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AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 26 (2021): Issue 1-2 (December 2021)

Volume 25 (2020): Issue 1-2 (December 2020)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 1-2 (December 2019)

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 1-2 (December 2018)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 1-2 (December 2017)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 1-2 (December 2016)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 1-2 (December 2015)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 1-2 (December 2014)

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 1-2 (December 2013)

Volume 17 (2012): Issue 1-2 (December 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-4506
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 1-2 (December 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-4506
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

12 Articles
Open Access

How Far is Environmental Engineering from Biomedical Engineering?

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 7 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

The development of science, which has been observed in recent years, shows that engineering knowledge and activity are becoming more and more interdisciplinary. Up to the late 80-ties of the previous century, the experience and interest of engineers covered mainly hard sciences that directly followed their education. After this period, the engineering knowledge and solutions proposed in one discipline started to be applied successfully in other domains. This tendency can be seen especially in Biomedical Engineering, which development is based on achievements made in the rest of hard sciences, even if they seem to be as distant as Environmental Engineering.

Keywords

  • biomedical engineering
  • environmental engineering
  • transfer of knowledge
  • research transfer
  • transport phenomena
Open Access

Preliminary Studies About Knowledge and Applications of Science Mnemonics by Polish Pupils

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 19 - 30

Abstract

Abstract

Mnemonic devices are specific ways, which during coding new information apply known elements for improving subsequent access to that information in the memory. Consequently, not much is known about techniques for optimizing recall performance with mnemonic devices or the suitability of using mnemonic devices in educational applications. Moreover, in literature there are a lot of examples in chemistry, biology, physics and mathematics mnemonics approaches, however in the related literature, there is a lack of current and reliable studies for this subject. In this original work we describe mnemonic methods from this point of view in the learning and teachings of science subjects. A large trumps of this article is the demonstration of the old well-known method of the learning/teaching in the new scene. This is the first article in literature that present actual data about this topic according to learning and studying the science subjects by mnemonic studies.

Keywords

  • mnemonics
  • mnemonic methods
  • mnemonic devices
  • memorizing methods
  • science subjects
Open Access

Evaluation of the Usefulness of Selected Computer Programs in the Context of Educating Students of the Environmental Engineering

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 31 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the evaluation of usefulness of selected computer applications applied in the process of educating students from ordered specialty Environmental Engineering who study at the Silesian University of Technology in the faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering. The evaluation was carried out by means of the analysis of questionnaires filled in by the graduates of the first cycle degree programme at the aforementioned specialty. The analysis was carried out for both, the area of application of the selected software related to the didactic process and the area of the software application in the predicted professional career of the students surveyed.

Keywords

  • environmental engineering
  • educational process
  • computer programs
  • questionnaire form
  • ranking of the software
Open Access

Q-Methodology Study of Students Behaviour During Project-Based Learning

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 39 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

The contribution describes the circumstances of the implementation of a chemistry project with the main theme “Chemical show - Harry Potter”. Project-based learning belongs between the complex teaching methods, where the desired effect can be influenced by many factors, eg student’s attitude, student’s overall opinion and feelings about the method. The motivation of the researchers was to understand and evaluate the factors present in the realised project. The analysed factors and behavioural schemes can provide a good starting point for the teachers at planning their projects. With the aim to understand the students’ reaction the researchers used Q-methodology to identify the different behavioural groups of participating students based on their real opinion. In the presented research the researchers analyse the response of totally 26 students. As a result totally 6 behavioural examples are presented that teachers can meet during implementation of project based learning. The presented categorization collaborates with other formerly publicised types of student’s behaviour, eg students of “pleasant surprises” and “disappointing surprises”. However, other additional types of behavioural types emerged eg students orienting and concentrating on the theoretical knowledge, students with very strong need for leading and students with the need of several assessment systems. The presented results can provide a wider view for the teachers in preparing and forecasting the flow of their projects and can help them to prepare the project.

