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Volume 32 (2013): Edition 3 (September 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 2 (June 2013)

Volume 32 (2013): Edition 1 (March 2013)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 4 (December 2012)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 3 (October 2012)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 2 (June 2012)

Volume 31 (2012): Edition 1 (March 2012)

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Volume 30 (2011): Edition 3 (September 2011)

Volume 30 (2011): Edition 2 (June 2011)

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Volume 29 (2010): Edition 4 (December 2010)

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Volume 29 (2010): Edition 2 (June 2010)

Volume 29 (2010): Edition 1 (March 2010)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

AHEAD OF PRINT

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

11 Articles
access type Accès libre

Storm Surges Versus Shore Erosion: 21 Years (2000–2020) of Observations on the Świna Gate Sandbar (Southern Baltic Coast)

Publié en ligne: 13 Jul 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Based on observations spanning 21 years (2000–2020), the article studies the effects of storm surges on the shore of the Świna Gate Sandbar in the southern part of the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea). Impacts of selected maximum storm surges in each year were assessed with respect to morphological data collected on the beach and the foredune. The data included parameters of beach-dune erosion as measured along a beach transect before and after each surge. Differences and trends in the shore erosion were related to the sea level (SL), duration of a storm surge [highest storm sea level (HSL) > 1 m], wind-wave sector and wave run-up. The relationships were explored using a simple correlation analysis. The most serious erosion was observed during the heaviest surges [HSL > 1.3 m above the mean sea level (AMSL)], with a wave run-up higher than 3.2 m AMSL. Such surges occurred at about 2-year intervals. The average SL during a surge was 1.2 m AMSL, with a run-up of 2.6 m AMSL. The beach and the lower part of the shore, below that level, were eroded each year. The heaviest surges resulted in an average 5.2 m and 7.0 m dune retreat on the high-beach-accumulative shore and on the low-beach-erosive shore, respectively. The dune was not eroded when the beach height exceeded the wave run-up. The heaviest surges eroded away 12–14 m3 of the beach sand volume. The shore erosion was found to be related to the storm surge duration, the maximum SL, the run-up and the beach height prior to the surge.

Mots clés

  • storm surge
  • sea level
  • run-up
  • dune erosion
  • beach erosion
  • sand volume changes
  • Baltic Sea
access type Accès libre

Precipitation Amounts Triggering Landslide Processes in the Western Part of the Nałęczów Plateau (Lublin Upland, Poland)

Publié en ligne: 25 Jun 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This study covers the western part of Poland’s loess Nałęczów Plateau (Kazimierz Dolny, Zbędowice). Mass movements in the Lublin Upland occur during periods of increased precipitation or after a snowy and cold winter. To date, there are no comprehensive studies on active (precipitation, hydrology, vegetation, land use, anthropogenic factors) or passive factors (lithology, slope angle) causing such geohazards in this region. This area’s formations are characterised by high sensitivity to even small changes in moisture content; thus, their geotechnical parameters deteriorate as a result of precipitation or rising groundwater levels. The calculations in this study were chosen to determine the time necessary for ground response to external factors, in addition to determining the impact of these factors on decreases in the factor of safety (FS). Based on calculations in GeoStudio software, the impacts of rainfall totals and duration on slope failure, interpreted as an event where the FS falls below 1.0, were analysed. Accordingly, the threshold rainfall value was determined as the total rainfall at the time of slope failure. The study’s results indicate that loess covers are characterised by average water permeability, relatively high internal friction angles and low cohesion, which, combined with high slope inclination, favour landslide formation even when the slope is only partially saturated. The most unfavourable stability conditions occur at the beginning of spring, indicating that loess stability is significantly affected by snowmelt and precipitation at the beginning of the vegetation season, as well as the occurrence of episodic intense precipitation during the summer.

