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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 34 (2015): Edition 3 (September 2015)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

12 Articles
access type Accès libre

Spatial Distribution And Synoptic Conditions Of Snow Accumulation And Snow Ablation In The West Siberian Plain

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 5 - 15

Résumé

Abstract

The mean duration of snow coverage in the West Siberian Plain is approximately eight months in the north to about five months in the south. While the period of intense snow melting is short (one or two months between March and May), snow accumulation persists for most of the cold season. Snow accumulation is associated with negative anomalies of sea level pressure, which means increased cyclonal activity and weaker than normal Siberian High. Much lower anomalies of sea level pressure occur during snow ablation. This suggests smaller influence of air circulation on snow cover reduction in spring.

Mots clés

  • snow accumulation
  • snow ablation
  • West Siberian Plain
  • air circulation
access type Accès libre

The Impact Of Anthropogenic Pressure On The Change Of Water Relations In Gardno-Łeba Lowland

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 17 - 31

Résumé

Abstract

This article presents an analysis of cartographic materials of the 19th and 20th centuries in terms of changes in the surface water network of the Gardno-Łeba Lowland. The obtained results confirmed that the natural water network was slightly transformed in the first half of the 19th century and considerably increased in the 20th century as a result of agricultural drainage system, especially drainage of wetlands, and river regulations. As a consequence, a hydrographic system with a forced water circulation has developed, that is quite different from the natural. On the one hand, it has become the reason for reversing the proportion in which the groundwater resources have been depleted, along with an increase in the surface water network density, and on the other hand it has caused a change in land use.

Mots clés

  • water relations
  • agriculture
  • irrigation
  • topographic map
  • land use
access type Accès libre

Two Strategies Of Agent-Based Modelling Application For Management Of Lakeland Landscapes At A Regional Scale

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 33 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

This work presents two different strategies of ABM for management of selected lakeland landscapes and their impact on sustainable development. Two different lakeland research areas as well as two different sets of agents and their decision rules were compared. In Strategy 1 decisions made by farmers and their influence on the land use/cover pattern as well as the indirect consequence of phosphorus and nitrogen delivery to the water bodies were investigated. In this strategy, a group of farmer agents is encouraged to participate in an agri-environmental program. The Strategy 2 combines the decisions of farmers, foresters and local authorities. The agents in the model share a common goal to produce a spatial plan. The land use/cover patterns arising from different attitudes and decision rules of the involved actors were investigated. As the basic spatial unit, the first strategy employed a landscape unit, i.e. lake catchment whereas the second strategy used an administrative unit, i.e. commune. Both strategies resulted in different land use/cover patterns and changes, which were evaluated in terms of sustainability policy. The main conclusion for Strategy 1 is that during 5 years of farmer’s participation in the agri-environmental program, there was significant decrease of nutrient leaching to the lake. The main conclusion for Strategy 2 should be stated that cooperating of the agents is better for the natural environment than the competitions between them. In both strategies, agents’ decisions influence the environment but different spatial units of analysis express this environment.

Mots clés

  • agent-based modelling (ABM)
  • land use/cover change (LUCC)
  • geographical information systems (GIS)
  • decision-making modelling
  • lakeland landscapes
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Driving Forces Of The Development Of Suburban Landscape – A Case Study Of The Sulkov Site West Of Pilsen

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 51 - 64

Résumé

Abstract

In the study area of the Sulkov site in the western part of the suburban landscape of the city of Pilsen we focus on detailed historical analysis of the development of the landscape, which has undergone significant changes, and thus clearly demonstrates the impact of the driving forces on both the regional and inter-regional levels. The documented historical development of ecotopes proved that the fundamental changes in the use of the natural potential had been determined by social and economical demand. The specific use of each type of ecotopes of the site was then co-decided by the natural potential of the area and the geographic location with good transport connection, i.e. local and regional factors.

