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Volume 26 (2021): Issue 1-2 (December 2021)

Volume 25 (2020): Issue 1-2 (December 2020)

Volume 24 (2019): Issue 1-2 (December 2019)

Volume 23 (2018): Issue 1-2 (December 2018)

Volume 22 (2017): Issue 1-2 (December 2017)

Volume 21 (2016): Issue 1-2 (December 2016)

Volume 20 (2015): Issue 1-2 (December 2015)

Volume 19 (2014): Issue 1-2 (December 2014)

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 1-2 (December 2013)

Volume 17 (2012): Issue 1-2 (December 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-4506
ISSN
2084-4506
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 18 (2013): Issue 1-2 (December 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-4506
ISSN
2084-4506
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

13 Articles
Open Access

Children’s university - a way to convince children to study science and technologies / Uniwersytet dziecięcy - droga przekonywania dzieci do studiowania nauk ścisłych i technologii

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 7 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

Technical University of Liberec implemented programs to attract pupils, high school students and first-year university students for study of technical and scientific disciplines. The first program is called “Children’s university” with the aim to convince elementary school pupils and secondary schools student. Children attend practical lectures and solve basic scientific tasks including work with real scientific equipment. They got exams for their activities and when passing all prescribed “lectures” they got a “diploma”. In addition to university examinations the Children’s University offers many different leisure activities, eg Open University, Walk for science and technology, Scientific cafes, Saturdays with technology. The main objective of the Children’s University is to catch talented individuals early and awaken their interest in university studies of technical and scientific disciplines in order to better direct their future professional orientation towards sectors with high added value, which the labour market has a long-term interest in. The second program, entitled “Scientific incubator”, is a follow-up programme to catch talented first-years university students for technical and scientific disciplines.

Keywords

  • pupils
  • students
  • science
  • technology

Słowa kluczowe

  • uczniowie
  • studenci
  • nauka
  • technologia
Open Access

Elemental composition of fly ash: a comparative study using nuclear and related analytical techniques / Skład pierwiastkowy popiołów lotnych: studium przypadku z wykorzystaniem metod nuklearnych i analitycznych

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 19 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

Epithermal neutron activation analysis along with ICP-OES, LA ICP-MS, and XRF were used to determine the elemental composition of coal fly ash from the Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. A total of 54 major, trace and rare earth elements were obtained by the four analytical techniques. The results were compared and the discrepancies discussed to show the merits and drawbacks of each of the techniques. It was shown that the elemental content of this particular coal fly ash are of the same order as the NIST standard reference material Coal Fly Ash 1633b.

Keywords

  • coal fly ash
  • epithermal neutron activation analysis
  • X-ray diffraction
  • inductively coupled-optical emission spectroscopy
  • and laser ablation inductively coupled-mass spectroscopy

Słowa kluczowe

  • popioły lotne z węgla
  • epitermalna neutronowa analiza aktywacyjna
  • dyfrakcja rentgenowska
  • optyczna spektroskopia emisyjna indukcyjnie sprzężona
  • ablacja laserowa indukcyjnie sprzężona ze spektroskopią masową
Open Access

Science workshops and their role in awakening science interests of children and school students / Warsztaty przyrodnicze i ich rola w rozbudzaniu zainteresowań przyrodniczych dzieci i uczniów

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 31 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Development of science interests is one of many elements of the daily teachers' work at school. Finding out interesting forms of working with school students and their proper application at school allows for increasing science interests and to achieve many didactic aims. One of many of such proposals is an informal teaching which can be carried out while students participate in the various workshops, out of school meetings or science fairs.

Keywords

  • science
  • teaching methods
  • experiments
  • key-competences
  • science workshops

Słowa kluczowe

  • nauka
  • metody nauczania
  • eksperymenty
  • umiejętności kluczowe
  • warsztaty
Open Access

Chemistry issues in the investigation of students’ ecological awareness / Problematyka chemiczna w badaniach świadomości ekologicznej studentów

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 43 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