Mots clés

  • slope stability
  • shallow landslide
  • rainfall thresholds
  • loess
  • the Nałęczów Plateau
access type Accès libre

GIS-Based Land Cover Analysis and Prediction Based on Open-Source Software and Data

Publié en ligne: 16 Jul 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The study aims at land cover prediction based on cellular automata and artificial neural network (CA-ANN) method implemented in the Methods Of Land Use Change Evaluation (MOLUSCE) tool. The Tricity region and the neighbouring counties of Gdański and Kartuzy were taken as the research areas, and coordination of information on the environment (CORINE Land Cover, CLC, CLMS 2022) data for 2006, 2012 and 2018 were used to analyse, simulate and predict land cover for 2024, the next reference year of the CORINE inventory. The results revealed an increase in artificial surfaces, with the highest value during the period 2006–2012 (86.56 km2). In total, during the period 2006–2018, the growth in urbanised area amounted to 95.37 km2. The 2024 prediction showed that artificial surfaces increased by 9.19 km2, resulting in a decline in agricultural land.

Mots clés

  • land cover change
  • prediction
  • MOLUSCE
  • CA-ANN
  • open data
access type Accès libre

A Spatial Model of Forest Area in the Middle Ages Based on Historical, Archaeological and Geographic Data: A Case Study of 13th-Century Chełmno Land (North-Central Poland)

Publié en ligne: 16 Jul 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The settlement established under German law in Chełmno Land in the 13th century, the resultant changes in the structure of agriculture and land cultivation techniques, and the growing demand on wood as timber, fuel and raw materials for crafts, all combined to contribute to the significant deforestation of the territory. The extent of this deforestation remains conjectural. The purpose in creating a model of forest area in 13th-century Chełmno Land was to attempt to reconstruct it and determine its size and, consequently, to verify hypotheses concerning the scale and the ultimate end of deforestation in the research area. The spatial model is based on published historical and archaeological data relating to selected components of the geographical environment that pertain to the forest area. A retrogressive method combined with Multi-Criterion Evaluation (MCE) was used to build a forest area model. The basic platform for collecting, analysing and visualising spatial data was the geographic information system (GIS). The presented estimates indicate that the forest area of Chełmno Land in the 13th century was larger than had previously been assumed, at about 20–25% of the entire territory.

Mots clés

  • historical landscape reconstruction
  • forest area
  • Middle Ages
  • Multi-Criterion Evaluation
  • Chełmno Land
access type Accès libre

Assessment of Soil Characteristics Using a Three-Band Agricultural Digital Camera

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Remote sensing techniques based on soil spectral characteristics are the key to future land management; however, they still require field measurement and an agrochemical laboratory for the calibration of the soil property model. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has proven to be a rapid and effective method. This study aimed to assess the suitability of multispectral data acquired with the agricultural digital camera in determining soil properties. This 3.2-Mpx camera captures images in three spectral bands – green, red and near-infrared. First, the reference data were collected, which consist of 151 samples that were later examined in the laboratory to specify the granulometric composition and to quantify some chemical elements. Second, additional soil properties such as cation exchange capacity, organic carbon and soil pH were measured. Finally, the agricultural digital camera photograph was taken for every soil sample. Reflectance values in three available spectra bands were used to calculate the spectra indices. The relationships between the collected data were calculated using the independent validation regression model such as Cubist and cross-validation model like partial least square in R Studio. Additionally, different types of data normalisation multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, min–max normalisation, conversion into absorbance] were used. The results proved that the agricultural digital camera is suitable for soil property assessment of sand and silt, pH, K, Cu, Pb, Mn, F, cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content. Coefficient of determination varied from 0.563 (for K) to 0.986 (for soil organic carbon). Higher values were obtained with the Cubist regression model than with partial least squares.

Mots clés

  • remote sensing
  • soil
  • spectroscopy
  • cubist
  • Studio
access type Accès libre

The Karst Landscapes of Beni Mellal Atlas (Central Morocco): Identification for Promoting Geoconservation and Tourism

Publié en ligne: 19 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The Atlas of Beni Mellal is located in the Moroccan central High Atlas, characterized by an important geo-diversity that attracts tourists every year. However, the number of visitors remains limited due to the lack of the promotion means, enhancement and mediation of this heritage. The obtained data indicate that the studied area preserves a great number of karst geosites, such as ruiniform landscapes, caves, poljes, sinkholes, Karren, shaft cave and many remarkable reliefs such as canyons and cliffs. This work concerns the inventory, the quantitative evaluation and the enhancement of the remarkable geomorphosites. The results reveal the presence of 21 sites, including six karst forms; five ruiniform landscapes and one karren form, one enviable panoramic viewpoint and five karst springs, four caves, two travertines, two waterfalls, and one structural relief geosite; canyon, and one tepee structures. However, these sites are not protected against all types of degradation, because the general public does not recognize them. These karst forms are very vulnerable, they cannot reproduce quickly, and their deterioration leads to their permanent disappearance. That is why this heritage must be the object of a particular attention of the whole community. The valorisation of these geomorphologic assets is the proposal of a number of circuits and geo-tourist routes from the perspective of local and integrated development.

