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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 1 (March 2015)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

10 Articles
access type Accès libre

Hydroclimatic and Geological Conditions of the Variability of Fluvial Transport Rate in the Upper Part of the Wieprz River Catchment

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 5 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

The article summarises the results of observations conducted in the periods 1989-1992, 1998-2000, and 2001- 2003 in the catchment of the Roztocze section of the Wieprz River with an area of 404 km2. The presented results of the study on fluvial transport document the response of an upland river to variable hydro-climatic conditions. Fluvial transport rate in periods extreme in hydrological terms was compared. In the conditions of low water stages (1989- 1992) and mean annual discharges lower than the mean multiannual by 19%, the Wieprz River discharged an average of 13300 tonnes of solutions and 485 tonnes of suspensions annually. The unitary indices amounted to 32.7 and 1.2 t/ km2/year, respectively. In the years 1998-2000, in the conditions of high water stages and mean annual discharges higher than the multiannual by 41%, the Wieprz River discharged approximately 22,800 tonnes of solutions and 981 tonnes of suspensions annually. The unitary indices increased proportionately to 56.2 t/km2/year and 2.4 t/km2/year, respectively. In the years 2001-2003, in the conditions of variable water stages and discharges higher than the multiannual by 12%, the Wieprz River discharged an average of approximately 17,500 tonnes of solutions and 441 tonnes of suspensions annually. The unitary indices reached the values of 43.3 t/km2/year and 1.1 t/km2/year, respectively.

Mots clés

  • hydro-climatic drivers
  • geological conditions
  • fluvial transport
  • Wieprz River catchment
  • Roztocze Region
access type Accès libre

Types of Geoecosystems of the Lobelia Lakes of the Tricity Area

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 15 - 25

Résumé

Abstract

In the years 2009-2010 limnological research was carried out on 13 lobelia lakes of the Tricity metropolitan area. These lakes, of unique value not only on the scale of the country, are undergoing degradation due to increasing anthropogenic pressure. Grade of degradation of these lakes, depends on geoecosystem type, which they are representing. Geoecosystem type of the lake, defines the rate of natural eutrophication of reservoir. In this article types of geoecosystems of analysed lobelia lakes where defined in accordance with the guidelines of Bajkiewicz-Grabowska (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987, 2002). The obtained results indicate that only one of the analysed lakes (Zawiat Lake) is likely to retain a low trophic level. Four lakes (Głębokie, Kamień, Borowo, Techlinko) represent geoecosystems with a moderate rate of natural eutrophication. The remaining of the analysed lobelia lakes are threatened with fast water eutrophication, which is demonstrated by a high catchment vulnerability to activate areal load, and a low resistance of the lakes (resulting from their natural properties) to external supply. The obtained results correspond to field measurements and make it possible to indicate actions aimed at protecting the group of the analysed lobelia lakes.

Mots clés

  • lobelia lake
  • geosystem
  • geoecosystem
  • elementary geosystem
  • vulnerability and resistance to degradation
access type Accès libre

The Isle of The Dead Benchmark, the Sydney, Fort Denison Tide Gauge and the Ipcc Ar5 Chapter 13 Sea Levels Revisited

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 27 - 36

Résumé

Abstract

The paper revisits the Isle of the Dead benchmark and the Sydney, Fort Denison tide gauge to confirm that long term, high quality tide gauges are acceleration free, consistently to the analysis of key sites suggesting the sea levels are not sharply raising following the carbon dioxide emissions. The paper also discusses the flaws of the IPCC AR5 Chapter13 Sea levels. The time history of the relative rate of rise computed by linear fitting of the data locally collected by tide gauges is the best parameter to assess the effect of global warming providing length and quality requirements are satisfied. There is no reason to search for less reliable alternative methods because the climate models predicted different trends. The Global Positioning System (GPS) inferred vertical tide gauge velocity suffers of significant inaccuracies. Larger inaccuracies are provided by the satellite altimetry Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) that is a computation and not a measurement.