Keywords

  • project-based learning
  • Q-methodology
  • student’s opinion
Open Access

Modelling of Emissions from Large Biogas Plants

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 49 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

The main objective of the “Guidelines for the development of agricultural biogas plants in Poland within 2010-2020”, is a construction of biogas plants processing agricultural biomass resources with suitable conditions in each municipality. In the Czech Republic produces about 6.5% of energy from renewable sources. Biogas plants give - contrary to solar and wind electricity stations - the stable performance throughout the whole year. Biomass should be a key source for achieving the Czech EU commitment to produce 13% of energy from renewable sources in 2020. The experience, where 317 Agricultural biogas plants are currently in operation, has shown that there are considerable problems with a proper location of newly designed agricultural biogas plants in the landscape. The Czech-Polish border area is mainly flat wooded recreation region. For these reasons, the Gaussian model SYMOS’97 (version 2013), adapted for odour dispersion modelling from large agricultural sources is supposed to be suitable for this area. It is appropriate for training of students. For these reasons, students from the University of Hradec Kralove and the University of Opole in the frame of their academic exchange and professional internships are acquainted with the technological principles of biogas plants and in environmental mathematical and statistical modelling of the spread of emissions from large industrial and agricultural sources. In this article we present methods for education on these professional areas.

Keywords

  • biogas
  • odour
  • SYMOS’97
Open Access

Functional Traits and Plasticity of Plants in Ecological Research and Education

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 59 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

Plant functional traits are any morphological, physiological and phenological features, which indirectly affect plant fitness through their three basic components of plant individual performance - growth, reproduction and survival. These features represent also a keystone for plant functional groups, which are similar in three aspects - function on the level of organism, response to environmental factors and effect on ecosystems. Functional approach in ecology and vegetation study enables to evaluate plant communities on the base of species function in a community, and to relate functional structure of plant communities to particular environmental gradients. Species plasticity has many aspects that mirror species adaptations to the environmental conditions and which then also translate into functional structuring of plant communities. This approach is thus a novel and exciting mode how to carry on plant ecology, both in research and education at universities.

Keywords

  • adaptation
  • functional ecology
  • functional groups
  • plant communities
  • phenotypic plasticity
  • vegetation
Open Access

Use of the ImageJ Program to Assess the Damage of Plants By Snails

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 67 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

Laboratory tests using image analysis are one of the types of experimental methods in plant protection. They are used in the evaluation of crop damage by pests, also useful in testing the effectiveness of active substances of plant protection products. The most popular of these analyses are the so called “circular tests”, comprising in administering to the insects and snails the fragments of leaves and measuring the amount of consumed surface. The paper presents a method of analysis of damage to lettuce leaves using ImageJ application. The way of presenting the results was also proposed. This procedure can be used in various analyses of biological sciences and evaluating the dietary preferences of pests. Access to the application ImageJ is free, and flexible configuration allows for any setting parameters of the program, the opportunity to work in different environments and low system requirements allow you to make many accurate measurements in a short time without the need to purchase expensive specialized hardware.

Keywords

  • ImageJ
  • snail
  • slug
  • damage to plants
  • graphical analysis
  • image analysis
  • assessment of impairment
Open Access

The Content of Lead, Cadmium and Mercury in Sediments from Rainwater Reservoirs Situated Along the National Road 4

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 75 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

The paper aimed at determining the pollution level of sediments collected from reservoirs receiving rainwater. The sediments were sampled from11 reservoirs on three dates: in May 2007, in April 2008 and in June 2008 in the following localities: Sulkow, Biskupice, Bodzanow and Suchoraba situated at a distance of ca 15 from each other. The contents of lead, cadmium, mercury and organic matter were assessed in the sediments. Lead content in the analysed sediments ranged from 9.87 to 61 mg · kg−2 with average for all samples 28.08 mg · kg−1. Mean cadmium concentration in the studied sediments was 0.637 mg · kg−1 and fluctuated from 0.20 to 1.58 mg Cd · kg−1. The quantities of mercury assessed in the sediments from rainwater reservoirs ranged from 0.337 to 0.864 mg · kg−1. Considerable differences between studied metal concentrations were assessed among the studied reservoirs, however the trends of differences were similar at each sampling. Generally, the levels of cadmium and mercury assessed in the analyzed sediments were comparable to the sediments from urbanized areas of various cities in the world, whereas lead level in the sediments of the analysed reservoirs was generally much lower than reported for similar materials in literature. Regularly decreasing contents of all elements with growing distance from the Krakow agglomeration was noted. The reservoir situated closest to Krakow, in Sulkow is located 7 km from the city boundaries and borders on Wieliczka town, whereas the reservoir in Suchoraba is located 17 km from Krakow. At this distance metal concentrations in the sediments from rainwater reservoirs were diminishing several times, which suggests considerable effect of urban pollution on metal level in these sediments.

