Magazine et Edition

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 41 (2022): Edition 2 (June 2022)

Volume 41 (2022): Edition 1 (March 2022)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 4 (December 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 3 (September 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 2 (June 2021)

Volume 40 (2021): Edition 1 (March 2021)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 4 (December 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 3 (September 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 2 (June 2020)

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 1 (March 2020)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 4 (December 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 3 (September 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 2 (June 2019)

Volume 38 (2019): Edition 1 (March 2019)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 4 (December 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 3 (September 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 2 (June 2018)

Volume 37 (2018): Edition 1 (March 2018)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 4 (December 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 3 (September 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 2 (June 2017)

Volume 36 (2017): Edition 1 (March 2017)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 4 (December 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 3 (September 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 2 (June 2016)

Volume 35 (2016): Edition 1 (March 2016)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 4 (December 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 3 (September 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 2 (June 2015)

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 1 (March 2015)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 4 (December 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 3 (September 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 2 (June 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 1 (March 2014)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 4 (December 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 3 (September 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 2 (June 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 1 (March 2013)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 4 (December 2012)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 3 (October 2012)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 2 (June 2012)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 1 (March 2012)

Volume 30 (2011): Edition 4 (December 2011)

Volume 30 (2011): Edition 3 (September 2011)

Volume 30 (2011): Edition 2 (June 2011)

Volume 30 (2011): Edition 1 (March 2011)

Volume 29 (2010): Edition 4 (December 2010)

Volume 29 (2010): Edition 3 (September 2010)

Volume 29 (2010): Edition 2 (June 2010)

Volume 29 (2010): Edition 1 (March 2010)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 3 (September 2014)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

19 Articles
access type Accès libre

Editorial

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 5 - 6

Résumé

access type Accès libre

Prediction of the Vistula Channel Development Between Wloclawek and Torun: Evaluation with Regard to the New Geological Survey

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 7 - 15

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present the geological structure of the Vistula river valley floor as the modifying factor of fluvial processes and present the development conditions of the contemporary Vistula river channel, which underwent marked transformation due to bed erosion and lateral erosion below the Włocławek reservoir. The analysis of the geological data and the geological survey conducted at the study reach of the Vistula between Włocławek and Toruń resulted in an image of the geological structure of the channel bed along the longitudinal profile

Keywords

  • geological survey
  • geological structure
  • fluvial processes
  • Vistula River
access type Accès libre

Seasonal and Regional Differences in Lighting Conditions and their Influence on Melatonin Secretion

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 17 - 25

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents essential results of multidisciplinary research dealing with differences in lighting conditions (natural and/or artificial) and their possible influence on melatonin secretion studied in Fukuoka (Japan) and in Warszawa (Poland). Several characteristics of lighting were considered (intensity of global 0.4-3.0 μm, visible 0.4 0.76 μm solar radiation, illuminance (lux), peak irradiance (μW∙cm−2∙nm−1), Color Corresponded Temperature (CCT, K) and peak wave length (nm)). Diurnal cycle of melatonin secretion was examined at volunteers (Poland - 15, Japan - 18), young male and female (21-33 years). Saliva samples were collected at 3h intervals, beginning at 10:00h on Thursday with subsequent sampling times at 13:00, 16:00, 19:00, 22:00 and at 01:00, 04:00 07:00h on Friday. Melatonin concentration (MC) was measured by commercials ELISA kit tests.

Mots clés

  • visible radiation
  • lighting conditions
  • radiation climate of Poland and Japan,melatonin secretion
  • chronobiology
access type Accès libre

Estimation of Shallow Groundwater Recharge Using a Gis-Based Distributed Water Balance Model

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 27 - 37

Résumé

Abstract

In the paper we present the results of shallow groundwater recharge estimation using the WetSpass GISbased distributed water balance model. By taking into account WetSpass, which stands for Water an Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere under quasi-Steady State, for average conditions during the period 1961-2000, we assessed the spatial conditions of the groundwater infiltration recharge process of shallow circulation systems in the Poznan Plateau area (the Great Poland Lowland in western Poland), which is classified as a region with observed water deficits. For three temporal variants, i.e. year, winter and summer half-years, we determined using the geological infiltration method by about 5-10% on average, marginally by 20%.

