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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 39 (2020): Edition 2 (June 2020)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

9 Articles
access type Accès libre

Classification of Structurally Weak Rural Regions: Application of a Rural Development Index for Austria and Portugal

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 5 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

This paper aims to analyse to what extent the level and dynamics of development of rural regions located in two firmly different countries, Austria and Portugal, differ. In order to do this, an index to measure the ‘structural strength’ of rural regions was created. This index is a more holistic measure of socio-economic development than the traditional GDP per capita. After the identification of structurally weak regions in both Austria and Portugal, the paper compares them in the context of challenges faced by such regions.

Mots clés

  • rural development
  • regional disparities
  • TOPSIS method
  • composite index
  • Austria
  • Portugal
access type Accès libre

Rural Areas as the Origin and Destination of Permanent Internal Migrations between 2002 and 2017 in Poland. A Local-Level Analysis (Nuts 5)

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 15 - 30

Résumé

Abstract

The main aim of the study is to identify the main streams of permanent migration and determine their reach. Special attention has been paid to rural areas (a rural commune, the rural area of an urban–rural commune) as the origin and destination of migration. The study has been conducted at the lowest level of territorial division in Poland (NUTS 5 – cities and communes). The analysed data cover the period between 2002 and 2017 and come from the online database Demografia GUS [Demography, Statistics Poland]. While presenting the volume and directions of migrations, the total and maximum values of migration have been considered. This approach allowed identifying the catchment areas as well as the areas of migratory attractiveness. These areas are highly similar in terms of their spatial extent. However, they differ significantly in terms of magnitude and reach of the main migration streams. Permanent internal migrations within rural areas are the least significant among all migration directions. One of their characteristics is the fact that they are short–distance migrations, occurring between neighbouring units. Permanent internal migrations appear to be a good indicator of urbanisation of suburban zones and the shaping of functional urban–rural–urban connections.

Mots clés

  • internal migration
  • rural areas
  • suburbanisation
  • origins and destinations of migration
  • the highest flow
access type Accès libre

Transformation of the Landscape Structure of the Selected Testing Grounds in the Tri-city Agglomeration in the Years 1985–2012

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 31 - 42

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the research was to define the scale and directions of transformation of the selected forms of land cover in the surroundings of the intra-urban areas of the Tri-city Agglomeration (Poland), combined with simultaneous testing of the usefulness of the index of convergence of structures for analysing changes in the structure of land use. The analysis was made on the basis of data from topographic maps on a scale of 1:10,000 and digital data from BDOT10k for a period of 28 years. In the areas of major changes, the scale and directions of changes between particular types of land cover were determined. Negative natural effects expressed, among other things, by the deteriorating proportion between the biologically active and built-up areas were indicated.

Mots clés

  • land cover structure
  • suburbanisation
  • Tri-city Agglomeration
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Local Development Initiatives as Promoters of Social Innovation: Evidence from Two European Rural Regions

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 43 - 53

Résumé

Abstract

Social innovation entered the academic discourse several decades ago and has since been seen as a way of tackling existing problems in various contexts. Although an extensive body of research has been conducted into the role of social innovation in urban context, there is still a gap when it comes to studying the role of social innovation in the development of rural areas. In this paper, an attempt is made to look at the role of Local Action Groups (LAGs) and Local Development Associations (LDAs) as promoters of social innovation in rural areas in Austria and Portugal, aiming to understand the role of such organisations and the challenges faced by the latter in promoting social innovation.

Mots clés

  • social innovation
  • local action groups
  • local development associations
  • rural regions
  • Austria
  • Portugal
access type Accès libre

Contemporary Directions of Transformations in the Settlement and the Landscape of Rural Areas in the Silesian Lowland

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 55 - 73

Résumé

Abstract

Rural areas of the Silesian Lowland, undergoing social and economic transformations today, have had a strong impact on the formation of the region's settlement landscapes. Political and economic changes after 1989 have affected the development of rural areas, in particular of ‘privileged’ settlements for which the proximity of towns and a trunk road are favourable factors. The result of these seemingly positive factors is the escape of young people (potential farmers) to the cities and an influx of new settlers. This affects social behaviour and activity, as well as the visual rural landscape, creating suburban zones with residential and leisure functions. The village seems to have lost its typical character but has it really? The subject of the research is, therefore, an analysis of changes in the spatial and social structure of a rural village as exemplified by Borek Strzeliński, which allows setting out its functions. The research issue is to determine the level of social activity of rural residents and their attitude towards the local cultural heritage, which influences their identity and the value of the landscape. The use of integrated methods of field work based on a free sociological survey has allowed identifying the spatial directions of village development and threats resulting from divided social activity.

