiczne Gleb Na Stanowiskach Z Odnowieniem Dębu Czerwonego Na Wyżynie Śląskiej

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 109 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

Northern Red Oak is a tree species native to North America. In Polish flora it has status of invasive plants. In the years 2008-2011 autoecological studies were conducted aiming at examination on what type of soils the species tends to regenerate ie appearance of seedlings in the vicinity of maternal trees. In total 250 phytosociological relevés and 100 soil samples (400 soil subsamples) were collected. It was observed that majority stands (almost 80%) of Northern Red Oak occupy sites very strongly acid and strongly acid. In reference to pH in KCl results are a little different, however, sites with soil very strongly acid (pH = 4.1-5.0) and stronly acid (pH < 4.1) also predominate. The investigated soils were typified by very low values of magnesium (< 10 mg/1000 g), phosphorus (< 3 mg/100 g) and potassium (< 7 mg/100 g). Total nitrogen in studied sites dominated in two the lowest classes (> 0.25%). The sites of Q. rubra are rich in organic carbon. Almost 50% of all sites covers two highest classes of concentration of this element ie 4.0-8.0% and > 8.0%. Soils where seedlings of Northern Red Oak were encountered, were characterized by humus medium for mezotrophic and eutrophic broad-leaved forests and mixed coniferous forests - more than 60% had ratio of carbon and nitrogen CN > 25. In several sites this ratio reached 50. The lower values in case of content of calcium and loss on ignition dominate. The studies showed that soils on which species grows and also spontaneously regenerates are typical for coniferous and mixed coniferous forests, however, in natural range Q. rubra is component of deciduous forests. It could be associated with the fact of more frequent introduction of Northern Red Oak into poorer sites than the consequence of its habitat requirements.

Keywords

  • biological invasions
  • neophyte
  • biotopic requirements

Słowa kluczowe

  • inwazje biologiczne
  • kenofit
  • wymagania siedliskowe
Open Access

Beer as Olfactory Attractant in the Fight Against Harmful Slugs Arion Lusitanicus Mabille 1868 / Piwo Jako Atraktant W Zwalczaniu Szkodliwego Ślimaka Z Gatunku Arion Lusitanicus Mabille 1868

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 119 - 125

Abstract

Abstract

In 2012-2013 a series of laboratory and field experiments were carried out to check out, if beers can be used as olfactory attractants in the fight against harmful slugs Arion lusitanicus. Six brands of lager beer were used for olfactory analysis (Goolman Premium, Harnas Jasne Pełne, Tatra Mocne, Kasztelan Niepasteryzowane, Lezajsk Niepasteryzowane, Wojak Jasny Pelny). During laboratory and field tests it was evidenced that beers of all types were more attractive for slugs than water.

Keywords

  • Arion lusitanicus
  • beer
  • attractant
  • olfactometry

Słowa kluczowe

  • Arion lusitanicus
  • piwo
  • atraktant
  • olfaktometria
Open Access

Floods in the Upper Part of Vistula and Odra River Basins in the 19th and 20th Centuries / Powodzie W Górnej Części Dorzeczy Wisły I Odry W XIX I XX Wieku

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 127 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

The discussion of floods in this paper covers the section of the Odra River basin from its source down to the mouth of the Nysa Klodzka River and the section of the Vistula River basin down to the Krakow profile. The area of the upper part of Odra River basin is 13,455 km2 and the length of the river bed in this section is ca. 273.0 km. In the reach examined, the Vistula River is 184.8 km long and has a catchment area of approximately 8,101 km2. Geographical and environmental conditions in the upper part of the Vistula and Odra Rivers basins are conducive to floods both in the summer and winter seasons. The analyses conducted for the 19th and 20th centuries demonstrate that two main types of floods can be distinguished. Floods with a single flood wave peak occurred in the following years in the upper Odra River basin: 1813, 1831, 1879, 1889, 1890 and 1896, and on the Vistula River they were recorded in 1805, 1813, 1816, 1818, 1826, 1830, 1834, 1844 and 1845. In the 20th century, similar phenomena were recorded on the Odra River in 1903, 1909, 1911, 1915, 1925, 1960, 1970 and 1985, and on the Vistula River they occurred in 1903, 1908, 1925, 1931, 1934, 1939, 1948, 1951, 1970, 1972, 1991, 1996, 1997 and 1999. The second category includes floods with two, three or more flood wave peaks. These are caused by successive episodes of high rainfall separated by dry periods that last for a few days, a fortnight or even several weeks. Such floods occurred on the upper Odra River in 1847, 1854, 1880, 1888, 1892, 1897 and 1899; while on the Vistula River only two (1839 and 1843) floods featured two flood wave peaks. In the 20th century on the upper Odra River, floods of this type occurred in 1902, 1926, 1939, 1940, 1972, 1977 and 1997; on the upper Vistula River, they were recorded in 1906, 1915, 1919, 1920, 1940, 1958, 1960 and 1987.