Mots clés

  • groundwater
  • recharge
  • distributed water balance
  • WetSpass model
  • Poznan Plateau
access type Accès libre

Health Care Accessibility Modeling: Effects of Change in Spatial Representation of Demand for Primary Health Care Services

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 39 - 53

Résumé

Abstract

Health care accessibility can be measured by the number of prospective patients who could reach a medical facility within a prescribed time limit. The representation of health care demand in estimating accessibility is an important consideration since different spatial aggregations of demand have different consequences with regard to accessibility estimates. This article examines the effects of aggregating population demand for primary health care, ranging from census tract to aggregated census block, on estimates of primary health care accessibility. Spatial representations of aggregated demand were incorporated into a location-allocation model in order to determine a measure of accessibility represented by the unmet demand for primary health care services. The model was implemented for the U.S. State of Idaho, based on the allocation of Idaho residents’ demand for primary health care to the state’s existing primary health care facilities. The results confirm a relationship between the level of demand aggregation and the level of potential accessibility. In case of a rural state such as Idaho the relationship is positive; higher levels of aggregation result in higher measures of accessibility.

Mots clés

  • health care accessibility
  • GIS
  • location-allocation
  • scale
  • spatial aggregation
access type Accès libre

Uncertainty in Historical Land-Use Reconstructions with Topographic Maps

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 55 - 63

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents the outcomes of the uncertainty investigation of a long-term forest cover change analysis in the Polish Carpathians (nearly 20,000 km2) and Swiss Alps (nearly 10,000 km2) based on topographic maps. Following Leyk et al. (2005) all possible uncertainties are grouped into three domains - production-oriented, transformation- oriented and application-oriented. We show typical examples for each uncertainty domain, encountered during the forest cover change analysis and discuss consequences for change detection. Finally, a proposal for reliability assessment is presented.

Mots clés

  • forest cover change
  • uncertainty
  • topographic maps
  • the Carpathians
  • the Alps
access type Accès libre

Should Renaturalised and Recultivated Landscapes Appear in Landscape Typology?

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 65 - 75

Résumé

Abstract

Landscapes constantly change under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. They can be destructive as well as leading to regeneration of landscapes which have been imbalanced. When this process occurs in a natural or human-controlled manner with the use of natural elements of the environment, it is called renaturalisation, and the resulting landscape - renaturalised landscape. Where landscape restitution occurs under the purposeful, sustainable and rational human influence, we talk of the recultivation process and the resulting landscape is termed recultivated. Examples of both of these terms added to landscape classification have been described based on several quarries existing within the City of Krakow.

Mots clés

  • landscape classifications,landscape renaturalisation,landscape recultivation
access type Accès libre

The New Features of Landslide Relief Discovered Using Lidar – Case Study from Babia Góra Massif, Western Carpathian Mountains

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 77 - 88

Résumé

Abstract

Basing on LiDAR data, the re-interpretation of the limit and distribution of the selected landslide forms in 9 test areas were carried out. The forms are located at the slopes of the monoclinal ridge of Babia Góra Mt. (1,725 m a.s.l.) in the flysch Western Carpathians. The earlier knowledge on these landforms is shown in the unpublished map at the scale of 1:5,000 which was prepared basing on geomorphological mapping. Basing on the newest information source, subtle geomorphic signatures of landslides were found, the dynamics of these forms and directions of their further development were determined. Local differentiation of deep-seated landslides was indicated according to the relation between the sandstone layer dip and slope inclination, slope length, and altitude of the location of headwaters. An attention was paid to polycyclic relief of the highest located landslide forms, which contain the elements of glacial and nival morphology, and some are modelled by debris flows.

Mots clés

  • LiDAR data
  • geomorphological mapping
  • landslides
  • Babia Góra massif
  • Western Carpathian Mountains
access type Accès libre

Regional Differentiation in Probability of Ice Days Occurrence in Poland

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 89 - 99

Résumé

Abstract

This paper aims at recognizing spatial differentiation in probability of ice days occurrence with reference to atmospheric circulation, using regional classification of circulation types for Poland. Daily maximum air temperatures measured at nine meteorological stations were used to recognize the ice days occurrence in the period from January 1951 to March 2014. The relations between the ice days occurrence and atmospheric circulation were analysed using catalogues of circulation types compiled for nine grid boxes within Poland. Linkage between the frequency of ice days and atmospheric circulation was recognized in the period of January 2001 - March 2014. A decreasing tendency in the frequency of the occurrence of winter ice days was found. The occurrence of ice days in Poland is clearly related to atmospheric circulation. In the entire area of Poland their occurrence is favoured by eastern and south-eastern advection of air during anticyclonic conditions (types Ea nad SEa). Regional variability is also noticeable.