Mots clés

  • Silesian Lowland
  • Borek Strzeliński
  • rural area
  • rural landscape
  • social activity
  • local leaders
access type Accès libre

Process of Incorporation and Morphological Transformations of Rural Settlement Patterns in the Context of Urban Development. The Case Study of Łódź

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 75 - 95

Résumé

Abstract

The subject of the research covers the problem of morphological changes in former villages incorporated into the city on the example of Łódź. The first objective of the article is to analyse the urban development of the city, taking into account the territorial changes and incorporation of villages. The second objective includes the analysis of morphological changes in former villages that have taken place after their incorporation into the city since the mid-twentieth century. The study required analysis of source materials in the form of preserved historical maps and today's plans, legal acts, planning documents and chosen statistical data. The analysis of changes in the spatial structure of villages incorporated into the city was possible mainly thanks to the retrogressive, as well as progressive method. The article also uses the method of morphological analysis of the city plan based on the Conzenian tradition of urban morphology. The study applies the typology of rural settlement patterns, taking into account the issue of morphological changes and relics of morphological features from the period before the incorporation into the city. It is characteristic that the transformation process of rural settlement patterns took place in different ways and with various intensity depending mostly on the scale of urbanisation processes. It was possible to distinguish the orthomorphic transformations, where all spatial modifications were mainly additions and did not destroy the morphogenetic core, so the former layouts have been preserved almost completely, semi-metamorphic transformations, where spatial reorganisation was considerable, but not total, and clear relics of the historical rural settlement pattern have been saved, and metamorphic transformations, in which almost all elements of the former morphological structure have been completely erased and the former layouts have been totally changed.

Mots clés

  • morphology
  • rural forms
  • settlement patterns
  • urban development
  • Łódź
  • city
  • spatial transformation
  • incorporation
access type Accès libre

Not Only in Cities: Creative Activities in Rural Areas with a Case Study of Lower Silesia

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 97 - 112

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of the present study is to identify rules governing the distribution and thematic structure of creative activities, using the region of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland as an example. This empirical study is based on the data obtained from the Central Registration and Information on Business (CEIDG) as of 2018. Rural areas (compared to cities) generally display a lower level of economic activity. Analysis results confirm that craft-based activities are usually carried out outside large cities. A clear structure of specialisation among creative activities indicates that rural areas should mainly undertake activities that are consistent with the character of a particular local setting and are strongly connected with local conditions.

Mots clés

  • rural areas
  • rural development
  • creativity
  • Lower Silesia
access type Accès libre

Spatial and Landscape Changes in the Housing Development of Gdańsk Suburban Villages

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 113 - 128

Résumé

Abstract

In the article the specificity of development of Gdańsk suburban villages is considered. The data from recent years concerning demographic changes in communes will be analysed. The analysis of four selected villages will show the settlement changes and contemporary non-rural types of buildings. Spatial processes, which in terms of an extensive rural economy have already led to the change and depreciation of qualities of their current order and landscape, will be described.

Mots clés

  • villages
  • suburban landscape
  • landscape changes
  • housing development
  • urban sprawl
access type Accès libre

Potential Conflicts in the Land-Use Planning Process: A Case Study of the Rural Commune of Oleśnica (Poland)

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 129 - 137

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify compatibilities of land-use patterns resulting from adjacent functions within the rural commune of Oleśnica. The analysis was made based on the relevant studies of conditions and directions of spatial planning, as well as a field inventory. The results of the studies show that the applicable planning document became a potential source of spatial conflicts. On these grounds, a negative assessment was given to the functioning spatial planning system, which, according to the premises of spatial order and sustainable development, should prevent them. The existing incompatibilities are the result of issues with coordination of the local spatial policies. As a consequence, they cause an urban development chaos, lack of proper space shaping, environmental damage and lower the residents‘ quality of life.