Mots clés

  • driving forces
  • suburban landscape
  • landscape changes
  • historical analysis
  • natural potencial
access type Accès libre

Tourist Traffic In The Aconcagua Massif Area

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 65 - 76

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the article is an analysis of tourist traffic in the Aconcagua massif, one of the most popular peaks of the Seven Summits. On the basis of statistical data, the tourist traffic was analysed in a temporal and spatial perspective. The applied data made it possible to capture the dynamics of visits in the period 2000/2001 – 2012/2013 and with a breakdown into months, which helped analyse the tourist traffic in this area. In each of the analysed periods, January dominates. Data concerning the origin of tourists according to countries and continents, their age, gender and type of mountaineering activity were also taken into account. Most tourists came from Argentina, the USA and Germany. These are people of age groups 21–30 (33%) and 31–40 (31%). Men account for over 75% of visitors. The favourite mountaineering activity is climbing (about 60%). Aconcagua has invariably been a very popular peak among tourists and climbers. It is a place for training and acclimatisation for alpinists, participating in Himalayan expeditions and climbers collecting peaks of the Seven Summits.

Mots clés

  • tourist traffic
  • climbing
  • Andes
  • Aconcagua
access type Accès libre

Regional Hazard Analysis For Use In Vulnerability And Risk Assessment

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 77 - 84

Résumé

Abstract

A method for supporting an operational regional risk and vulnerability analysis for hydrological hazards is suggested and applied in the Island of Cyprus. The method aggregates the output of a hydrological flow model forced by observed temperatures and precipitations, with observed discharge data. A scheme supported by observed discharge is applied for model calibration. A comparison of different calibration schemes indicated that the same model parameters can be used for the entire country. In addition, it was demonstrated that, for operational purposes, it is sufficient to rely on a few stations. Model parameters were adjusted to account for land use and thus for vulnerability of elements at risk by comparing observed and simulated flow patterns, using all components of the hydrological model. The results can be used for regional risk and vulnerability analysis in order to increase the resilience of the affected population.

Mots clés

  • hazard analysis
  • operational analysis
  • risk assessment
  • vulnerability
access type Accès libre

Temperature Changes In Poland In 21st Century – Results Of Global Simulation And Regional Downscaling

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 85 - 99

Résumé

Abstract

The main source of information about future climate changes are the results of numerical simulations performed in scientific institutions around the world. Present projections from global circulation models (GCMs) are too coarse and are only usefulness for the world, hemisphere or continent spatial analysis. The low horizontal resolution of global models (100–200 km), does not allow to assess climate changes at regional or local scales. Therefore it is necessary to lead studies concerning how to detail the GCMs information. The problem of information transfer from the GCMs to higher spatial scale solve: dynamical and statistical downscaling. The dynamical downscaling method based on “nesting” global information in a regional models (RCMs), which solve the equations of motion and the thermodynamic laws in a small spatial scale (10–50 km). However, the statistical downscaling models (SDMs) identify the relationship between large-scale variable (predictor) and small-scale variable (predictand) implementing linear regression. The main goal of the study was to compare the global model scenarios of thermal condition in Poland in XXI century with the more accurate statistical and dynamical regional models outcomes. Generally studies confirmed usefulness of statistical downscaling to detail information from GCMs. Basic results present that regional models captured local aspects of thermal conditions variability especially in coastal zone.

Mots clés

  • downscaling
  • climate changes
  • air temperature
  • canonical correlation analysis
  • weather generator
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Palaeogeographical And Archaeological Records Of Natural Changes Of The Jordanowo-Niesulice Subglacial Channel Near Lubrza, The Lubusz Lakeland

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 101 - 116

Résumé

Abstract

The region of the Lubusz Lakeland in western Poland where there are a lot of subglacial channels provides opportunity for multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. None of them has not been the object of a specific study. The developmental history of the palaeolakes and their vicinity in the subglacial trough Jordanowo-Niesulice, spanning the Late Glacial and beginning of the Holocene, was investigated using geological research, lithological and geomorphological analysis, geochemical composition, palynological and archaeological research, OSL and AMS-radiocarbon dating. Geological research shows varied morphology of subglacial channel where at least two different reservoirs functioned in the end of the Last Glacial period and at the beginning of the Holocene. Mostly during the Bølling-Allerød interval and at the beginning of the Younger Dryas there took place melting of buried ice-blocks which preserved the analysied course of the Jordanowo-Niesulice trough. The level of water, and especially depth of reservoirs underwent also changes. Palynological analysis shows very diversified course of the Allerød interval.