The development of chemical industry has brought civilization and economic benefits. Nowadays it is hard to image the everyday life without chemical products whose usage raises living standards. Unfortunately, the civilization development, where chemistry significantly contributed, caused unfavourable changes in natural environment. In order to stop further environment degradation, different initiatives are being taken up. They also concern activities in favour of chemical threats reduction. Particular role among those activities plays the concept of green chemistry which lists in the framework of sustainable development. One of the methods implementation of sustainable development rules is the properly conducted education in formal and non-formal dimensions. Education Decade for Sustainable Development announced by United Nations General Assembly, testifies its importance. The paper brings a closer current model of ecological (environmental) education on different teaching stages. A method of diagnostic survey was used in order to estimate the level of students` ecological awareness. The research is a continuation of our previous works. A survey was chosen as a research technique, and a questionnaire was a research tool. The questionnaire included 22 questions (closed and half-open ones). The research took into consideration only selected elements of ecological awareness. A special attention was paid to estimation of students` knowledge chemical threat aspects and protection of natural environment. Moreover, the paper presents historical outline of chemical industry development and its significance for civilization. The idea of green chemistry and its educational importance was shown as an example aiming at the reduction of chemical threats.

Keywords

  • chemical threats
  • environmental protection
  • ecological education
  • ecological awareness
  • didactics of chemistry

Słowa kluczowe

  • zagrożenia chemiczne
  • ochrona środowiska
  • edukacja ekologiczna
  • świadomość ekologiczna
  • dydaktyka chemii
Open Access

Discussion: the development of this skill in inquiry-based science teaching methodologies / Kształcenie umiejętności prowadzenia dyskusji zgodnie z metodologią nauczania przez odkrywanie

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 53 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

ESTABLISH - European Science and Technology in Action: Building Links with Industry, School and Home is a four year pan-European project funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). A specific aims of this project is to reinforce the links between school education and external world, so as to raise the level of scientific knowledge of teachers and their students, and increase students’ intrinsic motivation to science and technology. Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) has been selected as the methodology to facilitate this type of teaching and learning. In order to achieve this set aim, it is necessary to prepare the teaching staff to be involved in IBSE. Across Europe teachers and students have begun to adopt the IBSE methodology, facilitated by many projects including ESTABLISH. In Poland, the ESTABLISH teachers training included inter alia, two summer schools during which teachers can deepen the knowledge and understanding of how to apply the IBSE strategy into their own teaching practices. Selected because of their importance in contemporary society life, are the abilities to discuss, to argue and to draw connections. Those skills require the use of specific rules. During the ESTABLISH training, teachers were tasked with creating a list of rules to help them lead a “good discussion” in their classroom. They tried to follow those rules discussing many hot and current topics, for example nuclear energy or use of supplements to lose weight (Chitosan). The advantages and disadvantages of developing this skill (discussion) as part of this teaching method were examined by participants of summer school. At the end of classes teachers shared their experiences of working with proposed method and collectively created a list of discussion topics they thought would be interesting for students that can be implemented in Polish schools. In the presentation, our experiences, remarks and conclusions from working with summer schools' teachers of the ESTABLISH project will be shared.

Keywords

  • teaching methods
  • discussion
  • IBSE
  • teacher training

Słowa kluczowe

  • metody nauczania
  • umiejętność dyskutowania
  • IBSE
  • kształcenie nauczycieli
Open Access

Nitrate reductase activity in chosen mosses: a case of study in skalny colliery waste tip / Aktywność reduktazy azotanowej u wybranych mchów na przykładzie hałdy powęglowej skalny

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 61 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Two species of mosses in relation to nitrogen metabolism were examined. This subject is little known in this group of plant. Investigations of nitrate reductase activity in green tissues of Brachythecium rutabulum (Hedw.) Schimp. and Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P.Beauv. were performed. The study was conducted in two localities: heavy contaminated waste tip Skalny located in Upper Silesia, and Blonia City Park in Bielsko-Biala which place was chosen as a control area. For both species high activity of the enzyme was detected. The nitrate reductase activity varied between 99 to 9093 nmol per g dry mass per hour for B. rutabulum and 265 to 5135 nmol per g d.m. per hour of nitrite synthesized for A. undulatum respectively on Skalny waste tip. In the control area the results varied between 747 to 1077 for B. rutabulum and 171 to 518 nmol per g d.m. per hour of nitrite synthesized for A. undulatum, respectively. The differences were statistically significant only between the two species but not between habitats probably due to high dispersion and small amount of replications. The levels of nitrate and nitrite in stream water in both areas were also measured. In the Skalny waste tip there were high and reached 1.66 mg · dm-3 of nitrite and 65 mg · dm-3 of nitrate, respectively. In the control area these amounts were lower and reach zero level for nitrite and 4.5 mg · dm-3 of nitrate, respectively.