Mots clés

  • karst landscapes
  • geo-tourism
  • Central High Atlas
  • Atlas of Beni Mellal
access type Accès libre

Variability of Water Exchange in the Hyporheic Zone of a Lowland River in Poland Based on Gradientometric Studies

Publié en ligne: 27 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The Moszczenica is a lowland river, which is a third-order river with a length of 55 km; it flows into the Bzura River in central Poland. The objective of this study was to evaluate two important factors in the exchange between surface water and groundwater in the hyporheic zone: a considerable change in water flow conditions and various origins of riverbed sections, natural and artificial. To identify the spatial variation of the hydraulic gradient in the hyporheic zone of the river, a gradientmeter was applied. The measurements show that at low water stages, upwelling was dominant, with an evidently inactive zone, whereas downwelling was inconsiderable. However, the morphology of the riverbed changed during the flood flow, and downwelling clearly dominated. Upwelling zones retained their activity despite a major change in hydrological conditions. Present studies on the artificially dug Moszczenica Canal have documented outflow of water from an artificial medieval canal to a naturally formed drainage base. This means that despite the passage of hundreds of years, the natural drainage base of the Moszczenica River is still active. Studies have demonstrated the applicability of the gradientmeter for evaluating the interaction between surface and groundwaters in the hyporheic zone.

Mots clés

  • groundwater–river water interactions
  • hyporheic zone
  • gradientmeter
  • Moszczenica River
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Reflectance Spectroscopy in Geology and Soil Sciences: Literature Review

Publié en ligne: 31 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This article presents a literature review of studies utilising reflectance spectroscopy in geological research. We describe a variety of available spectral libraries together with providing examples of spectral reflectance diagrams, and explain the basic spectral ranges. Geologists can use different methods of data collection, for example, sensors mounted on satellites, airborne [including unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms] or portable spectroradiometers, and different ways of data processing. Most geological mapping based on reflectance spectroscopy is performed in the Arctic region, where vegetation does not obscure images. However, mineral mapping, studies of hot spring deposits, and rock/soil weathering alterations are also performed in lower latitudes. The development, combination and unification of all spectral data acquisition methods open up new possibilities for applications in a variety of geological and soil studies.

Mots clés

  • reflectance spectroscopy
  • mineral spectra
  • geological mapping
  • soil studies
access type Accès libre

Impact of Atmospheric Circulation on the Occurrence of Very Strong and Extreme Cold Stress in Poland

Publié en ligne: 31 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The primary objective of the study was the determination of the spatial and multiannual variability of occurrence of days with very strong and extreme cold stress in Poland according to the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), as well as determination of baric conditions favouring their occurrence. The study was based on data from the years 1966/67 to 2018/19 from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute and National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR). The research showed a statistically significant decrease in the number of days with very strong and extreme cold stress on half of the analysed stations, and a slight tendency or no changes on the remaining stations. The occurrence of days with extreme cold stress in Poland, as revealed by the analysis was primarily related to the presence of high-pressure systems blocking zonal circulation. The study resulted in the designation of three circulation types, i.e. two types related to anticyclonic systems and one cyclonic type.