Keywords

  • floods
  • Odra River
  • Vistula River
  • southern Poland

Słowa kluczowe

  • powodzie
  • Odra
  • Wisła
  • południowa Polska
12 Articles
Open Access

Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate in the Anthropocene / Chemia Atmosferyczna I Klimat W Antropocenie

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 9 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

Humankind actions are exerting increasing effect on the environment on all scales, in a lot of ways overcoming natural processes. During the last 100 years human population went up from little more than one to six billion and economic activity increased nearly ten times between 1950 and the present time. In the last few decades of the twentieth century, anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbon release have led to a dramatic decrease in levels of stratospheric ozone, creating ozone hole over the Antarctic, as a result UV-B radiation from the sun increased, leading for example to enhanced risk of skin cancer. Releasing more of a greenhouse gases by mankind, such as CO2, CH4, NOx to the atmosphere increases the greenhouse effect. Even if emission increase has held back, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations would continue to raise and remain high for hundreds of years, thus warming Earth’s climate. Warming temperatures contribute to sea level growth by melting mountain glaciers and ice caps, because of these portions of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets melt or flow into the ocean. Ice loss from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets could contribute an additional 19-58 centimeters of sea level rise, hinge on how the ice sheets react. Taking into account these and many other major and still growing footprints of human activities on earth and atmosphere without any doubt we can conclude that we are living in new geological epoch named by P. Crutzen and E. Stoermer in 2000 - “Anthropocene”. For the benefit of our children and their future, we must do more to struggle climate changes that have had occurred gradually over the last century.

Keywords

  • greenhouse gases
  • greenhouse effect
  • climate changes
  • ozone hole
  • Anthropocene

Słowa kluczowe

  • gazy cieplarniane
  • efekt cieplarniany
  • zmiany klimatyczne
  • dziura ozonowa
Open Access

The Chemical Theatre - Education, Entertainment / Teatr Chemiczny - Edukacja, Rozrywka

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 29 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

Seven simple demonstration experiments are described in this article, which can be used by teachers of chemistry for a wide variety of audiences. In addition to detailed instructions for each experiment, important background information is given, thus enabling the demonstrations to become part of a profound learning experience, which is the primary aim of the chemical theatre.

Keywords

  • experiment
  • learning by experiment
  • chemical theatre

Słowa kluczowe

  • eksperyment
  • uczenie się poprzez wykonywanie doświadczeń
  • teatr chemiczny
Open Access

Innovation in Study of Physical and Technical Measurements. Czech-Polish Cooperation of Universities / Innowacje Studiów Fizyczne I Techniczne Metody Pomiarowe. Czesko-Polska Współpraca Uniwersytetów

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 37 - 45

Abstract

Abstract

In the Faculty of Science (University of Hradec Králové) the innovative program in chemistry for the study specialization Physico-technical Measurements and Computer Technology was developed. The innovation of chemistry filed study has been focused especially on increase in competitiveness and in graduates employment. Design of innovation enables graduates applying for the position of experts in physical measurements and informatics and at the same time they expand their competence in the service of the physico-chemical instrumentation in industrial ecology. Because Faculty of Science is not equipped yet in expensive instrumentation for nuclear spectrometry, cross-border cooperation with the Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences (University of Opole) has been started. In the area of teaching about non-traditional energy sources the cross-border cooperation with the Department of Automation and Renewable Energy Sources, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Czestochowa University of Technology) has been initiated. Well-developed system of cooperation with companies, which are equipped with the latest technology of environmental protection, was created. In the exchange system Polish students attended for practicing in these companies. The aim of the contribution is to describe one of the means of innovation of chemistry field study in the frame of bachelor study specialization oriented in physics and computer technology. We believe that the new approach will lead to increase in graduate competitiveness as well as to development of their motivation to study and better understanding of regulation principles of chemical processes and patterns.