Keywords

  • bryophytes
  • nitrogen fixation
  • environmental pollution
Open Access

The evaluation of eutrophication level of Kozlowa Gora dam reservoir base on assemblages planktonic algae / Ocena stopnia zeutrofizowania zbiornika Kozłowa Góra na podstawie zbiorowisk glonów planktonowych

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 69 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

In this publication the eutrophication level of Kozlowa Gora dam reservoir base on composition species of algae and biomass of phytoplankton, was defined. The evaluation of phytoplankton biomass was achieved by two methods (direct - for biovolume by comparing the shape of algae to geometrical figures and indirect - base on concentrations of chlorophyll a). The trophic estimation of reservoir water was achieved on the grounds of classifications, which included the boundary values of phytoplankton biomass and concentrations of chlorophyll a. These boundary values are characteristic for individual trophic types of water. The typical species for eutrophic water were observed in the samples of water taking from the Kozlowa Gora dam reservoir, also the highest average percentage share of Cyanophyta in whole biomass of phytoplankton was observed (it may indicate on the advanced eutrophication processes). The research concerning the average biomass of phytoplankton and average concentrations of chlorophyll a allowed classification water of this reservoir to eutrophic and hipertrophic.

Keywords

  • eutrophication
  • dam reservoir
  • biomass of phytoplankton
  • concentrations of chlorophyll a

Słowa kluczowe

  • eutrofizacja
  • zbiornik zaporowy
  • biomasa fitoplanktonu
  • koncentracja chlorofilu a
Open Access

Water storage in anthropogenic lakes in southern Poland during high and low water stages / Retencja wody w jeziorach antropogennych południowej Polski w okresie wezbrań i niżówek

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 77 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

The central part of southern Poland is a land of anthropogenic lakes. Within an area of 6,766 km2 as many as 4,773 water bodies are present with a total area of 185.5 km2. Around a dozen of the largest water bodies serve flood protection purposes and are sources of water for municipal, industrial, agricultural, transport, energy purposes, etc. Such usage of these water bodies is the main reason for fluctuations in their water levels, although obviously these also depend directly on their supply (rainfall, groundwater drainage, water transfers), and indirectly on the size of their catchment areas and the degree to which their basins are full. The most spectacular changes in water levels occur during high and (less frequent) low water stages. Periodical rises in water levels related to high water episodes caused by thawing or rainfall reach as much as several metres compared to the period preceding the high water episode. Drought periods result in the lowering of storage levels towards minimum ones as does similarly the intentional discharge of water from reservoirs. In water bodies in southern Poland, annual changes in water levels range from several centimetres to almost ten metres. The variability of levels is often similar to the average depth of the water body in question, in some cases approaching its maximum depth. It determines the changes in the water retention, unprecedented for natural lakes.

Keywords

  • lake district
  • Upper Silesian region
  • water bodies
  • water storage
  • water level

Słowa kluczowe

  • pojezierze
  • region górnośląski
  • zbiorniki wodne
  • retencja
  • poziom wody
Open Access

Microbiological and physico-chemical composition of sewage sludge derived from the food industry / Skład mikrobiologiczny i fizykochemiczny osadów ściekowych pochodzących z przemysłu spożywczego

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 89 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze the microbiological and physico-chemical composition of sewage sludge from the food industry. The research material was dewatered sewage sludge with and without lime, derived from the water and drink production plant in the Opole region, obtained for testing in March 2013. Physico-chemical analysis included the determination of: pH, temperature of sludge, sedimentation properties, the dry weight, mineral substances, biogenic elements and heavy metals. Microbiological evaluation included quantitative and qualitative determination of mesophilic, psychrophilic and potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Sewage sludge with and without lime characterized similar physico-chemical parameters. However, the addition of lime to the sludge led to a change in ratios of different groups of microorganisms. In the sludge with lime, we observed reduction in the number of mesophilic bacteria and yeast, and total inhibition of psychrophilic bacteria and fungi. Knowledge of the physico-chemical parameters and microbiological composition of the sewage sludge is needed to determine the directions of their development