Mots clés

  • sea levels
  • tide gauges
  • key sites
  • ethics in science
  • scientific debate
access type Accès libre

Precipitation of the Mediterranean Origin in Poland – Its Seasonal and Long-Term Variability

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 37 - 53

Résumé

Abstract

The article presents the results of the analysis of precipitation in Poland associated with cyclones moving from the Mediterranean Sea to East-Central Europe (Mediterranean Cyclonal Precipitation - MCP). The MCP accounts for about 10% of the total amount of precipitation in Poland. Average daily sum of MCP constitutes approximately 150% of daily amount of all precipitation in Poland. The MCP amount reaches its maxima at the end of April and in the mid-August. The highest MCP occurs in the Carpathians and the Sudetes as well as over stripes of land extending northward and covering the central-western and eastern parts of the country. In the years 1958-2008, the mean annual MCP was characterized by a significant decreasing trend - the MCP sum reduced by 29 mm, i.e. ca. 42% of its multiannual value.

Mots clés

  • Mediterranean precipitation
  • seasonality
  • long-term changes
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Morphological and Soil Determinants of Forest Cover Changes in Świętokrzyski National Park and Its Buffer Zone in the last 200 Years

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 55 - 63

Résumé

Abstract

The research described in the paper utilized GIS methods and comparative cartography in order to analyze changes in forest cover in the period 1800-2011 in the Świętokrzyski National Park (76.26 km²) and its buffer zone (207.86 km²). The research was done for predefined elevation intervals, slope gradients, and genetic soil types. Source materials included historical maps as well as a digital elevation model. Changes in forest cover were noted in spatial and temporal terms and were usually linked to morphology and soil type. While the 19th century was characterized by intense deforestation, this process reversed starting in the early 20th century. Nevertheless, forest cover in the study area has still not returned to its state from 1800.

Mots clés

  • forest
  • elevation
  • slope gradient
  • soils
  • Świętokrzyski National Park
access type Accès libre

Heat Fluxes and River Energy Budget on the Example of Lowland Świder River

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 65 - 74

Résumé

Abstract

The paper present the energy budget of the downstream part of lowland Świder River, right tributary of the Vistula River in Mazovian Lowland, Poland. Heat fluxes were calculated on the example of four days, representing different meteorological and vegetative conditions. Results confirmed the dominant role of radiation, which accounted for an average of 90.7% and 79.7% gains and losses of thermal energy. Participation of non-radiative components proved to be far less crucial; the average contribution of condensation, sensible heat transfer, bed conduction and friction in energy gains accounted respectively to 0.0%, 0.6%, 2.9% and 5.9%, while the average contribution of evaporation, sensible heat transfer and bed conduction in energy losses reached respectively 4.5%, 1.1% and 14.6%. The results showed significant effect of riparian vegetation and cloud cover on river heat fluxes

Mots clés

  • heat fluxes
  • river energy budget
  • water temperature
  • the Świder River
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Large Hail in Poland in 2012

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 75 - 84

Résumé

Abstract

This report analyses significant hailstorms that occurred in Poland during 2012. The number of reports, derived from the European Severe Weather Database with the hail diameter over or equal 2 cm, were analyzed with respect to their frequency in individual months, time of the day, intensity and spatial distribution. Analyzed cases were divided for hail with diameter less than 4 cm and greater or equal 4 cm. Accompanying conditions were examined by synoptic analysis charts derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst. The total number of 121 large hail cases gave 26 days with this phenomenon. The period of their occurrence extended from April to August reaching peak in July. Above 60% of all events were reported between 1500 and 1800 UTC. Most of them were associated with cold front and squall line features, usually with the south-western warm and moist air mass influx.