Keywords

  • sediments from roads
  • stormwater ponds
  • lead
  • cadmium mercury
Open Access

Ponds Syrenie Stawy in Szczecin - Changes of Selected Water Quality Chemical Indices

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 85 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

The possibility of using - to a wider inference - water quality test results of stream Osowka flowing through ponds Syrenie Stawy in Szczecin (NW-Poland) - in particular the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and the total concentrations of nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) - conducted in the years 1994 to 2014 was analyzed. The examined indices were classified according to Official Standards currently in force in Poland. Changes of water quality as it flows through the ponds were identified. Multivariate linear regression equations were calculated, endearing statistically significant relationship between successive test indicators (yi) and other indices (xi) and deadlines for measurement periods (Ti) has been made. This allowed in general to characterize water quality, determine the quality changes along the path of flow through ponds and discern what processes biohydrogeochemical within the ecosystem changes affected their quality.

Keywords

  • EU Water Framework Directive
  • artificial reservoirs
  • water quality
  • physical indices
  • chemical indices
  • ponds Syrenie Stawy
  • Szczecin
Open Access

Invasion of Alien Solidago Taxa into Urban Habitats: A Study of Selected Towns in Southern Poland

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 97 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

In Poland there are three invasive species of the genus Solidago native to North America. In the years 2010-2015 field survey in five tows in Oswiecim Basin and its vicinity was performed which aimed to examine frequency, habitat preferences and basic parameters of populations of these species. Amongst invasive goldenrods S. canadensis (79 localities) and S. gigantea (74) prevailed in the study area and are much more frequent than S. graminifolia (8). Populations of goldenrods were not very abundant and did not occupy large area, however, there were populations exceeding 500 m2 and that had more than 500 ramets except for S. graminifolia which occur at low densities. The Canadian goldenrod S. canadensis tended to occur more frequently in ruderal and segetal habitats than S. gigantea whereas S. graminifolia was encountered only at fallows. Both S. gigantea and S. canadensis were reported to occur in wetland habitats and sometimes formed monospecific stands what prove negative influence on biodiversity.

Keywords

  • biological invasions
  • neophyte
  • urban flora
  • ecological amplitude
Open Access

Sustainable Tourism - Sensible Tourism

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 105 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the issues related to travel and tourism, the development of this branch of service, and attempts to create alternative solutions to reduce this phenomenon’s dysfunctions. The introduction outlines the nineteenth century beginnings of tourism on the British Isles, including the setup of the first travel agency and the effects of increasing number of participants of mass tourism. The second section discusses the evolution from traveller to the tourist consumer of the commercial offer and social and environmental impacts of these changes. The third part presents the attempts to create alternatives to mass tourism with the adaptation of the rules resulting from the concept of sustainable development, and stressed the need for pro-environmental education.

Keywords

  • tourism
  • sustainable tourism
  • travel
  • responsible tourism
Open Access

Photocatalytic Coatings - Promising Way to Improve a Quality of Urban Building Surfaces

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 113 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

With the increasing air pollutants particularly in the cities the deteriorating conditions of the buildings accelerate. One of the non-invasive and cheap promising ways how to prevent the buildings against the aged processes caused by biological pollutants or smog exhalation is the innovation of suitable photocatalytic coatings. This work focuses on the characterization of prepared photocatalytic nanocomposite TiO2-SiO2 system to be applied on the building objects in order to improve a quality of their surfaces. The structure and the texture characterization of prepared nanocomposite were determined by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM + EDS). The photocatalytic activity of the composite was determined considering the self-cleaning ability and the antibacterial activity. For self-cleaning characterization the methylene blue degradation was measured. These self-cleaning properties were tested on the various types of supports, which are commonly used in the building facades. To estimate antibacterial and biocidal activity the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus were used. Both methods were done according to standard ISO tests. Next to the laboratory testing the application of the composite under the real condition was implemented. There were treated parts of the concrete outside wall with the composite and after more than one year the colour changed analysis of the wall surface was characterized.