Mots clés

  • spatial conflicts
  • spatial planning
  • sustained development
  • Oleśnica rural commune
9 Articles
access type Accès libre

Classification of Structurally Weak Rural Regions: Application of a Rural Development Index for Austria and Portugal

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 5 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

This paper aims to analyse to what extent the level and dynamics of development of rural regions located in two firmly different countries, Austria and Portugal, differ. In order to do this, an index to measure the ‘structural strength’ of rural regions was created. This index is a more holistic measure of socio-economic development than the traditional GDP per capita. After the identification of structurally weak regions in both Austria and Portugal, the paper compares them in the context of challenges faced by such regions.

Mots clés

  • rural development
  • regional disparities
  • TOPSIS method
  • composite index
  • Austria
  • Portugal
access type Accès libre

Rural Areas as the Origin and Destination of Permanent Internal Migrations between 2002 and 2017 in Poland. A Local-Level Analysis (Nuts 5)

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 15 - 30

Résumé

Abstract

The main aim of the study is to identify the main streams of permanent migration and determine their reach. Special attention has been paid to rural areas (a rural commune, the rural area of an urban–rural commune) as the origin and destination of migration. The study has been conducted at the lowest level of territorial division in Poland (NUTS 5 – cities and communes). The analysed data cover the period between 2002 and 2017 and come from the online database Demografia GUS [Demography, Statistics Poland]. While presenting the volume and directions of migrations, the total and maximum values of migration have been considered. This approach allowed identifying the catchment areas as well as the areas of migratory attractiveness. These areas are highly similar in terms of their spatial extent. However, they differ significantly in terms of magnitude and reach of the main migration streams. Permanent internal migrations within rural areas are the least significant among all migration directions. One of their characteristics is the fact that they are short–distance migrations, occurring between neighbouring units. Permanent internal migrations appear to be a good indicator of urbanisation of suburban zones and the shaping of functional urban–rural–urban connections.

Mots clés

  • internal migration
  • rural areas
  • suburbanisation
  • origins and destinations of migration
  • the highest flow
access type Accès libre

Transformation of the Landscape Structure of the Selected Testing Grounds in the Tri-city Agglomeration in the Years 1985–2012

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 31 - 42

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the research was to define the scale and directions of transformation of the selected forms of land cover in the surroundings of the intra-urban areas of the Tri-city Agglomeration (Poland), combined with simultaneous testing of the usefulness of the index of convergence of structures for analysing changes in the structure of land use. The analysis was made on the basis of data from topographic maps on a scale of 1:10,000 and digital data from BDOT10k for a period of 28 years. In the areas of major changes, the scale and directions of changes between particular types of land cover were determined. Negative natural effects expressed, among other things, by the deteriorating proportion between the biologically active and built-up areas were indicated.

Mots clés

  • land cover structure
  • suburbanisation
  • Tri-city Agglomeration
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Local Development Initiatives as Promoters of Social Innovation: Evidence from Two European Rural Regions

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 43 - 53

Résumé

Abstract

Social innovation entered the academic discourse several decades ago and has since been seen as a way of tackling existing problems in various contexts. Although an extensive body of research has been conducted into the role of social innovation in urban context, there is still a gap when it comes to studying the role of social innovation in the development of rural areas. In this paper, an attempt is made to look at the role of Local Action Groups (LAGs) and Local Development Associations (LDAs) as promoters of social innovation in rural areas in Austria and Portugal, aiming to understand the role of such organisations and the challenges faced by the latter in promoting social innovation.

Mots clés

  • social innovation
  • local action groups
  • local development associations
  • rural regions
  • Austria
  • Portugal
access type Accès libre

Contemporary Directions of Transformations in the Settlement and the Landscape of Rural Areas in the Silesian Lowland

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 55 - 73

Résumé

Abstract

Rural areas of the Silesian Lowland, undergoing social and economic transformations today, have had a strong impact on the formation of the region's settlement landscapes. Political and economic changes after 1989 have affected the development of rural areas, in particular of ‘privileged’ settlements for which the proximity of towns and a trunk road are favourable factors. The result of these seemingly positive factors is the escape of young people (potential farmers) to the cities and an influx of new settlers. This affects social behaviour and activity, as well as the visual rural landscape, creating suburban zones with residential and leisure functions. The village seems to have lost its typical character but has it really? The subject of the research is, therefore, an analysis of changes in the spatial and social structure of a rural village as exemplified by Borek Strzeliński, which allows setting out its functions. The research issue is to determine the level of social activity of rural residents and their attitude towards the local cultural heritage, which influences their identity and the value of the landscape. The use of integrated methods of field work based on a free sociological survey has allowed identifying the spatial directions of village development and threats resulting from divided social activity.