Mots clés

  • large hail
  • thunderstorm
  • severe weather
  • Poland
  • 2012
access type Accès libre

The River Systems in Small Catchments in the Context of the Horton’s and Schumm’s Laws – Implication for Hydrological Modelling. The Case Study of the Polish Carpathians

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 85 - 98

Résumé

Abstract

In ungauged catchments, flood hydrographs are usually simulated/reconstructed by simple rainfall-runoff and routing models. Horton’s and Schumm’s ratios serve as the input data for many of these models. In this paper, more than 800 Carpathian catchments (up to 35.2 km2 in area) were investigated in context of the “Horton’s and Schumm’s laws”. Results reveal that the “law of stream number” and “law of stream areas” are fulfilled in almost all catchments. The mean that values of the bifurcation ratio (RB) and the area ratio (RA) reach 3.8 and 4.8, respectively, and are thus comparable to values reported in other regions of the world. However, the “law of stream lengths” is not fulfilled in more than half of the catchments, which is not consistent with many theoretical studies reported in the literature. Only 383 (48%) catchments fulfill the “law of stream length”, with the mean value of the length ratio (RL)=2.3. There was no relationship found between the geological/geomorphological settings that influence river system development and the spatial distribution of catchments where the “law of stream length” was or was not was fulfilled. A similar conclusion was reached for the spatial distribution of the RB, RL, and RA ratios. These results confirmed that the use of Horton’s and Schumm’s ratios for the evaluation of the influence of geological/geomorphological settings on the river system development is limited. Among the lumped hydrological models, those requiring the RB, RL, and RA ratios have been extensively studied over last decades. This study suggests that the application of these models may be limited in small catchment areas; therefore, more attention should be placed on the development of hydrological models where the RB, RL, and RA ratios are not necessary.

Mots clés

  • Horton
  • Schumm
  • river systems
  • hydrological models
  • the Carpathians
access type Accès libre

Impact of Hydrotechnical Structures on Hydrological Regime of the Gwda and Drawa Rivers

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 99 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

The work attempts to determine the impact of hydrotechnical structures on regimes of rivers. The aim of the article is to compare hydrological regimes of the rivers Gwda and Drawa due to the differences of hydrotechnical works located on both rivers. The Gwda River is heavily managed by hydrotechnical infrastructure. Presently, there are twelve hydropower plants located along the entire length of the river. The Drawa River, on the other hand, has little hydrotechnical infrastructure. Only two hydropower plants are located on the Drawa River. The study of the hydrological regime was carried out on the basis of the analysis of changes of water stages and ice phenomena. River profiles selected for the analysis were located downstream of hydrotechnical works, i.e. hydropower plants. The conclusions were based on the comparative analysis. The impacts were identified as the differences in processes described by the analyzed parameters

Mots clés

  • hydrotechnical works
  • hydrological regime
  • the Gwda River
  • the Drawa River
access type Accès libre

Hydrogeochemical and Biogeochemical Processes in Kaffiøyra River Catchments (Spitsbergen, Norway)

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 111 - 124

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents the results of hydrogeochemical and biogeochemical studies in the area of Kaffiøyra river catchments in the ablation season 2004. Vegetation, hydrological regime, mineralization and ionic composition of circulating waters, rate of annual chemical denudation and biogenic CO2 content in soil air in relation to the concentration of dissolved and transported HCO3 - ions were documented. The waters represented the type HCO3 - - SO42- - Ca2+ - Mg2+. Most of ions showed a good correlation with electrical conductivity. A good correlation between dissolved and transported mass and the discharge was shown. The value of the chemical denudation in non-glacierized catchments of the Kaffiøyra plain was 0.07 and 0.13 t km-2 d-1, in glacierized catchment - 0,21 t km-2 d-1. The biogenic CO2 concentrations in tundra soil air ranged from 0.03-0.08%, while the average was 0.046%. The mean rate of CO2 ionic transport was 3 kg d-1, while of HCO3 - - 0.63 t d-1. A low correlation between the concentration of biogenic CO2 in soil air and HCO3 - was found, which indicates the involvement of other, unexamined bio- and physico-chemical processes.

