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AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 41 (2022): Edition 2 (June 2022)

Volume 41 (2022): Edition 1 (March 2022)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 4 (December 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 3 (September 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 2 (June 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 1 (March 2021)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 4 (December 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 3 (September 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 2 (June 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 1 (March 2020)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 4 (December 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 3 (September 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 2 (June 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 1 (March 2019)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 4 (December 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 3 (September 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 2 (June 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 1 (March 2018)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 4 (December 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 3 (September 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 2 (June 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 1 (March 2017)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 4 (December 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 3 (September 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 2 (June 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 1 (March 2016)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 4 (December 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 3 (September 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 2 (June 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 1 (March 2015)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 4 (December 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 3 (September 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 2 (June 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 1 (March 2014)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 4 (December 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 3 (September 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 2 (June 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 1 (March 2013)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 4 (December 2012)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 3 (October 2012)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 2 (June 2012)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 1 (March 2012)

Volume 30 (2011): Edition 4 (December 2011)

Volume 30 (2011): Edition 3 (September 2011)

Volume 30 (2011): Edition 2 (June 2011)

Volume 30 (2011): Edition 1 (March 2011)

Volume 29 (2010): Edition 4 (December 2010)

Volume 29 (2010): Edition 3 (September 2010)

Volume 29 (2010): Edition 2 (June 2010)

Volume 29 (2010): Edition 1 (March 2010)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 41 (2022): Edition 1 (March 2022)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

10 Articles
access type Accès libre

Glacial Landforms as Geodiversity Resources for Geotourism in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

Publié en ligne: 07 Nov 2021
Pages: 5 - 24

Résumé

Abstract

The southern extreme location and the natural landscapes, highly modelled by glaciers during the Quaternary period, give Tierra del Fuego a unique opportunity to attract visitors worldwide. Its glacial landforms are geodiversity resources that are witness to global climate changes as natural processes. Therefore, this study aims to highlight different glacial landforms considering their geodidactic potential for educational information in terms of geographical study. Sixteen georesources connected by routes are analysed, using bibliographic research, fieldwork and a datasheet designed ad-hoc. Four of them were formed during middle Pleistocene glaciations and the other twelve during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), out of which two also represent the Holocene, which happens to be the youngest glaciation.

Mots clés

  • glaciations
  • landscape
  • georesources
  • geodidactic potential
  • tourist attractions
access type Accès libre

Application of Landscape Metrics and Object-Oriented Remote Sensing to Detect the Spatial Arrangement of Agricultural Land

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 25 - 35

Résumé

Abstract

This study aims to investigate crop selection and spatial patterns of agricultural fields in a drought-affected region in Isfahan Province, central Iran. Based on field surveys portraying growth stages of the main crops including wheat, alfalfa, vegetables and fruit trees, three Landsat 8 operational land imager (OLI) images were acquired on March 15 (L1), June 27 (L2) and October 1 (L3), 2015. After performing radiometric and atmospheric corrections, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps of the images were produced and introduced to the Multi-Resolution Segmentation algorithm to delineate agricultural fields. An NDVI-based decision algorithm was then developed to identify crops devoted to each field. Finally, a set of landscape metrics including Number of Patches (NP), mean patch size (MPS), mean shape index (MSI), perimeter-to-area ratio (PARA) and Euclidian Nearest Neighborhood Distance (ENN) was utilized to evaluate their respective spatial formation. The results showed that nearly 46% of fields are devoted to wheat indicating that the landscape has been dramatically shifted towards wheat monoculture farming. Moreover, the farmers’ inclination to grow crops in large fields (approximate area of 1 ha) with more regular geometric shapes are considered as an effective way of optimising water use efficiency in areas experiencing significant water shortage.