Mots clés

  • ice days
  • atmospheric circulation
  • circulation types
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Gis Approach to Estimation of the Total Phosphorous Transfer in the Pilica River Lowland Catchment

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 101 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper, the Pilica River catchment (central Poland) is analyzed with a focus on understanding the total phosphorous transfer along the river system which also contains the large artificial Sulejów Reservoir. The paper presents a GIS method for estimating the total phosphorous (TP) load from proxy data representing sub-catchment land use and census data. The modelled load of TP is compared to the actual transfer of TP in the Pilica River system. The results shows that the metrics of connectivity between river system and dwelling areas as well as settlement density in the sub-catchments are useful predictors of the total phosphorous load. The presence of a large reservoir in the middle course of the river can disrupt nutrient transport along a river continuum by trapping and retaining suspended sediment and its associated TP load. Analysis of the indirect estimation of TP loads with the GIS analysis can be useful for identifying beneficial reservoir locations in a catchment. The study has shown that the Sulejów Reservoir has been located in a subcatchment with a largest load of the TP, and this feature helps determine the problem of reservoir eutrphication

Keywords

  • total phosphorus load
  • Pilica River catchment
  • GIS
  • central Poland
access type Accès libre

Białowieża Forest (Ne-Poland) and Valday Np ( Nw-Russia) – Biogeographical Characteristics of Eutrophic Deciduous Forests

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 111 - 122

Résumé

Abstract

During geobotanical studies in the north-eastern border of hemi-boreal zone, in Valday (NW Russia), rare eutrophic deciduous forests dominated by oak Quercus robur were observed. A comparison of these forests with the model of European deciduous forest in Białowieża National Park (NE-Poland) indicates a great similarity. Therefore, eutrophic deciduous forests in Valday can be classified to the Querco-Fagetea class, the Fagetalia sylvaticae order and to the Capinion betuli alliance, despite the absence of hornbeam Carpinus betulus in the region. Rarity of eutrophic deciduous forests in Valday region results probably from strong anthropogenic pressure in the past.

Mots clés

  • hemiboreal and nemoral eutrophic deciduous forests
  • biogeographical characteristic
access type Accès libre

Sandstone Geomorphology of South-West Jordan, Middle East

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 123 - 130

Résumé

Abstract

In the desert environment of south-west Jordan thick sequences of continental sandstones of Cambrian-Ordovician age support spectacular scenery, comparable with that of the Colorado Plateau of south-west USA or the central Sahara and similar in many aspects to the Danxia landform of southern China. Dissection of a sandstone tableland has given rise to numerous inselbergs and large mesas, rising from the sand-covered desert floor. The height of the hills varies from a few tens to 500-700 m in the Wadi Rum area, whereas their slope shapes are controlled by lithological properties of particular sandstone units. Rock walls of the sandstone inselbergs are subject to frequent rock falls and rock slides and host an impressive array of tafoni and honeycombs due to selective weathering, as well as a number of rock arches. Lithological differences within the sandstone sequence are crucial controls on the shape and evolution of rock slopes, exerting the influence via contrasting patterns of weathering and slope failures. The presence of ferruginous layers in the Umm ‘Ishrin Sandstone is of major importance and explains the fundamental morphological differences between the otherwise similar Umm ‘Ishrin and Disi sandstone units

Mots clés

  • sandstone
  • hillslope evolution
  • desert environments
  • Jordan
access type Accès libre

Temporal Variation in Vegetation Indexes for Pine and Beech Stands During the Vegetation Season, Szczecin Lowland, Poland

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 131 - 143

Résumé

Abstract

Located in north-western Poland, the Bukowska Forest and Goleniowska Forest are vast woodlands consisting of areas with a homogeneous species composition that have been scarcely affected by humans. In this respect, they provided an excellent subject for scientific research, the purpose of which was to determine quantitative differences in selected vegetation indices of pine and beech stands in various periods during their vegetation seasons. Another purpose was to characterize the variation in these indices for each stand in its vegetation season. Four Landsat 5 TM images taken in 2007 and 2010 at four different points of vegetation season provided the basis for the analysis. In the analysis, 19 wooded areas with a homogeneous species composition were tested. In Bukowska Forest, the tested area was a beech stand, and in Goleniowska Forest, it was a pine stand. Acquired data was used to calculate the following vegetation indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (Green NDVI), Normalized Difference Greenness Index (NDGI) and Normalized Difference Index (NDI). Subsequent research allowed to establish that the beech and pine stands differed significantly with respect to their calculated vegetation indices. These differences derived both from the biochemical and structural attributes of leaves and needles, as well as from transformations that occur in the stands during vegetation seasons. Analysis of the indices’ allowed us to determine these differences and the influence of the stands’ phenological phases on the indices.