Keywords

  • TiO-SiO nanocomposite
  • photoactive
  • transparent coatings
  • self-cleaning surfaces
  • antibacterial photocatalytic activity
  • architectural heritage
12 Articles
Open Access

How Far is Environmental Engineering from Biomedical Engineering?

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 7 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

The development of science, which has been observed in recent years, shows that engineering knowledge and activity are becoming more and more interdisciplinary. Up to the late 80-ties of the previous century, the experience and interest of engineers covered mainly hard sciences that directly followed their education. After this period, the engineering knowledge and solutions proposed in one discipline started to be applied successfully in other domains. This tendency can be seen especially in Biomedical Engineering, which development is based on achievements made in the rest of hard sciences, even if they seem to be as distant as Environmental Engineering.

Keywords

  • biomedical engineering
  • environmental engineering
  • transfer of knowledge
  • research transfer
  • transport phenomena
Open Access

Preliminary Studies About Knowledge and Applications of Science Mnemonics by Polish Pupils

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 19 - 30

Abstract

Abstract

Mnemonic devices are specific ways, which during coding new information apply known elements for improving subsequent access to that information in the memory. Consequently, not much is known about techniques for optimizing recall performance with mnemonic devices or the suitability of using mnemonic devices in educational applications. Moreover, in literature there are a lot of examples in chemistry, biology, physics and mathematics mnemonics approaches, however in the related literature, there is a lack of current and reliable studies for this subject. In this original work we describe mnemonic methods from this point of view in the learning and teachings of science subjects. A large trumps of this article is the demonstration of the old well-known method of the learning/teaching in the new scene. This is the first article in literature that present actual data about this topic according to learning and studying the science subjects by mnemonic studies.

Keywords

  • mnemonics
  • mnemonic methods
  • mnemonic devices
  • memorizing methods
  • science subjects
Open Access

Evaluation of the Usefulness of Selected Computer Programs in the Context of Educating Students of the Environmental Engineering

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 31 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the evaluation of usefulness of selected computer applications applied in the process of educating students from ordered specialty Environmental Engineering who study at the Silesian University of Technology in the faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering. The evaluation was carried out by means of the analysis of questionnaires filled in by the graduates of the first cycle degree programme at the aforementioned specialty. The analysis was carried out for both, the area of application of the selected software related to the didactic process and the area of the software application in the predicted professional career of the students surveyed.

Keywords

  • environmental engineering
  • educational process
  • computer programs
  • questionnaire form
  • ranking of the software
Open Access

Q-Methodology Study of Students Behaviour During Project-Based Learning

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 39 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

The contribution describes the circumstances of the implementation of a chemistry project with the main theme “Chemical show - Harry Potter”. Project-based learning belongs between the complex teaching methods, where the desired effect can be influenced by many factors, eg student’s attitude, student’s overall opinion and feelings about the method. The motivation of the researchers was to understand and evaluate the factors present in the realised project. The analysed factors and behavioural schemes can provide a good starting point for the teachers at planning their projects. With the aim to understand the students’ reaction the researchers used Q-methodology to identify the different behavioural groups of participating students based on their real opinion. In the presented research the researchers analyse the response of totally 26 students. As a result totally 6 behavioural examples are presented that teachers can meet during implementation of project based learning. The presented categorization collaborates with other formerly publicised types of student’s behaviour, eg students of “pleasant surprises” and “disappointing surprises”. However, other additional types of behavioural types emerged eg students orienting and concentrating on the theoretical knowledge, students with very strong need for leading and students with the need of several assessment systems. The presented results can provide a wider view for the teachers in preparing and forecasting the flow of their projects and can help them to prepare the project.