Mots clés

  • palaeogrography
  • palaeoclimate
  • subglacial channels/trough
  • pollen analysis
  • human impact
  • geoarchaeology
access type Accès libre

Dynamic Visualization Of Sensor Measurements: Context Based Approach

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 117 - 128

Résumé

Abstract

An amount of data measured with sensors is increasing year to year. Every sensor has a location and sensor data are mostly measured for long time period, so visualization of location and regular updating of visualized value is necessary. Various characteristics (e.g. meteorological conditions) can be automatically read at frequent intervals and those readings can be aggregated into the interactive map visualization. This map must be not only legible but also understandable also for readers that are experts in their specialisation, however, not in cartography. This paper presents possibilities of using and implementation of adaptive cartography and visual seeking principles for interactive visualization and analysis of sensor based data measured in real time. Our solution is described on experimental application for precise farming that we developed during research project Agrisensor.

Mots clés

  • adaptive cartography
  • visual seeking
  • interactive map
  • sensor data
  • precise farming
access type Accès libre

Old Melioration Systems: The Influence Onto Functioning Of Geoecosystems Of River Valleys In The Parsęta (NW Poland)

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 129 - 140

Résumé

Abstract

Meliorations and their specific forms – irrigations – are one of the forms of anthropopressure within geoecosystems. The research studies conducted within the Parsęta basin focused on the sub-irrigation (seepage irrigation) systems formed in the 19th century. Query of archive materials and maps, hydrochemical and phytosociological terrain mapping and laboratory testing of water samples collected were used in the studies. In the study area were found the remains of the thirty old irrigation systems, which together occupy 2% of the Parsęta basin area. For many years most of them have not fulfilled their primary economic functions. Still, these systems have an impact on the cycle of waters and have become an important factor in increasing the geo- and biodiversity within the postglacial landscape. By expanding a range of wetland riparian areas, they fulfil relevant functions to protect surface waters against the supply of biogenic components. Some of them could be used to enlarge wetlands and floodplains within river valleys.

Mots clés

  • meliorations
  • irrigations
  • West Pomerania
  • the Parsęta basin
  • geoecosystems of river valleys
  • geo- and bio-diversity
access type Accès libre

Circulation Influence On Cloudiness In Poznań

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 141 - 149

Résumé

Abstract

The frequency of occurrence of cloud cover was analysed taking into consideration its circulation-related conditioning. The atmospheric circulation types according to Osuchowska-Klein (1978) classification were used. The study was made based on diurnal climatological observations carried out in Poznań-Ławica in years 1966–1998. It was found that the cloudless skies and small cloudiness were associated with anticyclonic types of atmospheric circulation and the east macrotype. Moderate cloudiness occurred equally at cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation types. Larger cloud coverage of the sky was associated with cyclonic circulation, especially with the west macrotype.

Mots clés

  • cloudiness
  • Osuchowska-Klein classification
  • atmospheric circulation types
  • Poznań
access type Accès libre

How Reliable Are Selected Methods Of Projections Of Future Thermal Conditions? A Case From Poland

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 151 - 160

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to assess the robustness of four bias correction techniques: simple bias correction, distribution based bias correction, delta change and distribution based delta change. Data from nine RCM simulations of CORDEX project and 41 Polish weather stations were used. The methods were calibrated in the period 1971–1985 and evaluated in 1991–2005. The improvement in mean, 10th and 90th percentiles was shown, without significant differences among methods. For 1st and 99th percentiles the improvement was generally weaker and simple methods seem to be more robust than the distribution based ones. Strong differences between individual models were found, so the use of model ensemble is recommended.