Mots clés

  • spectral reflectance
  • pine forest
  • beech forest
  • vegetation indices
  • Landsat
access type Accès libre

The Degree of Landscape Openness as a Manifestation of Cultural Metamorphose

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 145 - 154

Résumé

Abstract

The issues of aesthetic assessment of landscapes has now become important due to the need of rational and balanced cultural landscape management and the implementation of the provisions of the European Landscape Convention. The aim of this article is to show the methodology of the assessment and interpretation of the degree of the current openness of the cultural landscape of Poland as an effect of a historical process. The chronological analysis made it possible to single out stages of opening/enclosing of the landscapes of Poland with reference to crucial natural, historical and cultural factors. The degree of landscape openness may be treated as a synthetic indicator of the natural and cultural environment evolution. When a landscape type is viewed as a result of natural and anthropogenic processes, the analysis of proportions between the surface of natural and cultural elements becomes of prime importance. In the historical times, the process of landscape enclosing was not unidirectional. Four stages of transformation of cultural landscapes in Poland have been distinguished. These stages are characterized by differences of the landscape openness. It can be interpreted as the result of cultural metamorphosis.

Mots clés

  • landscape
  • opening/enclosing landscape process
  • cultural transformation
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Łódź Region and its Northern Vicinity under Vistulian Glaciation Conditions

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 155 - 163

Résumé

Abstract

An overview of palaeogeographical findings of the last glacial period (MIS 5d-MIS 2) has been given for the Łódź region. Processes which influenced the area outside of ice-sheet margin are presented with respect to space and time, as predominantly driven by different types of periglacial environment. Attention was paid to leading accumulative and erosional processes and resulting landforms, still well-pronounced in the landscape. Recently, the picture of the area discussed, during the Vistulian was completed and identified was the mechanism of the LGM ice-sheet advance onto the Płock lobe. Borderline location of the Łódź region offers comprehensive research on the time and processes and determines its significance on the geomorphological map of Poland.

Mots clés

  • periglacial zone
  • glaciated area
  • morphogenesis
  • Vistulian (Weichselian)
  • Płock lobe
  • Łódź region
access type Accès libre

Late Spring Freezes in Poland in Relation to Atmospheric Circulation

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 165 - 172

Résumé

Abstract

Late spring freeze events, a significant agroclimatic hazard, are investigated for Poland. Daily minimum air temperatures from 184 stations for the period 1951-2010 were used to analyze the frequency and conditional probability of late spring freezes. In addition, three classification schemes were employed to investigate the atmospheric circulation responsible for late spring freezes events. The findings suggest that knowledge of the airflow influencing late spring freezes can help to understand the complex historical trends and projected future changes in freeze risk for perennial crops

Mots clés

  • freeze
  • late spring
  • agroclimate
  • atmospheric circulation
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Geomorphosite Assessment in the Proposed Geopark Vistula River Gap (E Poland)

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 173 - 180

Résumé

Abstract

Geomorphosites are among major assets for the development of geotourism. An accurate assessment of spatial distribution of their scientific, educational and economic characteristics provides the basis for appropriate design and management of proposed geoparks. Although the problem of assessing their value for geotourism has been discussed by numerous authors, consistent methodology for the assessment of geomorphosites has not been devised so far. In the present study, we conducted a geotourist evaluation of geomorphosites located within the proposed geopark Vistula River Gap. We assessed a total of 76 sites using 18 assessment criteria. The results indicate not uniform spatial distribution of sites having the highest value. The application of cluster analysis to evaluation results enabled us to distinguish groups of sites with similar characteristics and thus to identify groups of geomorphosites in relation to which various measures should be taken in order to increase the possibilities of their tourist use.

Mots clés

  • geomorphosites
  • geopark
  • geotourism
  • Vistula River Gap
access type Accès libre

Long-Term, Seasonal and Short-Term Fluctuations in the Water Level of the Southern Baltic Sea

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 181 - 197

Résumé

Abstract

Aim of this work are analyses of oscillations sea levels in the Southern Baltic on a scale of short-term changes, seasonal and long-term (age). The study was based on observational data in different periods time for tide gauges station of the Polish coast. On the example of some storm situations presents the part of the baric wave and the wind in the formation of extreme sea levels. The primary cause of the annual variability of sea levels was the characteristics of the annual and semi-annual oscillations (the annual and semi-annual solar tide). In the work also determined the rate of long-term sea-level rise for the Polish coast.