Keywords

  • project-based learning
  • Q-methodology
  • student’s opinion
Open Access

Modelling of Emissions from Large Biogas Plants

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 49 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

The main objective of the “Guidelines for the development of agricultural biogas plants in Poland within 2010-2020”, is a construction of biogas plants processing agricultural biomass resources with suitable conditions in each municipality. In the Czech Republic produces about 6.5% of energy from renewable sources. Biogas plants give - contrary to solar and wind electricity stations - the stable performance throughout the whole year. Biomass should be a key source for achieving the Czech EU commitment to produce 13% of energy from renewable sources in 2020. The experience, where 317 Agricultural biogas plants are currently in operation, has shown that there are considerable problems with a proper location of newly designed agricultural biogas plants in the landscape. The Czech-Polish border area is mainly flat wooded recreation region. For these reasons, the Gaussian model SYMOS’97 (version 2013), adapted for odour dispersion modelling from large agricultural sources is supposed to be suitable for this area. It is appropriate for training of students. For these reasons, students from the University of Hradec Kralove and the University of Opole in the frame of their academic exchange and professional internships are acquainted with the technological principles of biogas plants and in environmental mathematical and statistical modelling of the spread of emissions from large industrial and agricultural sources. In this article we present methods for education on these professional areas.

Keywords

  • biogas
  • odour
  • SYMOS’97
Open Access

Functional Traits and Plasticity of Plants in Ecological Research and Education

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 59 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

Plant functional traits are any morphological, physiological and phenological features, which indirectly affect plant fitness through their three basic components of plant individual performance - growth, reproduction and survival. These features represent also a keystone for plant functional groups, which are similar in three aspects - function on the level of organism, response to environmental factors and effect on ecosystems. Functional approach in ecology and vegetation study enables to evaluate plant communities on the base of species function in a community, and to relate functional structure of plant communities to particular environmental gradients. Species plasticity has many aspects that mirror species adaptations to the environmental conditions and which then also translate into functional structuring of plant communities. This approach is thus a novel and exciting mode how to carry on plant ecology, both in research and education at universities.

Keywords

  • adaptation
  • functional ecology
  • functional groups
  • plant communities
  • phenotypic plasticity
  • vegetation
Open Access

Use of the ImageJ Program to Assess the Damage of Plants By Snails

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 67 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

Laboratory tests using image analysis are one of the types of experimental methods in plant protection. They are used in the evaluation of crop damage by pests, also useful in testing the effectiveness of active substances of plant protection products. The most popular of these analyses are the so called “circular tests”, comprising in administering to the insects and snails the fragments of leaves and measuring the amount of consumed surface. The paper presents a method of analysis of damage to lettuce leaves using ImageJ application. The way of presenting the results was also proposed. This procedure can be used in various analyses of biological sciences and evaluating the dietary preferences of pests. Access to the application ImageJ is free, and flexible configuration allows for any setting parameters of the program, the opportunity to work in different environments and low system requirements allow you to make many accurate measurements in a short time without the need to purchase expensive specialized hardware.

Keywords

  • ImageJ
  • snail
  • slug
  • damage to plants
  • graphical analysis
  • image analysis
  • assessment of impairment
Open Access

The Content of Lead, Cadmium and Mercury in Sediments from Rainwater Reservoirs Situated Along the National Road 4

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 75 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

The paper aimed at determining the pollution level of sediments collected from reservoirs receiving rainwater. The sediments were sampled from11 reservoirs on three dates: in May 2007, in April 2008 and in June 2008 in the following localities: Sulkow, Biskupice, Bodzanow and Suchoraba situated at a distance of ca 15 from each other. The contents of lead, cadmium, mercury and organic matter were assessed in the sediments. Lead content in the analysed sediments ranged from 9.87 to 61 mg · kg−2 with average for all samples 28.08 mg · kg−1. Mean cadmium concentration in the studied sediments was 0.637 mg · kg−1 and fluctuated from 0.20 to 1.58 mg Cd · kg−1. The quantities of mercury assessed in the sediments from rainwater reservoirs ranged from 0.337 to 0.864 mg · kg−1. Considerable differences between studied metal concentrations were assessed among the studied reservoirs, however the trends of differences were similar at each sampling. Generally, the levels of cadmium and mercury assessed in the analyzed sediments were comparable to the sediments from urbanized areas of various cities in the world, whereas lead level in the sediments of the analysed reservoirs was generally much lower than reported for similar materials in literature. Regularly decreasing contents of all elements with growing distance from the Krakow agglomeration was noted. The reservoir situated closest to Krakow, in Sulkow is located 7 km from the city boundaries and borders on Wieliczka town, whereas the reservoir in Suchoraba is located 17 km from Krakow. At this distance metal concentrations in the sediments from rainwater reservoirs were diminishing several times, which suggests considerable effect of urban pollution on metal level in these sediments.