Mots clés

  • bias correction
  • delta change
  • regional climate models
  • temperature
  • Poland
12 Articles
access type Accès libre

Spatial Distribution And Synoptic Conditions Of Snow Accumulation And Snow Ablation In The West Siberian Plain

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 5 - 15

Résumé

Abstract

The mean duration of snow coverage in the West Siberian Plain is approximately eight months in the north to about five months in the south. While the period of intense snow melting is short (one or two months between March and May), snow accumulation persists for most of the cold season. Snow accumulation is associated with negative anomalies of sea level pressure, which means increased cyclonal activity and weaker than normal Siberian High. Much lower anomalies of sea level pressure occur during snow ablation. This suggests smaller influence of air circulation on snow cover reduction in spring.

Mots clés

  • snow accumulation
  • snow ablation
  • West Siberian Plain
  • air circulation
access type Accès libre

The Impact Of Anthropogenic Pressure On The Change Of Water Relations In Gardno-Łeba Lowland

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 17 - 31

Résumé

Abstract

This article presents an analysis of cartographic materials of the 19th and 20th centuries in terms of changes in the surface water network of the Gardno-Łeba Lowland. The obtained results confirmed that the natural water network was slightly transformed in the first half of the 19th century and considerably increased in the 20th century as a result of agricultural drainage system, especially drainage of wetlands, and river regulations. As a consequence, a hydrographic system with a forced water circulation has developed, that is quite different from the natural. On the one hand, it has become the reason for reversing the proportion in which the groundwater resources have been depleted, along with an increase in the surface water network density, and on the other hand it has caused a change in land use.

Mots clés

  • water relations
  • agriculture
  • irrigation
  • topographic map
  • land use
access type Accès libre

Two Strategies Of Agent-Based Modelling Application For Management Of Lakeland Landscapes At A Regional Scale

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 33 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

This work presents two different strategies of ABM for management of selected lakeland landscapes and their impact on sustainable development. Two different lakeland research areas as well as two different sets of agents and their decision rules were compared. In Strategy 1 decisions made by farmers and their influence on the land use/cover pattern as well as the indirect consequence of phosphorus and nitrogen delivery to the water bodies were investigated. In this strategy, a group of farmer agents is encouraged to participate in an agri-environmental program. The Strategy 2 combines the decisions of farmers, foresters and local authorities. The agents in the model share a common goal to produce a spatial plan. The land use/cover patterns arising from different attitudes and decision rules of the involved actors were investigated. As the basic spatial unit, the first strategy employed a landscape unit, i.e. lake catchment whereas the second strategy used an administrative unit, i.e. commune. Both strategies resulted in different land use/cover patterns and changes, which were evaluated in terms of sustainability policy. The main conclusion for Strategy 1 is that during 5 years of farmer’s participation in the agri-environmental program, there was significant decrease of nutrient leaching to the lake. The main conclusion for Strategy 2 should be stated that cooperating of the agents is better for the natural environment than the competitions between them. In both strategies, agents’ decisions influence the environment but different spatial units of analysis express this environment.

Mots clés

  • agent-based modelling (ABM)
  • land use/cover change (LUCC)
  • geographical information systems (GIS)
  • decision-making modelling
  • lakeland landscapes
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Driving Forces Of The Development Of Suburban Landscape – A Case Study Of The Sulkov Site West Of Pilsen

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 51 - 64

Résumé

Abstract

In the study area of the Sulkov site in the western part of the suburban landscape of the city of Pilsen we focus on detailed historical analysis of the development of the landscape, which has undergone significant changes, and thus clearly demonstrates the impact of the driving forces on both the regional and inter-regional levels. The documented historical development of ecotopes proved that the fundamental changes in the use of the natural potential had been determined by social and economical demand. The specific use of each type of ecotopes of the site was then co-decided by the natural potential of the area and the geographic location with good transport connection, i.e. local and regional factors.