Mots clés

  • crop type
  • segmentation
  • landscape metrics
  • Iran
access type Accès libre

Characterisation and Evaluation of Columnar Basalt Geoheriatge in Thailand: Implication for Geotourism Management in Post-Quarrying Area

Publié en ligne: 27 Feb 2022
Pages: 37 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

Late Cenozoic basaltic rocks in Nang Rong Columnar Jointed Basalts in southern Khorat Plateau are among the greatest columnar basalts in Thailand as famous geoheritage sites. This work aims to characterize and evaluate the post-quarrying area by field investigation, petrography, geochemistry, and geological engineering. A petrographical study determines these basalts as olivine basalts, presenting porphyritic texture with olivine microphenocryst. Geochemical characteristics indicate these basalts were alkaline basalt generated from alkaline sodic magma series within the continental plates. In addition, columnar jointed basalt presents compressive strength and point load strength index higher than platy basalt with a higher percentage of alteration. Local authorities enhance people in the area to develop and promote their georesources through touristic activities. This geoheritage demonstrates high geology and tourism management values; thus, it could be the prototype of the post-quarrying geosite of Thailand.

Mots clés

  • geoheritage
  • geology
  • volcanic rock
  • olivine basalt
  • geochemistry
  • quarry
access type Accès libre

GeoWebCln: An Intensive Cleaning Architecture for Geospatial Metadata

Publié en ligne: 09 Mar 2022
Pages: 51 - 62

Résumé

Abstract

Developments in big data technology, wireless networks, Geographic information system (GIS) technology, and internet growth has increased the volume of data at an exponential rate. Internet users are generating data with every single click. Geospatial metadata is widely used for urban planning, map making, spatial data analysis, and so on. Scientific databases use metadata for computations and query processing. Cleaning of data is required for improving the quality of geospatial metadata for scientific computations and spatial data analysis. In this paper, we have designed a data cleaning tool named as GeoWebCln to remove useless data from geospatial metadata in a user-friendly environment using the Python console of QGIS Software.

Mots clés

  • spatial data
  • spatial metadata
  • data cleaning
  • spatial database
  • GIS
access type Accès libre

Ground Temperature Variability in Poznań (2011–2020)

Publié en ligne: 09 Mar 2022
Pages: 63 - 77

Résumé

Abstract

The manuscript concerns the analysis of the ground temperature in Poznań in the years 2011–2020. Data generally available on the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) website were used. The ground temperature was measured at five depths: 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm, 50 cm and 100 cm. The highest variability of ground temperature occurred in summer and the lowest in winter. The ground temperature was closely correlated mainly with air temperature, but also with insolation and water vapour deficit. There is a statistical increase in the air temperature in Poznań – the trends at the whole soil profile are positive although not statistically significant.

Mots clés

  • ground temperature
  • agroclimatology
  • correlation
  • Poznań
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Methodological Framework for Geodiversity Application in Geographic Education from a Case Study of Canary Islands, Spain

Publié en ligne: 14 Mar 2022
Pages: 79 - 91

Résumé

Abstract

The concept of geodiversity is becoming more widely used every year, beyond its contribution to the development of geotourism. It is estimated that geodiversity is as important as biodiversity in the functioning of Earth's natural ecosystems. Therefore, an important problem is to recognize the possibilities on integrating geodiversity in geographic education, both formal and informal. The main aim of the study is to identify the subject of educating godiversity, included in the core curricula in Spain and Canary Islands and to identify the forms, didactic tools and methods of geodiversity education existed in selected national, natural parks and geoparks of Canary Islands. The study has shown that the application of geodiversity in educational practice is still unsettled.

Mots clés

  • geodiversity
  • geography education
  • geoturism
  • Canary Islands
access type Accès libre

Analysis of the Velocity Changes of the Jakobshavn Glacier Based on SAR Imagery

Publié en ligne: 19 Mar 2022
Pages: 93 - 105

Résumé

Abstract

The study analyzes the changes in dynamics of the Jakobshavn Glacier in summer and winter in 2017 and 2021. Satellite radar observations and the available database were used for this. Moreover, the influence of the time baseline between SAR images on the quality of the results was also investigated. The velocities computed from Sentinel-1 images and the offset-tracking technique were compared with the MEaSUREs database information. The results showed that Jakobshavn Glacier accelerated in 2021 up to 39.0 m d−1. However, this value may be underestimated due to the resolution of Sentinel-1 data. The results therefore confirm the acceleration of the glacier melting process, which may be a result of the observed climate changes on our planet.