Mots clés

  • bioclimatology
  • UTCI
  • atmospheric circulation
  • cold stress
  • winter
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Causes and Course of Climate Change and Its Hydrological Consequences in the Greater Poland Region in 1951–2020

Publié en ligne: 09 Sep 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents effects of changes in climatic elements in the Greater Poland region (Poland), their causes and consequences for shaping the water balance of this area, copying with the most severe water deficit in Poland. The study period covers 70 years (1951–2020). The research identified an abrupt and significant change in the climate of Greater Poland, which started between 1987 and 1989, concerning not only air temperature but also a wider spectrum of climatic elements. The change in the state of the climate, which covers the entire Atlantic-Eurasian circulation sector, results from a sudden change in the macro-circulation conditions in the middle troposphere (500 hPa). The reason for the change in the mid-tropospheric circulation is an equally abrupt and simultaneous change in the intensity of the ocean heat transport by the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (NA THC). Climate change observed in Greater Poland is manifested in an increase in sunshine duration (SD) and air temperature, a decrease in relative humidity, a change in the cloud structure, and an increase in the degree of sky coverage. The main, physical reason for an increase in air temperature is a rapid and strong increase in SD in the warm half-years, which began after 1988, and a significant increase in the frequency of positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases in winters. The ongoing climate change entails various effects, among which the most important is considered to be hydrological consequences. The water balance of Greater Poland is becoming increasingly unfavourable, mainly as a result of a rapid increase in field evaporation.

Mots clés

  • rapid climate shift
  • cause of warming up
  • thermohaline circulation
  • water balance
  • Poland
  • North Atlantic
access type Accès libre

Geotourism Potential of Show Caves in Poland

Publié en ligne: 09 Sep 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

In the modern world, tourism is a very dynamically growing industry with significant impact on the economic prosperity of many regions or even countries. The paper presents the geotourism potential of the 12 show (commercial) caves in Poland before and during the current pandemic time. Survey results demonstrate that caves are major geotourist attractions. In 2019, they were visited by a total of almost 950,000 people. The attendance might have exceeded even a million if the popular Mroźna Cave in the Tatras had not been temporarily closed to visitors due to a rockfall in winter period 2018/2019. In 2020, all the show caves combined were visited by a more than 390,000 people, which amounted to about 41% of the total attendance recorded for 2019. The most visited cave proved to be Smocza Jama (Dragon's Den) in the centre of Kraków, which recorded almost 422,000 visitors in 2019. A preliminary assessment of the attractiveness of the caves as geosites is given. The most attractive caves as geosites were identified as: Bear Cave, Upper Wierzchowska Cave, and Bat Cave. It is possible to confidently assert that the celebration of the International Year of Caves and Karst (IYCK) in 2021–2022 will increase interest in caves and translate into a revival of cave tourism.

Mots clés

  • geotourism
  • show caves
  • commercial caves
  • visitors
  • Poland
11 Articles
access type Accès libre

Storm Surges Versus Shore Erosion: 21 Years (2000–2020) of Observations on the Świna Gate Sandbar (Southern Baltic Coast)

Publié en ligne: 13 Jul 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Based on observations spanning 21 years (2000–2020), the article studies the effects of storm surges on the shore of the Świna Gate Sandbar in the southern part of the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea). Impacts of selected maximum storm surges in each year were assessed with respect to morphological data collected on the beach and the foredune. The data included parameters of beach-dune erosion as measured along a beach transect before and after each surge. Differences and trends in the shore erosion were related to the sea level (SL), duration of a storm surge [highest storm sea level (HSL) > 1 m], wind-wave sector and wave run-up. The relationships were explored using a simple correlation analysis. The most serious erosion was observed during the heaviest surges [HSL > 1.3 m above the mean sea level (AMSL)], with a wave run-up higher than 3.2 m AMSL. Such surges occurred at about 2-year intervals. The average SL during a surge was 1.2 m AMSL, with a run-up of 2.6 m AMSL. The beach and the lower part of the shore, below that level, were eroded each year. The heaviest surges resulted in an average 5.2 m and 7.0 m dune retreat on the high-beach-accumulative shore and on the low-beach-erosive shore, respectively. The dune was not eroded when the beach height exceeded the wave run-up. The heaviest surges eroded away 12–14 m3 of the beach sand volume. The shore erosion was found to be related to the storm surge duration, the maximum SL, the run-up and the beach height prior to the surge.