Mots clés

  • driving forces
  • suburban landscape
  • landscape changes
  • historical analysis
  • natural potencial
access type Accès libre

Tourist Traffic In The Aconcagua Massif Area

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 65 - 76

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the article is an analysis of tourist traffic in the Aconcagua massif, one of the most popular peaks of the Seven Summits. On the basis of statistical data, the tourist traffic was analysed in a temporal and spatial perspective. The applied data made it possible to capture the dynamics of visits in the period 2000/2001 – 2012/2013 and with a breakdown into months, which helped analyse the tourist traffic in this area. In each of the analysed periods, January dominates. Data concerning the origin of tourists according to countries and continents, their age, gender and type of mountaineering activity were also taken into account. Most tourists came from Argentina, the USA and Germany. These are people of age groups 21–30 (33%) and 31–40 (31%). Men account for over 75% of visitors. The favourite mountaineering activity is climbing (about 60%). Aconcagua has invariably been a very popular peak among tourists and climbers. It is a place for training and acclimatisation for alpinists, participating in Himalayan expeditions and climbers collecting peaks of the Seven Summits.

Mots clés

  • tourist traffic
  • climbing
  • Andes
  • Aconcagua
access type Accès libre

Regional Hazard Analysis For Use In Vulnerability And Risk Assessment

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 77 - 84

Résumé

Abstract

A method for supporting an operational regional risk and vulnerability analysis for hydrological hazards is suggested and applied in the Island of Cyprus. The method aggregates the output of a hydrological flow model forced by observed temperatures and precipitations, with observed discharge data. A scheme supported by observed discharge is applied for model calibration. A comparison of different calibration schemes indicated that the same model parameters can be used for the entire country. In addition, it was demonstrated that, for operational purposes, it is sufficient to rely on a few stations. Model parameters were adjusted to account for land use and thus for vulnerability of elements at risk by comparing observed and simulated flow patterns, using all components of the hydrological model. The results can be used for regional risk and vulnerability analysis in order to increase the resilience of the affected population.

Mots clés

  • hazard analysis
  • operational analysis
  • risk assessment
  • vulnerability
access type Accès libre

Temperature Changes In Poland In 21st Century – Results Of Global Simulation And Regional Downscaling

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 85 - 99

Résumé

Abstract

The main source of information about future climate changes are the results of numerical simulations performed in scientific institutions around the world. Present projections from global circulation models (GCMs) are too coarse and are only usefulness for the world, hemisphere or continent spatial analysis. The low horizontal resolution of global models (100–200 km), does not allow to assess climate changes at regional or local scales. Therefore it is necessary to lead studies concerning how to detail the GCMs information. The problem of information transfer from the GCMs to higher spatial scale solve: dynamical and statistical downscaling. The dynamical downscaling method based on “nesting” global information in a regional models (RCMs), which solve the equations of motion and the thermodynamic laws in a small spatial scale (10–50 km). However, the statistical downscaling models (SDMs) identify the relationship between large-scale variable (predictor) and small-scale variable (predictand) implementing linear regression. The main goal of the study was to compare the global model scenarios of thermal condition in Poland in XXI century with the more accurate statistical and dynamical regional models outcomes. Generally studies confirmed usefulness of statistical downscaling to detail information from GCMs. Basic results present that regional models captured local aspects of thermal conditions variability especially in coastal zone.

Mots clés

  • downscaling
  • climate changes
  • air temperature
  • canonical correlation analysis
  • weather generator
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Palaeogeographical And Archaeological Records Of Natural Changes Of The Jordanowo-Niesulice Subglacial Channel Near Lubrza, The Lubusz Lakeland

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 101 - 116

Résumé

Abstract

The region of the Lubusz Lakeland in western Poland where there are a lot of subglacial channels provides opportunity for multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. None of them has not been the object of a specific study. The developmental history of the palaeolakes and their vicinity in the subglacial trough Jordanowo-Niesulice, spanning the Late Glacial and beginning of the Holocene, was investigated using geological research, lithological and geomorphological analysis, geochemical composition, palynological and archaeological research, OSL and AMS-radiocarbon dating. Geological research shows varied morphology of subglacial channel where at least two different reservoirs functioned in the end of the Last Glacial period and at the beginning of the Holocene. Mostly during the Bølling-Allerød interval and at the beginning of the Younger Dryas there took place melting of buried ice-blocks which preserved the analysied course of the Jordanowo-Niesulice trough. The level of water, and especially depth of reservoirs underwent also changes. Palynological analysis shows very diversified course of the Allerød interval.