Keywords

  • physico-technical measurements
  • innovation
  • chemical education
  • cross-border cooperation

Słowa kluczowe

  • pomiary fizyko-techniczne
  • innowacja
  • edukacja chemiczna
  • współpraca transgraniczna
Open Access

Michelangelo Merisi Da Caravaggio and Multimedia Presentations - A Marriage of Beauty of Art and The Art of Presentation / Michelangelo Merisi Da Caravaggio I Prezentacje Multimedialne - Mariaż Piękna Sztuki I Sztuki Prezentacji

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 47 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, the evolution of the style of Caravaggio had been traced and, focusing on the selected images it had been proved that the methods used by that eminent painter can successfully be applied during the creation of modern, effective multimedia presentations. The strength of Caravaggio was in its simplicity and mundane. For indicated formal measures may be included, inter alia: the elimination of tonally extended second plan and replace it with a dark, uniform background. Caravaggio calmed down composition painting almost monochromatic paintings, which emphasizes the foreground, as well as the keynote message. In the paper it was emphasized that exactly the same objectives should be guided in the creation of multimedia presentations, extracted from unnecessary embellishments that irrupt to the fore dispersing attention. Based on the analysis of selected paintings, in the article, review of procedures associated with the colors of multimedia presentations, extremely important in creating multimedia presentations and highlighting media had been proposed. Several theories related to the psychology of color had been also presented, and also sought to answer the question of why we should not trust psychologists boundlessly.

Keywords

  • art
  • background
  • Caravaggio
  • color
  • multimedia
  • paintings
  • presentations

Słowa kluczowe

  • barwa
  • Caravaggio
  • multimedia
  • obrazy
  • prezentacje
  • sztuka
  • tło
Open Access

The Main Controversies Over the Modernisation Process of the Ukrainian Higher Education System from the Perspective of Globalization / Główne Kontrowersje Procesu Modernizacji Systemu Szkolnictwa Wyższego Na Ukrainie W Aspekcie Globalizacji

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 59 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

The most significant process of the modern civilization advancement is globalization. The crucial tendencies of the world educational system development aim at strengthening the main role of knowledge as a component of employee workshop, often much more precious than the material part, originating from the employer. In 1991, due to globalization processes, Ukraine abandoned the Soviet higher education model, following the international scenario of the higher education development. In the last few years some propositions for reforms of the above system have appeared. The Draft Law on Higher Education approved in December 2012 has made the situation less clear. Currently, the provisional Government of Ukraine declares an intention to tackle the situation properly. It seems necessary to conduct further work on the basis of certain fundamental assumptions and the experiences of countries trying to achieve the mentioned objectives in similar conditions, like Poland or the Czech Republic, etc. In all these countries there is a need for change in order to abandon huge hierarchic and administrative structures by organizing small, self-controlling as well as adaptive structures, and to rethink not only teaching methods but the whole legal environment and organizational principles.

Keywords

  • modernization process of higher education
  • globalization

Słowa kluczowe

  • proces modernizacji szkolnictwa wyższego
  • globalizacja
Open Access

Study of Extraction Equilibria in the Reaction of Alkaline Hydrolysis of Activated Amino Acid Esters / Badanie Równowag Ekstrakcji W Reakcji Zasadowej Hydrolizy Aktywowanych Estrów Aminokwasów

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 69 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

Correlation between observed kinetic effects of phase-transfer catalytic reaction of the alkaline hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl ester of N-benzyloxycarbonylglycine-4 in the two-phase system chloroform-borate buffer pH = 10 and a content of ionic forms of catalyst was investigated. The phosphonium salts QX (X = Cl¯, Br¯, I¯) shows high catalytic reactivity. Dependence of the reaction kinetics discussed in the framework of the extraction mechanism with a competitive extraction of a nucleophile ОН¯, nucleofuge 4-NO2C6H4O¯ and anion X¯ of the phase-transfer catalyst.

Keywords

  • phase-transfer catalysis
  • kinetics
  • hydrolysis
  • quaternary phosphonium salts
  • branched catalytic cycle
  • extraction equilibria

Słowa kluczowe

  • kataliza przejścia fazowego
  • kinetyka
  • hydrolizy
  • czwartorzędowe sole fosfoniowe
  • rozgałęziony cykl katalityczny
  • równowagi ekstrakcji
Open Access

Escherichia Coli in Sewage Sludge - Detection Method / Escherichia Coli W Osadach Ściekowych - Metoda Wykrywania

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 79 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

Escherichia coli is Gram-negative optionally anaerobic roads which belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family. Includes in a physiological bacterial flora of human and warm-blooded animals large intestine. Escherichia coli is being met in abiotic elements of the environment so as waters, wastewater, sewage sludge, soil and the food. This bacterium is showing the pathogenicity in named terms for the peoples, triggering diseases mainly: gastrointestinal tract and urinary.