Mots clés

  • storm surge
  • sea level
  • run-up
  • dune erosion
  • beach erosion
  • sand volume changes
  • Baltic Sea
access type Accès libre

Precipitation Amounts Triggering Landslide Processes in the Western Part of the Nałęczów Plateau (Lublin Upland, Poland)

Publié en ligne: 25 Jun 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This study covers the western part of Poland’s loess Nałęczów Plateau (Kazimierz Dolny, Zbędowice). Mass movements in the Lublin Upland occur during periods of increased precipitation or after a snowy and cold winter. To date, there are no comprehensive studies on active (precipitation, hydrology, vegetation, land use, anthropogenic factors) or passive factors (lithology, slope angle) causing such geohazards in this region. This area’s formations are characterised by high sensitivity to even small changes in moisture content; thus, their geotechnical parameters deteriorate as a result of precipitation or rising groundwater levels. The calculations in this study were chosen to determine the time necessary for ground response to external factors, in addition to determining the impact of these factors on decreases in the factor of safety (FS). Based on calculations in GeoStudio software, the impacts of rainfall totals and duration on slope failure, interpreted as an event where the FS falls below 1.0, were analysed. Accordingly, the threshold rainfall value was determined as the total rainfall at the time of slope failure. The study’s results indicate that loess covers are characterised by average water permeability, relatively high internal friction angles and low cohesion, which, combined with high slope inclination, favour landslide formation even when the slope is only partially saturated. The most unfavourable stability conditions occur at the beginning of spring, indicating that loess stability is significantly affected by snowmelt and precipitation at the beginning of the vegetation season, as well as the occurrence of episodic intense precipitation during the summer.

Mots clés

  • slope stability
  • shallow landslide
  • rainfall thresholds
  • loess
  • the Nałęczów Plateau
access type Accès libre

GIS-Based Land Cover Analysis and Prediction Based on Open-Source Software and Data

Publié en ligne: 16 Jul 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The study aims at land cover prediction based on cellular automata and artificial neural network (CA-ANN) method implemented in the Methods Of Land Use Change Evaluation (MOLUSCE) tool. The Tricity region and the neighbouring counties of Gdański and Kartuzy were taken as the research areas, and coordination of information on the environment (CORINE Land Cover, CLC, CLMS 2022) data for 2006, 2012 and 2018 were used to analyse, simulate and predict land cover for 2024, the next reference year of the CORINE inventory. The results revealed an increase in artificial surfaces, with the highest value during the period 2006–2012 (86.56 km2). In total, during the period 2006–2018, the growth in urbanised area amounted to 95.37 km2. The 2024 prediction showed that artificial surfaces increased by 9.19 km2, resulting in a decline in agricultural land.

Mots clés

  • land cover change
  • prediction
  • MOLUSCE
  • CA-ANN
  • open data
access type Accès libre

A Spatial Model of Forest Area in the Middle Ages Based on Historical, Archaeological and Geographic Data: A Case Study of 13th-Century Chełmno Land (North-Central Poland)

Publié en ligne: 16 Jul 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The settlement established under German law in Chełmno Land in the 13th century, the resultant changes in the structure of agriculture and land cultivation techniques, and the growing demand on wood as timber, fuel and raw materials for crafts, all combined to contribute to the significant deforestation of the territory. The extent of this deforestation remains conjectural. The purpose in creating a model of forest area in 13th-century Chełmno Land was to attempt to reconstruct it and determine its size and, consequently, to verify hypotheses concerning the scale and the ultimate end of deforestation in the research area. The spatial model is based on published historical and archaeological data relating to selected components of the geographical environment that pertain to the forest area. A retrogressive method combined with Multi-Criterion Evaluation (MCE) was used to build a forest area model. The basic platform for collecting, analysing and visualising spatial data was the geographic information system (GIS). The presented estimates indicate that the forest area of Chełmno Land in the 13th century was larger than had previously been assumed, at about 20–25% of the entire territory.