Mots clés

  • marine-terminating glacier
  • offset-tracking
  • SAR imagery
  • glacier surface velocity
  • temporal changes in dynamics
access type Accès libre

Hydrological Dry Periods versus Atmospheric Circulations in the Lower Vistula Basin (Poland) in 1954–2018

Publié en ligne: 19 Mar 2022
Pages: 107 - 125

Résumé

Abstract

The paper discusses the impact of atmospheric circulation on the occurrence of droughts. The research includes mean monthly discharges for 7 rivers in 1954–2018. Dry periods were determined with Standardised Streamflow Indices (SSI-12). Additionally, the circulation type calendar for Central Poland was used to determine the atmospheric circulation indices: western zonal (W), southern meridional (S) and cyclonicity (C). The analyses indicated a variation in the duration and intensity of droughts in the rivers. 2014–2017 was the driest period with the lowest SSI-12 for most rivers and the highest number of extremely dry months. The advection of air from the West and the South prevailed and anticyclonic synoptic situations dominated over the cyclonic types. Drought spells occurred at a dominance of anticyclonic circulation, with the inflow of air from the North and with increased western zonal circulation.

Mots clés

  • dry periods
  • atmospheric circulation
  • Box-Cox transformations
  • Standardised Streamflow Index (SSI)
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Interpretative Machine Learning as a Key in Recognizing the Variability of Lakes Trophy Patterns

Publié en ligne: 01 Apr 2022
Pages: 127 - 146

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents an application of interpretative machine learning to identify groups of lakes not with similar features but with similar potential factors influencing the content of total phosphorus – Ptot. The method was developed on a sample of 60 lakes from North-Eastern Poland and used 25 external explanatory variables. Selected variables are stable over a long time, first group includes morphometric parameters of lakes and the second group encompass watershed geometry geology and land use. Our method involves building a regression model, creating an explainer, finding a set of mapping functions describing how each variable influences the outcome, and finally clustering objects by ’the influence’. The influence is a non-linear and non-parametric transformation of the explanatory variables into a form describing a given variable impact on the modeled feature. Such a transformation makes group data on the functional relations between the explanatory variables and the explained variable possible. The study reveals that there are five clusters where the concentration of Ptot is shaped similarly. We compared our method with other numerical analyses and showed that it provides new information on the catchment area and lake trophy relationship.

Mots clés

  • total phosphorus
  • interpretative machine learning
  • random forest
  • Masurian lakes
access type Accès libre

Non-Medical risk assessment of COVID-19 in parts of Central and East Java, Indonesia

Publié en ligne: 05 Apr 2022
Pages: 147 - 169

Résumé

Abstract

The impact of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic varies as each country has a different capacity to stop the virus transmission and apply social distancing. A densely populated country, such as Indonesia, tends to face challenges in implementing social distancing due to population characteristics. The Indonesian government focuses on the medical aspect as this virus is new and has been deadly with a high transmission rate. Meanwhile, the non-medical risk during the pandemic is still unclear. The main objective of this study is to assess the non-medical risk at the village level in two agglomeration cities of Central Java: Greater Surakarta and Surabaya. The methodologies use a risk index, derived from the risk reduction concept. The hazard refers to the death toll, while the vulnerability relates to parameters such as disaster, social and public facilities, health facilities, economics and demography. Further, the parameters were weighted based on expert judgement derived using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The study found that the disaster aspect had the highest weight (0.38), followed by health facilities (0.31), economics (0.17), social-public facilities (0.11) and demography (0.04). The standard deviations of those parameters were relatively low, between 0.12 and 0.25. A low vulnerability index (0.05–0.36) was observed to be dominant in both study areas. There are 11 villages in Greater Surakarta and 30 villages in Greater Surabaya with high vulnerability index. Disaster-prone areas, low economic growth, lack of health facilities and aged demographic structure significantly added to this vulnerability. Further, a high-risk index (0.67–1.00) is observed in three villages in Greater Surabaya and one village in Greater Surakarta. These villages are relatively close to the city centre and have good accessibility. Furthermore, these four villages experienced the severest impact of the pandemic because the furniture and tourism sectors were their primary industries.