Quality and quantitative proposed detections method of the bacteria E. coli contains five/six steps:

- appointment dry suspended solid,

- preparation averaged, test of sample and resuscitation of bacteria,

- making dilutions,

- enrichment and differentiation in chromogenic-selective medium,

- enumerating the amount of cfu E. coli in 1 g of a dry weight,

- optionally, the biochemical identification

Keywords

  • E. coli
  • sewage sludge
  • enrichment of Escherichia coli
  • detection of Escherichia coli

Słowa kluczowe

  • E. coli
  • osady ściekowe
  • namnażanie Escherichia coli
  • wykrywanie Escherichia coli
Open Access

Changes in the Structure of Activated Sludge Protozoa Community at the Different Oxygen Condition / Zmiany W Strukturze Zbiorowiska Pierwotniaków Osadu Czynnego W Zróżnicowanych Warunkach Tlenowych

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 87 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

Several experiments were performed in the laboratory condition using an SBR bioreactor modelling the expected conditions, created by malfunction of certain bioreactor elements, thus the different oxygen condition. In the course of the experiments, the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, nitrates(III), nitrates(V), TOC, and TC were systematically measured. Besides physico-chemical parameters, the structure of activated sludge community was analyzed. In the samples, the number and species composition of protozoa (ciliates) were determined. Each of the three measuring series conducted for various types of process conditions was repeated three times. The activated sludge used for inoculation of the bioreactor was sampled at Hajdow WWTP in Lublin. The results obtained are the average of three repetitions of every experimental series. On this ground, we may conclude that the number of ciliates shows a high correlation with the O2 concentration, pH and TOC.

Keywords

  • SBR bioreactor
  • activated sludge
  • community
  • protozoa
  • wastewater purification
  • oxygen concentration

Słowa kluczowe

  • bioreaktor typu SBR
  • osad czynny
  • zespół organizmów
  • pierwotniaki
  • oczyszczanie ścieków
  • stężenie tlenu
Open Access

Methodology of Moisture Measurement in Porous Materials Using Time Domain Reflectometry / Metodyka Prowadzenia Badań Wilgotności W Ośrodkach Porowatych Za Pomocą Reflektometrii W Domenie Czasu

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 97 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the description of measurement methodology of moisture transport in unsaturated porous materials using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique on the example of measurement of capillary uptake phenomenon in the sample of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC). In the paper there are presented basic principles of the TDR method as a technique applied in metrology, its potential for measurement of moisture in porous materials like soils and porous building materials. Second part of the article presents the experiment of capillary rise process in the sample of AAC. Within the experiment moisture content was monitored in the sample exposed on water influence. Monitoring was conducted using TDR FP/mts probes. Preparation of the measuring setup was presented in detail. The TDR readouts post-processing, graphical presentations of the obtained results, short discussion and comparison of TDR readouts to gravimetric measurement were also presented.

Keywords

  • Time Domain Reflectometry
  • TDR
  • porous materials
  • building materials
  • moisture

Słowa kluczowe

  • Reflektometria w Domenie Czasu
  • TDR
  • ośrodki porowate
  • materiały budowlane
  • wilgotność
Open Access

Soils Characteristics of Forest Phytocoenoses Occupied by Self-Regenerating Populations of Quercus Rubra in Silesian Upland / Właściwości Fizykochemiczne Gleb Na Stanowiskach Z Odnowieniem Dębu Czerwonego Na Wyżynie Śląskiej

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 109 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