Keywords

  • sewage sludge
  • microbiological determination
  • physico-chemical analysis
  • food industry

Słowa kluczowe

  • osady ściekowe
  • ocena mikrobiologiczna
  • analiza fizykochemiczna
  • przemysł spożywczy
Open Access

The dynamics of vitamin C content in fresh and processed cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) / Dynamika zmian zawartości witaminy C w ogórku świeżym (Cucumis sativus L.) i jego przetworach

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 97 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of the proposed experiment was to determine changes in the content of vitamin C in the vegetable material (fresh and processed) during a certain period of time, and to determine the optimal expiry date of a product (in terms of the vitamin C content), as well as to introduce students to common factors adversely affecting the content of vitamin C in food products (with a special emphasis on oxidizing enzymes). The research revealed that regardless of the type of cucumbers (fresh, pickled in brine or in vinegar), the content of vitamin C is rapidly dropping after the destruction of the cellular structure (grating, slicing etc.). In the case of fresh cucumbers, it is a process determined by two factors: release and activation of ascorbinase from the destroyed cellular structure and availability of oxygen. Low pH values in the remaining cases reduce the effect of ascorbinase, and a decrease in the vitamin C content is related to the process of oxidation with atmospheric oxygen.

Keywords

  • classes for students
  • vitamin C
  • Tillman’s reagent
  • cucumber

Słowa kluczowe

  • ćwiczenie dla studentów
  • witamina C
  • odczynnik Tillmansa
  • ogórek
Open Access

Effect of temperature on toxicity of selected insecticides to forest beetle Anoplotrupes Stercorosus / Interakcja temperatury z wybranymi insektycydami chrząszcza leśnego Anoplotrupes stercorosus

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 103 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

In 2007 and 2008 research on the impact of temperature, ranging from 14 to 39°C on the survivability of an adult Anoplotrupes stercorosus intoxicated by insecticide preparations from the group of phosphoorganic insecticides (diazinon), carbamate (pirimicarb), quinazolines (fenazaquin), oxadiazine (indoxacarb), benzoyl urea insecticides (teflubenzuron), neonicotinoids (acetamiprid) and pyrethroids (beta-cyfluthrin) was carried out. The results obtained indicate that all preparations used in tests had a positive temperature coefficient.

Keywords

  • Anoplotrupes stercorosus
  • temperature
  • synergism
  • insecticides

Słowa kluczowe

  • Anoplotrupes stercorosus
  • temperatura
  • synergizm
  • insektycydy
Open Access

Rapeseed pellet - a byproduct of biodiesel production - as an excellent renewable energy source / Wytłoki rzepakowe - produkt uboczny w produkcji biodiesla - jako doskonałe źródło energii odnawialnej

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 109 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

Vegetable oils are renewable feedstock currently being used for production of biofuels from sustainable biomass resources. The existing technology for producing diesel fuel from plant oils, such as rapeseed, soybean, canola and palm oil are largely centered on transesterification of oils with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel. Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a byproduct of biodiesel production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. The interest to use different types of biomass as fuels has grown rapidly during the last years as a mean to reduce the CO2 emissions of energy production. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage, the sources of biomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer’s own energetic demand is obtained. In this article the experimental results of analyzing the emissions levels of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation were presented. It has been proved that that the pellet, a byproduct of biodiesel production, is an excellent renewable and environmentally-friendly energy source, especially viable for use in household tap water heating installations.

Keywords

  • biodiesel
  • rapeseed
  • pellet
  • biomass
  • combustion

Słowa kluczowe

  • biodiesel
  • rzepak
  • pellet
  • wytłoki
  • biomasa
  • spalanie
Open Access

The influence of hydrogen on the electrochemical properties of selected types of stainless steel /Wpływ wodoru na właściwości elektrochemiczne wybranych gatunków stali nierdzewnych

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 121 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the influence of electrolytic hydrogenation on the change of electrochemical properties of selected stainless steels and their susceptibility to the formation of galvanic hydrogen. It has been shown that the electrolytic hydrogenation of steel X5CrNi18-10 and X6Cr17 in the state of delivery, not only changes their corrosion resistance, but also contributes to the formation of galvanic hydrogen cells.