Mots clés

  • sea level
  • storm surge
  • tide
  • Southern Baltic Sea
access type Accès libre

The Sources of Moisture in the Sand Dunes – The Example of the Western Sahara Dune Field

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 199 - 204

Résumé

Abstract

Climatic and meteorological conditions may limit the aeolian transport within barchans. An explanation of that issue was the main goal of the investigation held in Western Sahara dune fields located around Tarfaya and Laâyoune. Particular attention was paid to the factors causing the moisture content rising of the sand dune surface layer, which could influence the wind threshold shear velocity in the aeolian transport. The wetted surface layer of sand, when receiving moisture from precipitation or suspensions, reduces the aeolian transport, even in case of wind velocity above 4-5 m s-1. Fog and dew condensation does not affect the moisture of deeper sand layers, what occurs after rainfall.

Mots clés

  • moisture
  • dune
  • Western Sahara
19 Articles
access type Accès libre

Editorial

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 5 - 6

Résumé

access type Accès libre

Prediction of the Vistula Channel Development Between Wloclawek and Torun: Evaluation with Regard to the New Geological Survey

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 7 - 15

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present the geological structure of the Vistula river valley floor as the modifying factor of fluvial processes and present the development conditions of the contemporary Vistula river channel, which underwent marked transformation due to bed erosion and lateral erosion below the Włocławek reservoir. The analysis of the geological data and the geological survey conducted at the study reach of the Vistula between Włocławek and Toruń resulted in an image of the geological structure of the channel bed along the longitudinal profile

Keywords

  • geological survey
  • geological structure
  • fluvial processes
  • Vistula River
access type Accès libre

Seasonal and Regional Differences in Lighting Conditions and their Influence on Melatonin Secretion

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 17 - 25

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents essential results of multidisciplinary research dealing with differences in lighting conditions (natural and/or artificial) and their possible influence on melatonin secretion studied in Fukuoka (Japan) and in Warszawa (Poland). Several characteristics of lighting were considered (intensity of global 0.4-3.0 μm, visible 0.4 0.76 μm solar radiation, illuminance (lux), peak irradiance (μW∙cm−2∙nm−1), Color Corresponded Temperature (CCT, K) and peak wave length (nm)). Diurnal cycle of melatonin secretion was examined at volunteers (Poland - 15, Japan - 18), young male and female (21-33 years). Saliva samples were collected at 3h intervals, beginning at 10:00h on Thursday with subsequent sampling times at 13:00, 16:00, 19:00, 22:00 and at 01:00, 04:00 07:00h on Friday. Melatonin concentration (MC) was measured by commercials ELISA kit tests.

Mots clés

  • visible radiation
  • lighting conditions
  • radiation climate of Poland and Japan,melatonin secretion
  • chronobiology
access type Accès libre

Estimation of Shallow Groundwater Recharge Using a Gis-Based Distributed Water Balance Model

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 27 - 37

Résumé

Abstract

In the paper we present the results of shallow groundwater recharge estimation using the WetSpass GISbased distributed water balance model. By taking into account WetSpass, which stands for Water an Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere under quasi-Steady State, for average conditions during the period 1961-2000, we assessed the spatial conditions of the groundwater infiltration recharge process of shallow circulation systems in the Poznan Plateau area (the Great Poland Lowland in western Poland), which is classified as a region with observed water deficits. For three temporal variants, i.e. year, winter and summer half-years, we determined using the geological infiltration method by about 5-10% on average, marginally by 20%.

Mots clés

  • groundwater
  • recharge
  • distributed water balance
  • WetSpass model
  • Poznan Plateau
access type Accès libre

Health Care Accessibility Modeling: Effects of Change in Spatial Representation of Demand for Primary Health Care Services

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 39 - 53

Résumé

Abstract

Health care accessibility can be measured by the number of prospective patients who could reach a medical facility within a prescribed time limit. The representation of health care demand in estimating accessibility is an important consideration since different spatial aggregations of demand have different consequences with regard to accessibility estimates. This article examines the effects of aggregating population demand for primary health care, ranging from census tract to aggregated census block, on estimates of primary health care accessibility. Spatial representations of aggregated demand were incorporated into a location-allocation model in order to determine a measure of accessibility represented by the unmet demand for primary health care services. The model was implemented for the U.S. State of Idaho, based on the allocation of Idaho residents’ demand for primary health care to the state’s existing primary health care facilities. The results confirm a relationship between the level of demand aggregation and the level of potential accessibility. In case of a rural state such as Idaho the relationship is positive; higher levels of aggregation result in higher measures of accessibility.