Mots clés

  • palaeogrography
  • palaeoclimate
  • subglacial channels/trough
  • pollen analysis
  • human impact
  • geoarchaeology
access type Accès libre

Dynamic Visualization Of Sensor Measurements: Context Based Approach

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 117 - 128

Résumé

Abstract

An amount of data measured with sensors is increasing year to year. Every sensor has a location and sensor data are mostly measured for long time period, so visualization of location and regular updating of visualized value is necessary. Various characteristics (e.g. meteorological conditions) can be automatically read at frequent intervals and those readings can be aggregated into the interactive map visualization. This map must be not only legible but also understandable also for readers that are experts in their specialisation, however, not in cartography. This paper presents possibilities of using and implementation of adaptive cartography and visual seeking principles for interactive visualization and analysis of sensor based data measured in real time. Our solution is described on experimental application for precise farming that we developed during research project Agrisensor.

Mots clés

  • adaptive cartography
  • visual seeking
  • interactive map
  • sensor data
  • precise farming
access type Accès libre

Old Melioration Systems: The Influence Onto Functioning Of Geoecosystems Of River Valleys In The Parsęta (NW Poland)

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 129 - 140

Résumé

Abstract

Meliorations and their specific forms – irrigations – are one of the forms of anthropopressure within geoecosystems. The research studies conducted within the Parsęta basin focused on the sub-irrigation (seepage irrigation) systems formed in the 19th century. Query of archive materials and maps, hydrochemical and phytosociological terrain mapping and laboratory testing of water samples collected were used in the studies. In the study area were found the remains of the thirty old irrigation systems, which together occupy 2% of the Parsęta basin area. For many years most of them have not fulfilled their primary economic functions. Still, these systems have an impact on the cycle of waters and have become an important factor in increasing the geo- and biodiversity within the postglacial landscape. By expanding a range of wetland riparian areas, they fulfil relevant functions to protect surface waters against the supply of biogenic components. Some of them could be used to enlarge wetlands and floodplains within river valleys.

Mots clés

  • meliorations
  • irrigations
  • West Pomerania
  • the Parsęta basin
  • geoecosystems of river valleys
  • geo- and bio-diversity
access type Accès libre

Circulation Influence On Cloudiness In Poznań

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 141 - 149

Résumé

Abstract

The frequency of occurrence of cloud cover was analysed taking into consideration its circulation-related conditioning. The atmospheric circulation types according to Osuchowska-Klein (1978) classification were used. The study was made based on diurnal climatological observations carried out in Poznań-Ławica in years 1966–1998. It was found that the cloudless skies and small cloudiness were associated with anticyclonic types of atmospheric circulation and the east macrotype. Moderate cloudiness occurred equally at cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation types. Larger cloud coverage of the sky was associated with cyclonic circulation, especially with the west macrotype.

Mots clés

  • cloudiness
  • Osuchowska-Klein classification
  • atmospheric circulation types
  • Poznań
access type Accès libre

How Reliable Are Selected Methods Of Projections Of Future Thermal Conditions? A Case From Poland

Publié en ligne: 30 Dec 2015
Pages: 151 - 160

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to assess the robustness of four bias correction techniques: simple bias correction, distribution based bias correction, delta change and distribution based delta change. Data from nine RCM simulations of CORDEX project and 41 Polish weather stations were used. The methods were calibrated in the period 1971–1985 and evaluated in 1991–2005. The improvement in mean, 10th and 90th percentiles was shown, without significant differences among methods. For 1st and 99th percentiles the improvement was generally weaker and simple methods seem to be more robust than the distribution based ones. Strong differences between individual models were found, so the use of model ensemble is recommended.

Mots clés

  • bias correction
  • delta change
  • regional climate models
  • temperature
  • Poland

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