Mots clés

  • Arctic
  • biogenic CO2
  • chemical denudation
  • hydrochemistry
  • hydrology
  • tundra vegetation
10 Articles
access type Accès libre

Hydroclimatic and Geological Conditions of the Variability of Fluvial Transport Rate in the Upper Part of the Wieprz River Catchment

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 5 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

The article summarises the results of observations conducted in the periods 1989-1992, 1998-2000, and 2001- 2003 in the catchment of the Roztocze section of the Wieprz River with an area of 404 km2. The presented results of the study on fluvial transport document the response of an upland river to variable hydro-climatic conditions. Fluvial transport rate in periods extreme in hydrological terms was compared. In the conditions of low water stages (1989- 1992) and mean annual discharges lower than the mean multiannual by 19%, the Wieprz River discharged an average of 13300 tonnes of solutions and 485 tonnes of suspensions annually. The unitary indices amounted to 32.7 and 1.2 t/ km2/year, respectively. In the years 1998-2000, in the conditions of high water stages and mean annual discharges higher than the multiannual by 41%, the Wieprz River discharged approximately 22,800 tonnes of solutions and 981 tonnes of suspensions annually. The unitary indices increased proportionately to 56.2 t/km2/year and 2.4 t/km2/year, respectively. In the years 2001-2003, in the conditions of variable water stages and discharges higher than the multiannual by 12%, the Wieprz River discharged an average of approximately 17,500 tonnes of solutions and 441 tonnes of suspensions annually. The unitary indices reached the values of 43.3 t/km2/year and 1.1 t/km2/year, respectively.

Mots clés

  • hydro-climatic drivers
  • geological conditions
  • fluvial transport
  • Wieprz River catchment
  • Roztocze Region
access type Accès libre

Types of Geoecosystems of the Lobelia Lakes of the Tricity Area

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 15 - 25

Résumé

Abstract

In the years 2009-2010 limnological research was carried out on 13 lobelia lakes of the Tricity metropolitan area. These lakes, of unique value not only on the scale of the country, are undergoing degradation due to increasing anthropogenic pressure. Grade of degradation of these lakes, depends on geoecosystem type, which they are representing. Geoecosystem type of the lake, defines the rate of natural eutrophication of reservoir. In this article types of geoecosystems of analysed lobelia lakes where defined in accordance with the guidelines of Bajkiewicz-Grabowska (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987, 2002). The obtained results indicate that only one of the analysed lakes (Zawiat Lake) is likely to retain a low trophic level. Four lakes (Głębokie, Kamień, Borowo, Techlinko) represent geoecosystems with a moderate rate of natural eutrophication. The remaining of the analysed lobelia lakes are threatened with fast water eutrophication, which is demonstrated by a high catchment vulnerability to activate areal load, and a low resistance of the lakes (resulting from their natural properties) to external supply. The obtained results correspond to field measurements and make it possible to indicate actions aimed at protecting the group of the analysed lobelia lakes.

Mots clés

  • lobelia lake
  • geosystem
  • geoecosystem
  • elementary geosystem
  • vulnerability and resistance to degradation
access type Accès libre

The Isle of The Dead Benchmark, the Sydney, Fort Denison Tide Gauge and the Ipcc Ar5 Chapter 13 Sea Levels Revisited

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 27 - 36

Résumé

Abstract

The paper revisits the Isle of the Dead benchmark and the Sydney, Fort Denison tide gauge to confirm that long term, high quality tide gauges are acceleration free, consistently to the analysis of key sites suggesting the sea levels are not sharply raising following the carbon dioxide emissions. The paper also discusses the flaws of the IPCC AR5 Chapter13 Sea levels. The time history of the relative rate of rise computed by linear fitting of the data locally collected by tide gauges is the best parameter to assess the effect of global warming providing length and quality requirements are satisfied. There is no reason to search for less reliable alternative methods because the climate models predicted different trends. The Global Positioning System (GPS) inferred vertical tide gauge velocity suffers of significant inaccuracies. Larger inaccuracies are provided by the satellite altimetry Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) that is a computation and not a measurement.