Mots clés

  • health care accessibility
  • GIS
  • location-allocation
  • scale
  • spatial aggregation
access type Accès libre

Uncertainty in Historical Land-Use Reconstructions with Topographic Maps

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 55 - 63

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents the outcomes of the uncertainty investigation of a long-term forest cover change analysis in the Polish Carpathians (nearly 20,000 km2) and Swiss Alps (nearly 10,000 km2) based on topographic maps. Following Leyk et al. (2005) all possible uncertainties are grouped into three domains - production-oriented, transformation- oriented and application-oriented. We show typical examples for each uncertainty domain, encountered during the forest cover change analysis and discuss consequences for change detection. Finally, a proposal for reliability assessment is presented.

Mots clés

  • forest cover change
  • uncertainty
  • topographic maps
  • the Carpathians
  • the Alps
access type Accès libre

Should Renaturalised and Recultivated Landscapes Appear in Landscape Typology?

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 65 - 75

Résumé

Abstract

Landscapes constantly change under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. They can be destructive as well as leading to regeneration of landscapes which have been imbalanced. When this process occurs in a natural or human-controlled manner with the use of natural elements of the environment, it is called renaturalisation, and the resulting landscape - renaturalised landscape. Where landscape restitution occurs under the purposeful, sustainable and rational human influence, we talk of the recultivation process and the resulting landscape is termed recultivated. Examples of both of these terms added to landscape classification have been described based on several quarries existing within the City of Krakow.

Mots clés

  • landscape classifications,landscape renaturalisation,landscape recultivation
access type Accès libre

The New Features of Landslide Relief Discovered Using Lidar – Case Study from Babia Góra Massif, Western Carpathian Mountains

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 77 - 88

Résumé

Abstract

Basing on LiDAR data, the re-interpretation of the limit and distribution of the selected landslide forms in 9 test areas were carried out. The forms are located at the slopes of the monoclinal ridge of Babia Góra Mt. (1,725 m a.s.l.) in the flysch Western Carpathians. The earlier knowledge on these landforms is shown in the unpublished map at the scale of 1:5,000 which was prepared basing on geomorphological mapping. Basing on the newest information source, subtle geomorphic signatures of landslides were found, the dynamics of these forms and directions of their further development were determined. Local differentiation of deep-seated landslides was indicated according to the relation between the sandstone layer dip and slope inclination, slope length, and altitude of the location of headwaters. An attention was paid to polycyclic relief of the highest located landslide forms, which contain the elements of glacial and nival morphology, and some are modelled by debris flows.

Mots clés

  • LiDAR data
  • geomorphological mapping
  • landslides
  • Babia Góra massif
  • Western Carpathian Mountains
access type Accès libre

Regional Differentiation in Probability of Ice Days Occurrence in Poland

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 89 - 99

Résumé

Abstract

This paper aims at recognizing spatial differentiation in probability of ice days occurrence with reference to atmospheric circulation, using regional classification of circulation types for Poland. Daily maximum air temperatures measured at nine meteorological stations were used to recognize the ice days occurrence in the period from January 1951 to March 2014. The relations between the ice days occurrence and atmospheric circulation were analysed using catalogues of circulation types compiled for nine grid boxes within Poland. Linkage between the frequency of ice days and atmospheric circulation was recognized in the period of January 2001 - March 2014. A decreasing tendency in the frequency of the occurrence of winter ice days was found. The occurrence of ice days in Poland is clearly related to atmospheric circulation. In the entire area of Poland their occurrence is favoured by eastern and south-eastern advection of air during anticyclonic conditions (types Ea nad SEa). Regional variability is also noticeable.

Mots clés

  • ice days
  • atmospheric circulation
  • circulation types
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Gis Approach to Estimation of the Total Phosphorous Transfer in the Pilica River Lowland Catchment

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 101 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper, the Pilica River catchment (central Poland) is analyzed with a focus on understanding the total phosphorous transfer along the river system which also contains the large artificial Sulejów Reservoir. The paper presents a GIS method for estimating the total phosphorous (TP) load from proxy data representing sub-catchment land use and census data. The modelled load of TP is compared to the actual transfer of TP in the Pilica River system. The results shows that the metrics of connectivity between river system and dwelling areas as well as settlement density in the sub-catchments are useful predictors of the total phosphorous load. The presence of a large reservoir in the middle course of the river can disrupt nutrient transport along a river continuum by trapping and retaining suspended sediment and its associated TP load. Analysis of the indirect estimation of TP loads with the GIS analysis can be useful for identifying beneficial reservoir locations in a catchment. The study has shown that the Sulejów Reservoir has been located in a subcatchment with a largest load of the TP, and this feature helps determine the problem of reservoir eutrphication