Mots clés

  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Central and East Java Indonesia
  • non-medical risk
  • analytical hierarchy process
10 Articles
access type Accès libre

Glacial Landforms as Geodiversity Resources for Geotourism in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

Publié en ligne: 07 Nov 2021
Pages: 5 - 24

Résumé

Abstract

The southern extreme location and the natural landscapes, highly modelled by glaciers during the Quaternary period, give Tierra del Fuego a unique opportunity to attract visitors worldwide. Its glacial landforms are geodiversity resources that are witness to global climate changes as natural processes. Therefore, this study aims to highlight different glacial landforms considering their geodidactic potential for educational information in terms of geographical study. Sixteen georesources connected by routes are analysed, using bibliographic research, fieldwork and a datasheet designed ad-hoc. Four of them were formed during middle Pleistocene glaciations and the other twelve during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), out of which two also represent the Holocene, which happens to be the youngest glaciation.

Mots clés

  • glaciations
  • landscape
  • georesources
  • geodidactic potential
  • tourist attractions
access type Accès libre

Application of Landscape Metrics and Object-Oriented Remote Sensing to Detect the Spatial Arrangement of Agricultural Land

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 25 - 35

Résumé

Abstract

This study aims to investigate crop selection and spatial patterns of agricultural fields in a drought-affected region in Isfahan Province, central Iran. Based on field surveys portraying growth stages of the main crops including wheat, alfalfa, vegetables and fruit trees, three Landsat 8 operational land imager (OLI) images were acquired on March 15 (L1), June 27 (L2) and October 1 (L3), 2015. After performing radiometric and atmospheric corrections, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps of the images were produced and introduced to the Multi-Resolution Segmentation algorithm to delineate agricultural fields. An NDVI-based decision algorithm was then developed to identify crops devoted to each field. Finally, a set of landscape metrics including Number of Patches (NP), mean patch size (MPS), mean shape index (MSI), perimeter-to-area ratio (PARA) and Euclidian Nearest Neighborhood Distance (ENN) was utilized to evaluate their respective spatial formation. The results showed that nearly 46% of fields are devoted to wheat indicating that the landscape has been dramatically shifted towards wheat monoculture farming. Moreover, the farmers’ inclination to grow crops in large fields (approximate area of 1 ha) with more regular geometric shapes are considered as an effective way of optimising water use efficiency in areas experiencing significant water shortage.

Mots clés

  • crop type
  • segmentation
  • landscape metrics
  • Iran
access type Accès libre

Characterisation and Evaluation of Columnar Basalt Geoheriatge in Thailand: Implication for Geotourism Management in Post-Quarrying Area

Publié en ligne: 27 Feb 2022
Pages: 37 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

Late Cenozoic basaltic rocks in Nang Rong Columnar Jointed Basalts in southern Khorat Plateau are among the greatest columnar basalts in Thailand as famous geoheritage sites. This work aims to characterize and evaluate the post-quarrying area by field investigation, petrography, geochemistry, and geological engineering. A petrographical study determines these basalts as olivine basalts, presenting porphyritic texture with olivine microphenocryst. Geochemical characteristics indicate these basalts were alkaline basalt generated from alkaline sodic magma series within the continental plates. In addition, columnar jointed basalt presents compressive strength and point load strength index higher than platy basalt with a higher percentage of alteration. Local authorities enhance people in the area to develop and promote their georesources through touristic activities. This geoheritage demonstrates high geology and tourism management values; thus, it could be the prototype of the post-quarrying geosite of Thailand.