Keywords

  • hydrogenation
  • corrosion potential
  • galvanic hydrogen cell
  • stainless steel

Słowa kluczowe

  • wodorowanie
  • potencjał korozyjny
  • galwaniczne ogniwo wodorowe
  • stal nierdzewna
13 Articles
Open Access

Children’s university - a way to convince children to study science and technologies / Uniwersytet dziecięcy - droga przekonywania dzieci do studiowania nauk ścisłych i technologii

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 7 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

Technical University of Liberec implemented programs to attract pupils, high school students and first-year university students for study of technical and scientific disciplines. The first program is called “Children’s university” with the aim to convince elementary school pupils and secondary schools student. Children attend practical lectures and solve basic scientific tasks including work with real scientific equipment. They got exams for their activities and when passing all prescribed “lectures” they got a “diploma”. In addition to university examinations the Children’s University offers many different leisure activities, eg Open University, Walk for science and technology, Scientific cafes, Saturdays with technology. The main objective of the Children’s University is to catch talented individuals early and awaken their interest in university studies of technical and scientific disciplines in order to better direct their future professional orientation towards sectors with high added value, which the labour market has a long-term interest in. The second program, entitled “Scientific incubator”, is a follow-up programme to catch talented first-years university students for technical and scientific disciplines.

Keywords

  • pupils
  • students
  • science
  • technology

Słowa kluczowe

  • uczniowie
  • studenci
  • nauka
  • technologia
Open Access

Elemental composition of fly ash: a comparative study using nuclear and related analytical techniques / Skład pierwiastkowy popiołów lotnych: studium przypadku z wykorzystaniem metod nuklearnych i analitycznych

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 19 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

Epithermal neutron activation analysis along with ICP-OES, LA ICP-MS, and XRF were used to determine the elemental composition of coal fly ash from the Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. A total of 54 major, trace and rare earth elements were obtained by the four analytical techniques. The results were compared and the discrepancies discussed to show the merits and drawbacks of each of the techniques. It was shown that the elemental content of this particular coal fly ash are of the same order as the NIST standard reference material Coal Fly Ash 1633b.

Keywords

  • coal fly ash
  • epithermal neutron activation analysis
  • X-ray diffraction
  • inductively coupled-optical emission spectroscopy
  • and laser ablation inductively coupled-mass spectroscopy

Słowa kluczowe

  • popioły lotne z węgla
  • epitermalna neutronowa analiza aktywacyjna
  • dyfrakcja rentgenowska
  • optyczna spektroskopia emisyjna indukcyjnie sprzężona
  • ablacja laserowa indukcyjnie sprzężona ze spektroskopią masową
Open Access

Science workshops and their role in awakening science interests of children and school students / Warsztaty przyrodnicze i ich rola w rozbudzaniu zainteresowań przyrodniczych dzieci i uczniów

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 31 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Development of science interests is one of many elements of the daily teachers' work at school. Finding out interesting forms of working with school students and their proper application at school allows for increasing science interests and to achieve many didactic aims. One of many of such proposals is an informal teaching which can be carried out while students participate in the various workshops, out of school meetings or science fairs.

Keywords

  • science
  • teaching methods
  • experiments
  • key-competences
  • science workshops

Słowa kluczowe

  • nauka
  • metody nauczania
  • eksperymenty
  • umiejętności kluczowe
  • warsztaty
Open Access

Chemistry issues in the investigation of students’ ecological awareness / Problematyka chemiczna w badaniach świadomości ekologicznej studentów

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 43 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

The development of chemical industry has brought civilization and economic benefits. Nowadays it is hard to image the everyday life without chemical products whose usage raises living standards. Unfortunately, the civilization development, where chemistry significantly contributed, caused unfavourable changes in natural environment. In order to stop further environment degradation, different initiatives are being taken up. They also concern activities in favour of chemical threats reduction. Particular role among those activities plays the concept of green chemistry which lists in the framework of sustainable development. One of the methods implementation of sustainable development rules is the properly conducted education in formal and non-formal dimensions. Education Decade for Sustainable Development announced by United Nations General Assembly, testifies its importance. The paper brings a closer current model of ecological (environmental) education on different teaching stages. A method of diagnostic survey was used in order to estimate the level of students` ecological awareness. The research is a continuation of our previous works. A survey was chosen as a research technique, and a questionnaire was a research tool. The questionnaire included 22 questions (closed and half-open ones). The research took into consideration only selected elements of ecological awareness. A special attention was paid to estimation of students` knowledge chemical threat aspects and protection of natural environment. Moreover, the paper presents historical outline of chemical industry development and its significance for civilization. The idea of green chemistry and its educational importance was shown as an example aiming at the reduction of chemical threats.