Keywords

  • total phosphorus load
  • Pilica River catchment
  • GIS
  • central Poland
access type Accès libre

Białowieża Forest (Ne-Poland) and Valday Np ( Nw-Russia) – Biogeographical Characteristics of Eutrophic Deciduous Forests

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 111 - 122

Résumé

Abstract

During geobotanical studies in the north-eastern border of hemi-boreal zone, in Valday (NW Russia), rare eutrophic deciduous forests dominated by oak Quercus robur were observed. A comparison of these forests with the model of European deciduous forest in Białowieża National Park (NE-Poland) indicates a great similarity. Therefore, eutrophic deciduous forests in Valday can be classified to the Querco-Fagetea class, the Fagetalia sylvaticae order and to the Capinion betuli alliance, despite the absence of hornbeam Carpinus betulus in the region. Rarity of eutrophic deciduous forests in Valday region results probably from strong anthropogenic pressure in the past.

Mots clés

  • hemiboreal and nemoral eutrophic deciduous forests
  • biogeographical characteristic
access type Accès libre

Sandstone Geomorphology of South-West Jordan, Middle East

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 123 - 130

Résumé

Abstract

In the desert environment of south-west Jordan thick sequences of continental sandstones of Cambrian-Ordovician age support spectacular scenery, comparable with that of the Colorado Plateau of south-west USA or the central Sahara and similar in many aspects to the Danxia landform of southern China. Dissection of a sandstone tableland has given rise to numerous inselbergs and large mesas, rising from the sand-covered desert floor. The height of the hills varies from a few tens to 500-700 m in the Wadi Rum area, whereas their slope shapes are controlled by lithological properties of particular sandstone units. Rock walls of the sandstone inselbergs are subject to frequent rock falls and rock slides and host an impressive array of tafoni and honeycombs due to selective weathering, as well as a number of rock arches. Lithological differences within the sandstone sequence are crucial controls on the shape and evolution of rock slopes, exerting the influence via contrasting patterns of weathering and slope failures. The presence of ferruginous layers in the Umm ‘Ishrin Sandstone is of major importance and explains the fundamental morphological differences between the otherwise similar Umm ‘Ishrin and Disi sandstone units

Mots clés

  • sandstone
  • hillslope evolution
  • desert environments
  • Jordan
access type Accès libre

Temporal Variation in Vegetation Indexes for Pine and Beech Stands During the Vegetation Season, Szczecin Lowland, Poland

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 131 - 143

Résumé

Abstract

Located in north-western Poland, the Bukowska Forest and Goleniowska Forest are vast woodlands consisting of areas with a homogeneous species composition that have been scarcely affected by humans. In this respect, they provided an excellent subject for scientific research, the purpose of which was to determine quantitative differences in selected vegetation indices of pine and beech stands in various periods during their vegetation seasons. Another purpose was to characterize the variation in these indices for each stand in its vegetation season. Four Landsat 5 TM images taken in 2007 and 2010 at four different points of vegetation season provided the basis for the analysis. In the analysis, 19 wooded areas with a homogeneous species composition were tested. In Bukowska Forest, the tested area was a beech stand, and in Goleniowska Forest, it was a pine stand. Acquired data was used to calculate the following vegetation indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (Green NDVI), Normalized Difference Greenness Index (NDGI) and Normalized Difference Index (NDI). Subsequent research allowed to establish that the beech and pine stands differed significantly with respect to their calculated vegetation indices. These differences derived both from the biochemical and structural attributes of leaves and needles, as well as from transformations that occur in the stands during vegetation seasons. Analysis of the indices’ allowed us to determine these differences and the influence of the stands’ phenological phases on the indices.

Mots clés

  • spectral reflectance
  • pine forest
  • beech forest
  • vegetation indices
  • Landsat
access type Accès libre

The Degree of Landscape Openness as a Manifestation of Cultural Metamorphose

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 145 - 154

Résumé

Abstract

The issues of aesthetic assessment of landscapes has now become important due to the need of rational and balanced cultural landscape management and the implementation of the provisions of the European Landscape Convention. The aim of this article is to show the methodology of the assessment and interpretation of the degree of the current openness of the cultural landscape of Poland as an effect of a historical process. The chronological analysis made it possible to single out stages of opening/enclosing of the landscapes of Poland with reference to crucial natural, historical and cultural factors. The degree of landscape openness may be treated as a synthetic indicator of the natural and cultural environment evolution. When a landscape type is viewed as a result of natural and anthropogenic processes, the analysis of proportions between the surface of natural and cultural elements becomes of prime importance. In the historical times, the process of landscape enclosing was not unidirectional. Four stages of transformation of cultural landscapes in Poland have been distinguished. These stages are characterized by differences of the landscape openness. It can be interpreted as the result of cultural metamorphosis.