Mots clés

  • sea levels
  • tide gauges
  • key sites
  • ethics in science
  • scientific debate
access type Accès libre

Precipitation of the Mediterranean Origin in Poland – Its Seasonal and Long-Term Variability

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 37 - 53

Résumé

Abstract

The article presents the results of the analysis of precipitation in Poland associated with cyclones moving from the Mediterranean Sea to East-Central Europe (Mediterranean Cyclonal Precipitation - MCP). The MCP accounts for about 10% of the total amount of precipitation in Poland. Average daily sum of MCP constitutes approximately 150% of daily amount of all precipitation in Poland. The MCP amount reaches its maxima at the end of April and in the mid-August. The highest MCP occurs in the Carpathians and the Sudetes as well as over stripes of land extending northward and covering the central-western and eastern parts of the country. In the years 1958-2008, the mean annual MCP was characterized by a significant decreasing trend - the MCP sum reduced by 29 mm, i.e. ca. 42% of its multiannual value.

Mots clés

  • Mediterranean precipitation
  • seasonality
  • long-term changes
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Morphological and Soil Determinants of Forest Cover Changes in Świętokrzyski National Park and Its Buffer Zone in the last 200 Years

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 55 - 63

Résumé

Abstract

The research described in the paper utilized GIS methods and comparative cartography in order to analyze changes in forest cover in the period 1800-2011 in the Świętokrzyski National Park (76.26 km²) and its buffer zone (207.86 km²). The research was done for predefined elevation intervals, slope gradients, and genetic soil types. Source materials included historical maps as well as a digital elevation model. Changes in forest cover were noted in spatial and temporal terms and were usually linked to morphology and soil type. While the 19th century was characterized by intense deforestation, this process reversed starting in the early 20th century. Nevertheless, forest cover in the study area has still not returned to its state from 1800.

Mots clés

  • forest
  • elevation
  • slope gradient
  • soils
  • Świętokrzyski National Park
access type Accès libre

Heat Fluxes and River Energy Budget on the Example of Lowland Świder River

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 65 - 74

Résumé

Abstract

The paper present the energy budget of the downstream part of lowland Świder River, right tributary of the Vistula River in Mazovian Lowland, Poland. Heat fluxes were calculated on the example of four days, representing different meteorological and vegetative conditions. Results confirmed the dominant role of radiation, which accounted for an average of 90.7% and 79.7% gains and losses of thermal energy. Participation of non-radiative components proved to be far less crucial; the average contribution of condensation, sensible heat transfer, bed conduction and friction in energy gains accounted respectively to 0.0%, 0.6%, 2.9% and 5.9%, while the average contribution of evaporation, sensible heat transfer and bed conduction in energy losses reached respectively 4.5%, 1.1% and 14.6%. The results showed significant effect of riparian vegetation and cloud cover on river heat fluxes

Mots clés

  • heat fluxes
  • river energy budget
  • water temperature
  • the Świder River
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Large Hail in Poland in 2012

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 75 - 84

Résumé

Abstract

This report analyses significant hailstorms that occurred in Poland during 2012. The number of reports, derived from the European Severe Weather Database with the hail diameter over or equal 2 cm, were analyzed with respect to their frequency in individual months, time of the day, intensity and spatial distribution. Analyzed cases were divided for hail with diameter less than 4 cm and greater or equal 4 cm. Accompanying conditions were examined by synoptic analysis charts derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst. The total number of 121 large hail cases gave 26 days with this phenomenon. The period of their occurrence extended from April to August reaching peak in July. Above 60% of all events were reported between 1500 and 1800 UTC. Most of them were associated with cold front and squall line features, usually with the south-western warm and moist air mass influx.