Keywords

  • chemical threats
  • environmental protection
  • ecological education
  • ecological awareness
  • didactics of chemistry

Słowa kluczowe

  • zagrożenia chemiczne
  • ochrona środowiska
  • edukacja ekologiczna
  • świadomość ekologiczna
  • dydaktyka chemii
Open Access

Discussion: the development of this skill in inquiry-based science teaching methodologies / Kształcenie umiejętności prowadzenia dyskusji zgodnie z metodologią nauczania przez odkrywanie

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 53 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

ESTABLISH - European Science and Technology in Action: Building Links with Industry, School and Home is a four year pan-European project funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). A specific aims of this project is to reinforce the links between school education and external world, so as to raise the level of scientific knowledge of teachers and their students, and increase students’ intrinsic motivation to science and technology. Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) has been selected as the methodology to facilitate this type of teaching and learning. In order to achieve this set aim, it is necessary to prepare the teaching staff to be involved in IBSE. Across Europe teachers and students have begun to adopt the IBSE methodology, facilitated by many projects including ESTABLISH. In Poland, the ESTABLISH teachers training included inter alia, two summer schools during which teachers can deepen the knowledge and understanding of how to apply the IBSE strategy into their own teaching practices. Selected because of their importance in contemporary society life, are the abilities to discuss, to argue and to draw connections. Those skills require the use of specific rules. During the ESTABLISH training, teachers were tasked with creating a list of rules to help them lead a “good discussion” in their classroom. They tried to follow those rules discussing many hot and current topics, for example nuclear energy or use of supplements to lose weight (Chitosan). The advantages and disadvantages of developing this skill (discussion) as part of this teaching method were examined by participants of summer school. At the end of classes teachers shared their experiences of working with proposed method and collectively created a list of discussion topics they thought would be interesting for students that can be implemented in Polish schools. In the presentation, our experiences, remarks and conclusions from working with summer schools' teachers of the ESTABLISH project will be shared.

Keywords

  • teaching methods
  • discussion
  • IBSE
  • teacher training

Słowa kluczowe

  • metody nauczania
  • umiejętność dyskutowania
  • IBSE
  • kształcenie nauczycieli
Open Access

Nitrate reductase activity in chosen mosses: a case of study in skalny colliery waste tip / Aktywność reduktazy azotanowej u wybranych mchów na przykładzie hałdy powęglowej skalny

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 61 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Two species of mosses in relation to nitrogen metabolism were examined. This subject is little known in this group of plant. Investigations of nitrate reductase activity in green tissues of Brachythecium rutabulum (Hedw.) Schimp. and Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P.Beauv. were performed. The study was conducted in two localities: heavy contaminated waste tip Skalny located in Upper Silesia, and Blonia City Park in Bielsko-Biala which place was chosen as a control area. For both species high activity of the enzyme was detected. The nitrate reductase activity varied between 99 to 9093 nmol per g dry mass per hour for B. rutabulum and 265 to 5135 nmol per g d.m. per hour of nitrite synthesized for A. undulatum respectively on Skalny waste tip. In the control area the results varied between 747 to 1077 for B. rutabulum and 171 to 518 nmol per g d.m. per hour of nitrite synthesized for A. undulatum, respectively. The differences were statistically significant only between the two species but not between habitats probably due to high dispersion and small amount of replications. The levels of nitrate and nitrite in stream water in both areas were also measured. In the Skalny waste tip there were high and reached 1.66 mg · dm-3 of nitrite and 65 mg · dm-3 of nitrate, respectively. In the control area these amounts were lower and reach zero level for nitrite and 4.5 mg · dm-3 of nitrate, respectively.