Mots clés

  • historical landscape reconstruction
  • forest area
  • Middle Ages
  • Multi-Criterion Evaluation
  • Chełmno Land
access type Accès libre

Assessment of Soil Characteristics Using a Three-Band Agricultural Digital Camera

Publié en ligne: 11 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Remote sensing techniques based on soil spectral characteristics are the key to future land management; however, they still require field measurement and an agrochemical laboratory for the calibration of the soil property model. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has proven to be a rapid and effective method. This study aimed to assess the suitability of multispectral data acquired with the agricultural digital camera in determining soil properties. This 3.2-Mpx camera captures images in three spectral bands – green, red and near-infrared. First, the reference data were collected, which consist of 151 samples that were later examined in the laboratory to specify the granulometric composition and to quantify some chemical elements. Second, additional soil properties such as cation exchange capacity, organic carbon and soil pH were measured. Finally, the agricultural digital camera photograph was taken for every soil sample. Reflectance values in three available spectra bands were used to calculate the spectra indices. The relationships between the collected data were calculated using the independent validation regression model such as Cubist and cross-validation model like partial least square in R Studio. Additionally, different types of data normalisation multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, min–max normalisation, conversion into absorbance] were used. The results proved that the agricultural digital camera is suitable for soil property assessment of sand and silt, pH, K, Cu, Pb, Mn, F, cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content. Coefficient of determination varied from 0.563 (for K) to 0.986 (for soil organic carbon). Higher values were obtained with the Cubist regression model than with partial least squares.

Mots clés

  • remote sensing
  • soil
  • spectroscopy
  • cubist
  • Studio
access type Accès libre

The Karst Landscapes of Beni Mellal Atlas (Central Morocco): Identification for Promoting Geoconservation and Tourism

Publié en ligne: 19 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The Atlas of Beni Mellal is located in the Moroccan central High Atlas, characterized by an important geo-diversity that attracts tourists every year. However, the number of visitors remains limited due to the lack of the promotion means, enhancement and mediation of this heritage. The obtained data indicate that the studied area preserves a great number of karst geosites, such as ruiniform landscapes, caves, poljes, sinkholes, Karren, shaft cave and many remarkable reliefs such as canyons and cliffs. This work concerns the inventory, the quantitative evaluation and the enhancement of the remarkable geomorphosites. The results reveal the presence of 21 sites, including six karst forms; five ruiniform landscapes and one karren form, one enviable panoramic viewpoint and five karst springs, four caves, two travertines, two waterfalls, and one structural relief geosite; canyon, and one tepee structures. However, these sites are not protected against all types of degradation, because the general public does not recognize them. These karst forms are very vulnerable, they cannot reproduce quickly, and their deterioration leads to their permanent disappearance. That is why this heritage must be the object of a particular attention of the whole community. The valorisation of these geomorphologic assets is the proposal of a number of circuits and geo-tourist routes from the perspective of local and integrated development.

Mots clés

  • karst landscapes
  • geo-tourism
  • Central High Atlas
  • Atlas of Beni Mellal
access type Accès libre

Variability of Water Exchange in the Hyporheic Zone of a Lowland River in Poland Based on Gradientometric Studies

Publié en ligne: 27 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The Moszczenica is a lowland river, which is a third-order river with a length of 55 km; it flows into the Bzura River in central Poland. The objective of this study was to evaluate two important factors in the exchange between surface water and groundwater in the hyporheic zone: a considerable change in water flow conditions and various origins of riverbed sections, natural and artificial. To identify the spatial variation of the hydraulic gradient in the hyporheic zone of the river, a gradientmeter was applied. The measurements show that at low water stages, upwelling was dominant, with an evidently inactive zone, whereas downwelling was inconsiderable. However, the morphology of the riverbed changed during the flood flow, and downwelling clearly dominated. Upwelling zones retained their activity despite a major change in hydrological conditions. Present studies on the artificially dug Moszczenica Canal have documented outflow of water from an artificial medieval canal to a naturally formed drainage base. This means that despite the passage of hundreds of years, the natural drainage base of the Moszczenica River is still active. Studies have demonstrated the applicability of the gradientmeter for evaluating the interaction between surface and groundwaters in the hyporheic zone.

Mots clés

  • groundwater–river water interactions
  • hyporheic zone
  • gradientmeter
  • Moszczenica River
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Reflectance Spectroscopy in Geology and Soil Sciences: Literature Review

Publié en ligne: 31 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This article presents a literature review of studies utilising reflectance spectroscopy in geological research. We describe a variety of available spectral libraries together with providing examples of spectral reflectance diagrams, and explain the basic spectral ranges. Geologists can use different methods of data collection, for example, sensors mounted on satellites, airborne [including unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms] or portable spectroradiometers, and different ways of data processing. Most geological mapping based on reflectance spectroscopy is performed in the Arctic region, where vegetation does not obscure images. However, mineral mapping, studies of hot spring deposits, and rock/soil weathering alterations are also performed in lower latitudes. The development, combination and unification of all spectral data acquisition methods open up new possibilities for applications in a variety of geological and soil studies.