Mots clés

  • geoheritage
  • geology
  • volcanic rock
  • olivine basalt
  • geochemistry
  • quarry
access type Accès libre

GeoWebCln: An Intensive Cleaning Architecture for Geospatial Metadata

Publié en ligne: 09 Mar 2022
Pages: 51 - 62

Résumé

Abstract

Developments in big data technology, wireless networks, Geographic information system (GIS) technology, and internet growth has increased the volume of data at an exponential rate. Internet users are generating data with every single click. Geospatial metadata is widely used for urban planning, map making, spatial data analysis, and so on. Scientific databases use metadata for computations and query processing. Cleaning of data is required for improving the quality of geospatial metadata for scientific computations and spatial data analysis. In this paper, we have designed a data cleaning tool named as GeoWebCln to remove useless data from geospatial metadata in a user-friendly environment using the Python console of QGIS Software.

Mots clés

  • spatial data
  • spatial metadata
  • data cleaning
  • spatial database
  • GIS
access type Accès libre

Ground Temperature Variability in Poznań (2011–2020)

Publié en ligne: 09 Mar 2022
Pages: 63 - 77

Résumé

Abstract

The manuscript concerns the analysis of the ground temperature in Poznań in the years 2011–2020. Data generally available on the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB) website were used. The ground temperature was measured at five depths: 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm, 50 cm and 100 cm. The highest variability of ground temperature occurred in summer and the lowest in winter. The ground temperature was closely correlated mainly with air temperature, but also with insolation and water vapour deficit. There is a statistical increase in the air temperature in Poznań – the trends at the whole soil profile are positive although not statistically significant.

Mots clés

  • ground temperature
  • agroclimatology
  • correlation
  • Poznań
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Methodological Framework for Geodiversity Application in Geographic Education from a Case Study of Canary Islands, Spain

Publié en ligne: 14 Mar 2022
Pages: 79 - 91

Résumé

Abstract

The concept of geodiversity is becoming more widely used every year, beyond its contribution to the development of geotourism. It is estimated that geodiversity is as important as biodiversity in the functioning of Earth's natural ecosystems. Therefore, an important problem is to recognize the possibilities on integrating geodiversity in geographic education, both formal and informal. The main aim of the study is to identify the subject of educating godiversity, included in the core curricula in Spain and Canary Islands and to identify the forms, didactic tools and methods of geodiversity education existed in selected national, natural parks and geoparks of Canary Islands. The study has shown that the application of geodiversity in educational practice is still unsettled.

Mots clés

  • geodiversity
  • geography education
  • geoturism
  • Canary Islands
access type Accès libre

Analysis of the Velocity Changes of the Jakobshavn Glacier Based on SAR Imagery

Publié en ligne: 19 Mar 2022
Pages: 93 - 105

Résumé

Abstract

The study analyzes the changes in dynamics of the Jakobshavn Glacier in summer and winter in 2017 and 2021. Satellite radar observations and the available database were used for this. Moreover, the influence of the time baseline between SAR images on the quality of the results was also investigated. The velocities computed from Sentinel-1 images and the offset-tracking technique were compared with the MEaSUREs database information. The results showed that Jakobshavn Glacier accelerated in 2021 up to 39.0 m d−1. However, this value may be underestimated due to the resolution of Sentinel-1 data. The results therefore confirm the acceleration of the glacier melting process, which may be a result of the observed climate changes on our planet.