Keywords

  • bryophytes
  • nitrogen fixation
  • environmental pollution
Open Access

The evaluation of eutrophication level of Kozlowa Gora dam reservoir base on assemblages planktonic algae / Ocena stopnia zeutrofizowania zbiornika Kozłowa Góra na podstawie zbiorowisk glonów planktonowych

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 69 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

In this publication the eutrophication level of Kozlowa Gora dam reservoir base on composition species of algae and biomass of phytoplankton, was defined. The evaluation of phytoplankton biomass was achieved by two methods (direct - for biovolume by comparing the shape of algae to geometrical figures and indirect - base on concentrations of chlorophyll a). The trophic estimation of reservoir water was achieved on the grounds of classifications, which included the boundary values of phytoplankton biomass and concentrations of chlorophyll a. These boundary values are characteristic for individual trophic types of water. The typical species for eutrophic water were observed in the samples of water taking from the Kozlowa Gora dam reservoir, also the highest average percentage share of Cyanophyta in whole biomass of phytoplankton was observed (it may indicate on the advanced eutrophication processes). The research concerning the average biomass of phytoplankton and average concentrations of chlorophyll a allowed classification water of this reservoir to eutrophic and hipertrophic.

Keywords

  • eutrophication
  • dam reservoir
  • biomass of phytoplankton
  • concentrations of chlorophyll a

Słowa kluczowe

  • eutrofizacja
  • zbiornik zaporowy
  • biomasa fitoplanktonu
  • koncentracja chlorofilu a
Open Access

Water storage in anthropogenic lakes in southern Poland during high and low water stages / Retencja wody w jeziorach antropogennych południowej Polski w okresie wezbrań i niżówek

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 77 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

The central part of southern Poland is a land of anthropogenic lakes. Within an area of 6,766 km2 as many as 4,773 water bodies are present with a total area of 185.5 km2. Around a dozen of the largest water bodies serve flood protection purposes and are sources of water for municipal, industrial, agricultural, transport, energy purposes, etc. Such usage of these water bodies is the main reason for fluctuations in their water levels, although obviously these also depend directly on their supply (rainfall, groundwater drainage, water transfers), and indirectly on the size of their catchment areas and the degree to which their basins are full. The most spectacular changes in water levels occur during high and (less frequent) low water stages. Periodical rises in water levels related to high water episodes caused by thawing or rainfall reach as much as several metres compared to the period preceding the high water episode. Drought periods result in the lowering of storage levels towards minimum ones as does similarly the intentional discharge of water from reservoirs. In water bodies in southern Poland, annual changes in water levels range from several centimetres to almost ten metres. The variability of levels is often similar to the average depth of the water body in question, in some cases approaching its maximum depth. It determines the changes in the water retention, unprecedented for natural lakes.

Keywords

  • lake district
  • Upper Silesian region
  • water bodies
  • water storage
  • water level

Słowa kluczowe

  • pojezierze
  • region górnośląski
  • zbiorniki wodne
  • retencja
  • poziom wody
Open Access

Microbiological and physico-chemical composition of sewage sludge derived from the food industry / Skład mikrobiologiczny i fizykochemiczny osadów ściekowych pochodzących z przemysłu spożywczego

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 89 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze the microbiological and physico-chemical composition of sewage sludge from the food industry. The research material was dewatered sewage sludge with and without lime, derived from the water and drink production plant in the Opole region, obtained for testing in March 2013. Physico-chemical analysis included the determination of: pH, temperature of sludge, sedimentation properties, the dry weight, mineral substances, biogenic elements and heavy metals. Microbiological evaluation included quantitative and qualitative determination of mesophilic, psychrophilic and potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Sewage sludge with and without lime characterized similar physico-chemical parameters. However, the addition of lime to the sludge led to a change in ratios of different groups of microorganisms. In the sludge with lime, we observed reduction in the number of mesophilic bacteria and yeast, and total inhibition of psychrophilic bacteria and fungi. Knowledge of the physico-chemical parameters and microbiological composition of the sewage sludge is needed to determine the directions of their development

Keywords

  • sewage sludge
  • microbiological determination
  • physico-chemical analysis
  • food industry

Słowa kluczowe

  • osady ściekowe
  • ocena mikrobiologiczna
  • analiza fizykochemiczna
  • przemysł spożywczy
Open Access