Mots clés

  • reflectance spectroscopy
  • mineral spectra
  • geological mapping
  • soil studies
access type Accès libre

Impact of Atmospheric Circulation on the Occurrence of Very Strong and Extreme Cold Stress in Poland

Publié en ligne: 31 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The primary objective of the study was the determination of the spatial and multiannual variability of occurrence of days with very strong and extreme cold stress in Poland according to the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), as well as determination of baric conditions favouring their occurrence. The study was based on data from the years 1966/67 to 2018/19 from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute and National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR). The research showed a statistically significant decrease in the number of days with very strong and extreme cold stress on half of the analysed stations, and a slight tendency or no changes on the remaining stations. The occurrence of days with extreme cold stress in Poland, as revealed by the analysis was primarily related to the presence of high-pressure systems blocking zonal circulation. The study resulted in the designation of three circulation types, i.e. two types related to anticyclonic systems and one cyclonic type.

Mots clés

  • bioclimatology
  • UTCI
  • atmospheric circulation
  • cold stress
  • winter
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Causes and Course of Climate Change and Its Hydrological Consequences in the Greater Poland Region in 1951–2020

Publié en ligne: 09 Sep 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents effects of changes in climatic elements in the Greater Poland region (Poland), their causes and consequences for shaping the water balance of this area, copying with the most severe water deficit in Poland. The study period covers 70 years (1951–2020). The research identified an abrupt and significant change in the climate of Greater Poland, which started between 1987 and 1989, concerning not only air temperature but also a wider spectrum of climatic elements. The change in the state of the climate, which covers the entire Atlantic-Eurasian circulation sector, results from a sudden change in the macro-circulation conditions in the middle troposphere (500 hPa). The reason for the change in the mid-tropospheric circulation is an equally abrupt and simultaneous change in the intensity of the ocean heat transport by the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (NA THC). Climate change observed in Greater Poland is manifested in an increase in sunshine duration (SD) and air temperature, a decrease in relative humidity, a change in the cloud structure, and an increase in the degree of sky coverage. The main, physical reason for an increase in air temperature is a rapid and strong increase in SD in the warm half-years, which began after 1988, and a significant increase in the frequency of positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases in winters. The ongoing climate change entails various effects, among which the most important is considered to be hydrological consequences. The water balance of Greater Poland is becoming increasingly unfavourable, mainly as a result of a rapid increase in field evaporation.

Mots clés

  • rapid climate shift
  • cause of warming up
  • thermohaline circulation
  • water balance
  • Poland
  • North Atlantic
access type Accès libre

Geotourism Potential of Show Caves in Poland

Publié en ligne: 09 Sep 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

In the modern world, tourism is a very dynamically growing industry with significant impact on the economic prosperity of many regions or even countries. The paper presents the geotourism potential of the 12 show (commercial) caves in Poland before and during the current pandemic time. Survey results demonstrate that caves are major geotourist attractions. In 2019, they were visited by a total of almost 950,000 people. The attendance might have exceeded even a million if the popular Mroźna Cave in the Tatras had not been temporarily closed to visitors due to a rockfall in winter period 2018/2019. In 2020, all the show caves combined were visited by a more than 390,000 people, which amounted to about 41% of the total attendance recorded for 2019. The most visited cave proved to be Smocza Jama (Dragon's Den) in the centre of Kraków, which recorded almost 422,000 visitors in 2019. A preliminary assessment of the attractiveness of the caves as geosites is given. The most attractive caves as geosites were identified as: Bear Cave, Upper Wierzchowska Cave, and Bat Cave. It is possible to confidently assert that the celebration of the International Year of Caves and Karst (IYCK) in 2021–2022 will increase interest in caves and translate into a revival of cave tourism.

Mots clés

  • geotourism
  • show caves
  • commercial caves
  • visitors
  • Poland

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