Mots clés

  • Silesian Lowland
  • Borek Strzeliński
  • rural area
  • rural landscape
  • social activity
  • local leaders
access type Accès libre

Process of Incorporation and Morphological Transformations of Rural Settlement Patterns in the Context of Urban Development. The Case Study of Łódź

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 75 - 95

Résumé

Abstract

The subject of the research covers the problem of morphological changes in former villages incorporated into the city on the example of Łódź. The first objective of the article is to analyse the urban development of the city, taking into account the territorial changes and incorporation of villages. The second objective includes the analysis of morphological changes in former villages that have taken place after their incorporation into the city since the mid-twentieth century. The study required analysis of source materials in the form of preserved historical maps and today's plans, legal acts, planning documents and chosen statistical data. The analysis of changes in the spatial structure of villages incorporated into the city was possible mainly thanks to the retrogressive, as well as progressive method. The article also uses the method of morphological analysis of the city plan based on the Conzenian tradition of urban morphology. The study applies the typology of rural settlement patterns, taking into account the issue of morphological changes and relics of morphological features from the period before the incorporation into the city. It is characteristic that the transformation process of rural settlement patterns took place in different ways and with various intensity depending mostly on the scale of urbanisation processes. It was possible to distinguish the orthomorphic transformations, where all spatial modifications were mainly additions and did not destroy the morphogenetic core, so the former layouts have been preserved almost completely, semi-metamorphic transformations, where spatial reorganisation was considerable, but not total, and clear relics of the historical rural settlement pattern have been saved, and metamorphic transformations, in which almost all elements of the former morphological structure have been completely erased and the former layouts have been totally changed.

Mots clés

  • morphology
  • rural forms
  • settlement patterns
  • urban development
  • Łódź
  • city
  • spatial transformation
  • incorporation
access type Accès libre

Not Only in Cities: Creative Activities in Rural Areas with a Case Study of Lower Silesia

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 97 - 112

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of the present study is to identify rules governing the distribution and thematic structure of creative activities, using the region of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland as an example. This empirical study is based on the data obtained from the Central Registration and Information on Business (CEIDG) as of 2018. Rural areas (compared to cities) generally display a lower level of economic activity. Analysis results confirm that craft-based activities are usually carried out outside large cities. A clear structure of specialisation among creative activities indicates that rural areas should mainly undertake activities that are consistent with the character of a particular local setting and are strongly connected with local conditions.

Mots clés

  • rural areas
  • rural development
  • creativity
  • Lower Silesia
access type Accès libre

Spatial and Landscape Changes in the Housing Development of Gdańsk Suburban Villages

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 113 - 128

Résumé

Abstract

In the article the specificity of development of Gdańsk suburban villages is considered. The data from recent years concerning demographic changes in communes will be analysed. The analysis of four selected villages will show the settlement changes and contemporary non-rural types of buildings. Spatial processes, which in terms of an extensive rural economy have already led to the change and depreciation of qualities of their current order and landscape, will be described.

Mots clés

  • villages
  • suburban landscape
  • landscape changes
  • housing development
  • urban sprawl
access type Accès libre

Potential Conflicts in the Land-Use Planning Process: A Case Study of the Rural Commune of Oleśnica (Poland)

Publié en ligne: 11 Jun 2020
Pages: 129 - 137

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify compatibilities of land-use patterns resulting from adjacent functions within the rural commune of Oleśnica. The analysis was made based on the relevant studies of conditions and directions of spatial planning, as well as a field inventory. The results of the studies show that the applicable planning document became a potential source of spatial conflicts. On these grounds, a negative assessment was given to the functioning spatial planning system, which, according to the premises of spatial order and sustainable development, should prevent them. The existing incompatibilities are the result of issues with coordination of the local spatial policies. As a consequence, they cause an urban development chaos, lack of proper space shaping, environmental damage and lower the residents‘ quality of life.

Mots clés

  • spatial conflicts
  • spatial planning
  • sustained development
  • Oleśnica rural commune

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