The dynamics of vitamin C content in fresh and processed cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) / Dynamika zmian zawartości witaminy C w ogórku świeżym (Cucumis sativus L.) i jego przetworach

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 97 - 102

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of the proposed experiment was to determine changes in the content of vitamin C in the vegetable material (fresh and processed) during a certain period of time, and to determine the optimal expiry date of a product (in terms of the vitamin C content), as well as to introduce students to common factors adversely affecting the content of vitamin C in food products (with a special emphasis on oxidizing enzymes). The research revealed that regardless of the type of cucumbers (fresh, pickled in brine or in vinegar), the content of vitamin C is rapidly dropping after the destruction of the cellular structure (grating, slicing etc.). In the case of fresh cucumbers, it is a process determined by two factors: release and activation of ascorbinase from the destroyed cellular structure and availability of oxygen. Low pH values in the remaining cases reduce the effect of ascorbinase, and a decrease in the vitamin C content is related to the process of oxidation with atmospheric oxygen.

Keywords

  • classes for students
  • vitamin C
  • Tillman’s reagent
  • cucumber

Słowa kluczowe

  • ćwiczenie dla studentów
  • witamina C
  • odczynnik Tillmansa
  • ogórek
Open Access

Effect of temperature on toxicity of selected insecticides to forest beetle Anoplotrupes Stercorosus / Interakcja temperatury z wybranymi insektycydami chrząszcza leśnego Anoplotrupes stercorosus

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 103 - 108

Abstract

Abstract

In 2007 and 2008 research on the impact of temperature, ranging from 14 to 39°C on the survivability of an adult Anoplotrupes stercorosus intoxicated by insecticide preparations from the group of phosphoorganic insecticides (diazinon), carbamate (pirimicarb), quinazolines (fenazaquin), oxadiazine (indoxacarb), benzoyl urea insecticides (teflubenzuron), neonicotinoids (acetamiprid) and pyrethroids (beta-cyfluthrin) was carried out. The results obtained indicate that all preparations used in tests had a positive temperature coefficient.

Keywords

  • Anoplotrupes stercorosus
  • temperature
  • synergism
  • insecticides

Słowa kluczowe

  • Anoplotrupes stercorosus
  • temperatura
  • synergizm
  • insektycydy
Open Access

Rapeseed pellet - a byproduct of biodiesel production - as an excellent renewable energy source / Wytłoki rzepakowe - produkt uboczny w produkcji biodiesla - jako doskonałe źródło energii odnawialnej

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 109 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

Vegetable oils are renewable feedstock currently being used for production of biofuels from sustainable biomass resources. The existing technology for producing diesel fuel from plant oils, such as rapeseed, soybean, canola and palm oil are largely centered on transesterification of oils with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel. Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a byproduct of biodiesel production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. The interest to use different types of biomass as fuels has grown rapidly during the last years as a mean to reduce the CO2 emissions of energy production. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage, the sources of biomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer’s own energetic demand is obtained. In this article the experimental results of analyzing the emissions levels of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation were presented. It has been proved that that the pellet, a byproduct of biodiesel production, is an excellent renewable and environmentally-friendly energy source, especially viable for use in household tap water heating installations.

Keywords

  • biodiesel
  • rapeseed
  • pellet
  • biomass
  • combustion

Słowa kluczowe

  • biodiesel
  • rzepak
  • pellet
  • wytłoki
  • biomasa
  • spalanie
Open Access

The influence of hydrogen on the electrochemical properties of selected types of stainless steel /Wpływ wodoru na właściwości elektrochemiczne wybranych gatunków stali nierdzewnych

Published Online: 22 Jan 2014
Page range: 121 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the influence of electrolytic hydrogenation on the change of electrochemical properties of selected stainless steels and their susceptibility to the formation of galvanic hydrogen. It has been shown that the electrolytic hydrogenation of steel X5CrNi18-10 and X6Cr17 in the state of delivery, not only changes their corrosion resistance, but also contributes to the formation of galvanic hydrogen cells.

Keywords

  • hydrogenation
  • corrosion potential
  • galvanic hydrogen cell
  • stainless steel

Słowa kluczowe

  • wodorowanie
  • potencjał korozyjny
  • galwaniczne ogniwo wodorowe
  • stal nierdzewna

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