Northern Red Oak is a tree species native to North America. In Polish flora it has status of invasive plants. In the years 2008-2011 autoecological studies were conducted aiming at examination on what type of soils the species tends to regenerate ie appearance of seedlings in the vicinity of maternal trees. In total 250 phytosociological relevés and 100 soil samples (400 soil subsamples) were collected. It was observed that majority stands (almost 80%) of Northern Red Oak occupy sites very strongly acid and strongly acid. In reference to pH in KCl results are a little different, however, sites with soil very strongly acid (pH = 4.1-5.0) and stronly acid (pH < 4.1) also predominate. The investigated soils were typified by very low values of magnesium (< 10 mg/1000 g), phosphorus (< 3 mg/100 g) and potassium (< 7 mg/100 g). Total nitrogen in studied sites dominated in two the lowest classes (> 0.25%). The sites of Q. rubra are rich in organic carbon. Almost 50% of all sites covers two highest classes of concentration of this element ie 4.0-8.0% and > 8.0%. Soils where seedlings of Northern Red Oak were encountered, were characterized by humus medium for mezotrophic and eutrophic broad-leaved forests and mixed coniferous forests - more than 60% had ratio of carbon and nitrogen CN > 25. In several sites this ratio reached 50. The lower values in case of content of calcium and loss on ignition dominate. The studies showed that soils on which species grows and also spontaneously regenerates are typical for coniferous and mixed coniferous forests, however, in natural range Q. rubra is component of deciduous forests. It could be associated with the fact of more frequent introduction of Northern Red Oak into poorer sites than the consequence of its habitat requirements.

Keywords

  • biological invasions
  • neophyte
  • biotopic requirements

Słowa kluczowe

  • inwazje biologiczne
  • kenofit
  • wymagania siedliskowe
Open Access

Beer as Olfactory Attractant in the Fight Against Harmful Slugs Arion Lusitanicus Mabille 1868 / Piwo Jako Atraktant W Zwalczaniu Szkodliwego Ślimaka Z Gatunku Arion Lusitanicus Mabille 1868

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 119 - 125

Abstract

Abstract

In 2012-2013 a series of laboratory and field experiments were carried out to check out, if beers can be used as olfactory attractants in the fight against harmful slugs Arion lusitanicus. Six brands of lager beer were used for olfactory analysis (Goolman Premium, Harnas Jasne Pełne, Tatra Mocne, Kasztelan Niepasteryzowane, Lezajsk Niepasteryzowane, Wojak Jasny Pelny). During laboratory and field tests it was evidenced that beers of all types were more attractive for slugs than water.

Keywords

  • Arion lusitanicus
  • beer
  • attractant
  • olfactometry

Słowa kluczowe

  • Arion lusitanicus
  • piwo
  • atraktant
  • olfaktometria
Open Access

Floods in the Upper Part of Vistula and Odra River Basins in the 19th and 20th Centuries / Powodzie W Górnej Części Dorzeczy Wisły I Odry W XIX I XX Wieku

Published Online: 06 Feb 2015
Page range: 127 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

The discussion of floods in this paper covers the section of the Odra River basin from its source down to the mouth of the Nysa Klodzka River and the section of the Vistula River basin down to the Krakow profile. The area of the upper part of Odra River basin is 13,455 km2 and the length of the river bed in this section is ca. 273.0 km. In the reach examined, the Vistula River is 184.8 km long and has a catchment area of approximately 8,101 km2. Geographical and environmental conditions in the upper part of the Vistula and Odra Rivers basins are conducive to floods both in the summer and winter seasons. The analyses conducted for the 19th and 20th centuries demonstrate that two main types of floods can be distinguished. Floods with a single flood wave peak occurred in the following years in the upper Odra River basin: 1813, 1831, 1879, 1889, 1890 and 1896, and on the Vistula River they were recorded in 1805, 1813, 1816, 1818, 1826, 1830, 1834, 1844 and 1845. In the 20th century, similar phenomena were recorded on the Odra River in 1903, 1909, 1911, 1915, 1925, 1960, 1970 and 1985, and on the Vistula River they occurred in 1903, 1908, 1925, 1931, 1934, 1939, 1948, 1951, 1970, 1972, 1991, 1996, 1997 and 1999. The second category includes floods with two, three or more flood wave peaks. These are caused by successive episodes of high rainfall separated by dry periods that last for a few days, a fortnight or even several weeks. Such floods occurred on the upper Odra River in 1847, 1854, 1880, 1888, 1892, 1897 and 1899; while on the Vistula River only two (1839 and 1843) floods featured two flood wave peaks. In the 20th century on the upper Odra River, floods of this type occurred in 1902, 1926, 1939, 1940, 1972, 1977 and 1997; on the upper Vistula River, they were recorded in 1906, 1915, 1919, 1920, 1940, 1958, 1960 and 1987.

Keywords

  • floods
  • Odra River
  • Vistula River
  • southern Poland

Słowa kluczowe

  • powodzie
  • Odra
  • Wisła
  • południowa Polska

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