Keywords

  • sediments from roads
  • stormwater ponds
  • lead
  • cadmium mercury
Open Access

Ponds Syrenie Stawy in Szczecin - Changes of Selected Water Quality Chemical Indices

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 85 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

The possibility of using - to a wider inference - water quality test results of stream Osowka flowing through ponds Syrenie Stawy in Szczecin (NW-Poland) - in particular the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and the total concentrations of nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) - conducted in the years 1994 to 2014 was analyzed. The examined indices were classified according to Official Standards currently in force in Poland. Changes of water quality as it flows through the ponds were identified. Multivariate linear regression equations were calculated, endearing statistically significant relationship between successive test indicators (yi) and other indices (xi) and deadlines for measurement periods (Ti) has been made. This allowed in general to characterize water quality, determine the quality changes along the path of flow through ponds and discern what processes biohydrogeochemical within the ecosystem changes affected their quality.

Keywords

  • EU Water Framework Directive
  • artificial reservoirs
  • water quality
  • physical indices
  • chemical indices
  • ponds Syrenie Stawy
  • Szczecin
Open Access

Invasion of Alien Solidago Taxa into Urban Habitats: A Study of Selected Towns in Southern Poland

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 97 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

In Poland there are three invasive species of the genus Solidago native to North America. In the years 2010-2015 field survey in five tows in Oswiecim Basin and its vicinity was performed which aimed to examine frequency, habitat preferences and basic parameters of populations of these species. Amongst invasive goldenrods S. canadensis (79 localities) and S. gigantea (74) prevailed in the study area and are much more frequent than S. graminifolia (8). Populations of goldenrods were not very abundant and did not occupy large area, however, there were populations exceeding 500 m2 and that had more than 500 ramets except for S. graminifolia which occur at low densities. The Canadian goldenrod S. canadensis tended to occur more frequently in ruderal and segetal habitats than S. gigantea whereas S. graminifolia was encountered only at fallows. Both S. gigantea and S. canadensis were reported to occur in wetland habitats and sometimes formed monospecific stands what prove negative influence on biodiversity.

Keywords

  • biological invasions
  • neophyte
  • urban flora
  • ecological amplitude
Open Access

Sustainable Tourism - Sensible Tourism

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 105 - 112

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the issues related to travel and tourism, the development of this branch of service, and attempts to create alternative solutions to reduce this phenomenon’s dysfunctions. The introduction outlines the nineteenth century beginnings of tourism on the British Isles, including the setup of the first travel agency and the effects of increasing number of participants of mass tourism. The second section discusses the evolution from traveller to the tourist consumer of the commercial offer and social and environmental impacts of these changes. The third part presents the attempts to create alternatives to mass tourism with the adaptation of the rules resulting from the concept of sustainable development, and stressed the need for pro-environmental education.

Keywords

  • tourism
  • sustainable tourism
  • travel
  • responsible tourism
Open Access

Photocatalytic Coatings - Promising Way to Improve a Quality of Urban Building Surfaces

Published Online: 26 Jan 2016
Page range: 113 - 122

Abstract

Abstract

With the increasing air pollutants particularly in the cities the deteriorating conditions of the buildings accelerate. One of the non-invasive and cheap promising ways how to prevent the buildings against the aged processes caused by biological pollutants or smog exhalation is the innovation of suitable photocatalytic coatings. This work focuses on the characterization of prepared photocatalytic nanocomposite TiO2-SiO2 system to be applied on the building objects in order to improve a quality of their surfaces. The structure and the texture characterization of prepared nanocomposite were determined by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM + EDS). The photocatalytic activity of the composite was determined considering the self-cleaning ability and the antibacterial activity. For self-cleaning characterization the methylene blue degradation was measured. These self-cleaning properties were tested on the various types of supports, which are commonly used in the building facades. To estimate antibacterial and biocidal activity the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus were used. Both methods were done according to standard ISO tests. Next to the laboratory testing the application of the composite under the real condition was implemented. There were treated parts of the concrete outside wall with the composite and after more than one year the colour changed analysis of the wall surface was characterized.

Keywords

  • TiO-SiO nanocomposite
  • photoactive
  • transparent coatings
  • self-cleaning surfaces
  • antibacterial photocatalytic activity
  • architectural heritage

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