Mots clés

  • landscape
  • opening/enclosing landscape process
  • cultural transformation
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Łódź Region and its Northern Vicinity under Vistulian Glaciation Conditions

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 155 - 163

Résumé

Abstract

An overview of palaeogeographical findings of the last glacial period (MIS 5d-MIS 2) has been given for the Łódź region. Processes which influenced the area outside of ice-sheet margin are presented with respect to space and time, as predominantly driven by different types of periglacial environment. Attention was paid to leading accumulative and erosional processes and resulting landforms, still well-pronounced in the landscape. Recently, the picture of the area discussed, during the Vistulian was completed and identified was the mechanism of the LGM ice-sheet advance onto the Płock lobe. Borderline location of the Łódź region offers comprehensive research on the time and processes and determines its significance on the geomorphological map of Poland.

Mots clés

  • periglacial zone
  • glaciated area
  • morphogenesis
  • Vistulian (Weichselian)
  • Płock lobe
  • Łódź region
access type Accès libre

Late Spring Freezes in Poland in Relation to Atmospheric Circulation

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 165 - 172

Résumé

Abstract

Late spring freeze events, a significant agroclimatic hazard, are investigated for Poland. Daily minimum air temperatures from 184 stations for the period 1951-2010 were used to analyze the frequency and conditional probability of late spring freezes. In addition, three classification schemes were employed to investigate the atmospheric circulation responsible for late spring freezes events. The findings suggest that knowledge of the airflow influencing late spring freezes can help to understand the complex historical trends and projected future changes in freeze risk for perennial crops

Mots clés

  • freeze
  • late spring
  • agroclimate
  • atmospheric circulation
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Geomorphosite Assessment in the Proposed Geopark Vistula River Gap (E Poland)

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 173 - 180

Résumé

Abstract

Geomorphosites are among major assets for the development of geotourism. An accurate assessment of spatial distribution of their scientific, educational and economic characteristics provides the basis for appropriate design and management of proposed geoparks. Although the problem of assessing their value for geotourism has been discussed by numerous authors, consistent methodology for the assessment of geomorphosites has not been devised so far. In the present study, we conducted a geotourist evaluation of geomorphosites located within the proposed geopark Vistula River Gap. We assessed a total of 76 sites using 18 assessment criteria. The results indicate not uniform spatial distribution of sites having the highest value. The application of cluster analysis to evaluation results enabled us to distinguish groups of sites with similar characteristics and thus to identify groups of geomorphosites in relation to which various measures should be taken in order to increase the possibilities of their tourist use.

Mots clés

  • geomorphosites
  • geopark
  • geotourism
  • Vistula River Gap
access type Accès libre

Long-Term, Seasonal and Short-Term Fluctuations in the Water Level of the Southern Baltic Sea

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 181 - 197

Résumé

Abstract

Aim of this work are analyses of oscillations sea levels in the Southern Baltic on a scale of short-term changes, seasonal and long-term (age). The study was based on observational data in different periods time for tide gauges station of the Polish coast. On the example of some storm situations presents the part of the baric wave and the wind in the formation of extreme sea levels. The primary cause of the annual variability of sea levels was the characteristics of the annual and semi-annual oscillations (the annual and semi-annual solar tide). In the work also determined the rate of long-term sea-level rise for the Polish coast.

Mots clés

  • sea level
  • storm surge
  • tide
  • Southern Baltic Sea
access type Accès libre

The Sources of Moisture in the Sand Dunes – The Example of the Western Sahara Dune Field

Publié en ligne: 19 Sep 2014
Pages: 199 - 204

Résumé

Abstract

Climatic and meteorological conditions may limit the aeolian transport within barchans. An explanation of that issue was the main goal of the investigation held in Western Sahara dune fields located around Tarfaya and Laâyoune. Particular attention was paid to the factors causing the moisture content rising of the sand dune surface layer, which could influence the wind threshold shear velocity in the aeolian transport. The wetted surface layer of sand, when receiving moisture from precipitation or suspensions, reduces the aeolian transport, even in case of wind velocity above 4-5 m s-1. Fog and dew condensation does not affect the moisture of deeper sand layers, what occurs after rainfall.

Mots clés

  • moisture
  • dune
  • Western Sahara

Planifiez votre conférence à distance avec Sciendo