Mots clés

  • large hail
  • thunderstorm
  • severe weather
  • Poland
  • 2012
access type Accès libre

The River Systems in Small Catchments in the Context of the Horton’s and Schumm’s Laws – Implication for Hydrological Modelling. The Case Study of the Polish Carpathians

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 85 - 98

Résumé

Abstract

In ungauged catchments, flood hydrographs are usually simulated/reconstructed by simple rainfall-runoff and routing models. Horton’s and Schumm’s ratios serve as the input data for many of these models. In this paper, more than 800 Carpathian catchments (up to 35.2 km2 in area) were investigated in context of the “Horton’s and Schumm’s laws”. Results reveal that the “law of stream number” and “law of stream areas” are fulfilled in almost all catchments. The mean that values of the bifurcation ratio (RB) and the area ratio (RA) reach 3.8 and 4.8, respectively, and are thus comparable to values reported in other regions of the world. However, the “law of stream lengths” is not fulfilled in more than half of the catchments, which is not consistent with many theoretical studies reported in the literature. Only 383 (48%) catchments fulfill the “law of stream length”, with the mean value of the length ratio (RL)=2.3. There was no relationship found between the geological/geomorphological settings that influence river system development and the spatial distribution of catchments where the “law of stream length” was or was not was fulfilled. A similar conclusion was reached for the spatial distribution of the RB, RL, and RA ratios. These results confirmed that the use of Horton’s and Schumm’s ratios for the evaluation of the influence of geological/geomorphological settings on the river system development is limited. Among the lumped hydrological models, those requiring the RB, RL, and RA ratios have been extensively studied over last decades. This study suggests that the application of these models may be limited in small catchment areas; therefore, more attention should be placed on the development of hydrological models where the RB, RL, and RA ratios are not necessary.

Mots clés

  • Horton
  • Schumm
  • river systems
  • hydrological models
  • the Carpathians
access type Accès libre

Impact of Hydrotechnical Structures on Hydrological Regime of the Gwda and Drawa Rivers

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 99 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

The work attempts to determine the impact of hydrotechnical structures on regimes of rivers. The aim of the article is to compare hydrological regimes of the rivers Gwda and Drawa due to the differences of hydrotechnical works located on both rivers. The Gwda River is heavily managed by hydrotechnical infrastructure. Presently, there are twelve hydropower plants located along the entire length of the river. The Drawa River, on the other hand, has little hydrotechnical infrastructure. Only two hydropower plants are located on the Drawa River. The study of the hydrological regime was carried out on the basis of the analysis of changes of water stages and ice phenomena. River profiles selected for the analysis were located downstream of hydrotechnical works, i.e. hydropower plants. The conclusions were based on the comparative analysis. The impacts were identified as the differences in processes described by the analyzed parameters

Mots clés

  • hydrotechnical works
  • hydrological regime
  • the Gwda River
  • the Drawa River
access type Accès libre

Hydrogeochemical and Biogeochemical Processes in Kaffiøyra River Catchments (Spitsbergen, Norway)

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2015
Pages: 111 - 124

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents the results of hydrogeochemical and biogeochemical studies in the area of Kaffiøyra river catchments in the ablation season 2004. Vegetation, hydrological regime, mineralization and ionic composition of circulating waters, rate of annual chemical denudation and biogenic CO2 content in soil air in relation to the concentration of dissolved and transported HCO3 - ions were documented. The waters represented the type HCO3 - - SO42- - Ca2+ - Mg2+. Most of ions showed a good correlation with electrical conductivity. A good correlation between dissolved and transported mass and the discharge was shown. The value of the chemical denudation in non-glacierized catchments of the Kaffiøyra plain was 0.07 and 0.13 t km-2 d-1, in glacierized catchment - 0,21 t km-2 d-1. The biogenic CO2 concentrations in tundra soil air ranged from 0.03-0.08%, while the average was 0.046%. The mean rate of CO2 ionic transport was 3 kg d-1, while of HCO3 - - 0.63 t d-1. A low correlation between the concentration of biogenic CO2 in soil air and HCO3 - was found, which indicates the involvement of other, unexamined bio- and physico-chemical processes.

Mots clés

  • Arctic
  • biogenic CO2
  • chemical denudation
  • hydrochemistry
  • hydrology
  • tundra vegetation

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