Mots clés

  • marine-terminating glacier
  • offset-tracking
  • SAR imagery
  • glacier surface velocity
  • temporal changes in dynamics
access type Accès libre

Hydrological Dry Periods versus Atmospheric Circulations in the Lower Vistula Basin (Poland) in 1954–2018

Publié en ligne: 19 Mar 2022
Pages: 107 - 125

Résumé

Abstract

The paper discusses the impact of atmospheric circulation on the occurrence of droughts. The research includes mean monthly discharges for 7 rivers in 1954–2018. Dry periods were determined with Standardised Streamflow Indices (SSI-12). Additionally, the circulation type calendar for Central Poland was used to determine the atmospheric circulation indices: western zonal (W), southern meridional (S) and cyclonicity (C). The analyses indicated a variation in the duration and intensity of droughts in the rivers. 2014–2017 was the driest period with the lowest SSI-12 for most rivers and the highest number of extremely dry months. The advection of air from the West and the South prevailed and anticyclonic synoptic situations dominated over the cyclonic types. Drought spells occurred at a dominance of anticyclonic circulation, with the inflow of air from the North and with increased western zonal circulation.

Mots clés

  • dry periods
  • atmospheric circulation
  • Box-Cox transformations
  • Standardised Streamflow Index (SSI)
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Interpretative Machine Learning as a Key in Recognizing the Variability of Lakes Trophy Patterns

Publié en ligne: 01 Apr 2022
Pages: 127 - 146

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents an application of interpretative machine learning to identify groups of lakes not with similar features but with similar potential factors influencing the content of total phosphorus – Ptot. The method was developed on a sample of 60 lakes from North-Eastern Poland and used 25 external explanatory variables. Selected variables are stable over a long time, first group includes morphometric parameters of lakes and the second group encompass watershed geometry geology and land use. Our method involves building a regression model, creating an explainer, finding a set of mapping functions describing how each variable influences the outcome, and finally clustering objects by ’the influence’. The influence is a non-linear and non-parametric transformation of the explanatory variables into a form describing a given variable impact on the modeled feature. Such a transformation makes group data on the functional relations between the explanatory variables and the explained variable possible. The study reveals that there are five clusters where the concentration of Ptot is shaped similarly. We compared our method with other numerical analyses and showed that it provides new information on the catchment area and lake trophy relationship.

Mots clés

  • total phosphorus
  • interpretative machine learning
  • random forest
  • Masurian lakes
access type Accès libre

Non-Medical risk assessment of COVID-19 in parts of Central and East Java, Indonesia

Publié en ligne: 05 Apr 2022
Pages: 147 - 169

Résumé

Abstract

The impact of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic varies as each country has a different capacity to stop the virus transmission and apply social distancing. A densely populated country, such as Indonesia, tends to face challenges in implementing social distancing due to population characteristics. The Indonesian government focuses on the medical aspect as this virus is new and has been deadly with a high transmission rate. Meanwhile, the non-medical risk during the pandemic is still unclear. The main objective of this study is to assess the non-medical risk at the village level in two agglomeration cities of Central Java: Greater Surakarta and Surabaya. The methodologies use a risk index, derived from the risk reduction concept. The hazard refers to the death toll, while the vulnerability relates to parameters such as disaster, social and public facilities, health facilities, economics and demography. Further, the parameters were weighted based on expert judgement derived using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The study found that the disaster aspect had the highest weight (0.38), followed by health facilities (0.31), economics (0.17), social-public facilities (0.11) and demography (0.04). The standard deviations of those parameters were relatively low, between 0.12 and 0.25. A low vulnerability index (0.05–0.36) was observed to be dominant in both study areas. There are 11 villages in Greater Surakarta and 30 villages in Greater Surabaya with high vulnerability index. Disaster-prone areas, low economic growth, lack of health facilities and aged demographic structure significantly added to this vulnerability. Further, a high-risk index (0.67–1.00) is observed in three villages in Greater Surabaya and one village in Greater Surakarta. These villages are relatively close to the city centre and have good accessibility. Furthermore, these four villages experienced the severest impact of the pandemic because the furniture and tourism sectors were their primary industries.

Mots clés

  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Central and East Java Indonesia
  • non-medical risk
  • analytical hierarchy process

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