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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 33 (2014): Edition 2 (June 2014)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2081-6383
Première publication
01 Jun 1974
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

14 Articles
access type Accès libre

Urban Geography Evolving: Toward an Evolutionary Urban Geography

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 7 - 18

Résumé

Abstract

Despite growing interest in the application of evolutionary concepts to research questions in human geography, the literature is largely characterised by metaphors or analogies that are disconnected from a broader evolutionary theoretical framework. This paper takes initial steps toward developing such a framework for the subfield of urban geography by defining critical elements and relationships from Darwinian and multilevel selection theories. It then synthesises those components in an application to the issues of urban blight and disorder, to demonstrate how an evolutionary understanding of urban spatial phenomena - an “evolutionary urban geography” - can produce new insights for managing complex processes.

Mots clés

  • evolutionary urban geography
  • urban change
  • urban decline
  • evolution
access type Accès libre

Role of Creative Industries in the Post-Socialist Urban Transformation

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 19 - 35

Résumé

Abstract

Over the past two decades the cities in Central and Eastern Europe have witnessed a wide-ranging transformation in many aspects. The introduction of a market-oriented economy after half a century of socialism has brought about deep social, economic, cultural and political changes. The first stage of the changes, the 1990s, involved the patching up of structural holes left by the previous system. The post-socialist city had to face challenges of the future while carrying the ballast of the past. Rapid progress in catching up with the West transformed the city a great deal. Later on, the advent of the 21st century brought a new wave of development processes based, among other things, on creativity and innovation. Hence our contribution aims to explore the role of creativity and creative industries in the post-socialist urban transformation. The article consists of three basic parts. In the first we present the concept of a ‘creative post-socialist city’ and define the position of creative industries in it. We also indicate some similarities to and differences from the West European approaches to this issue. In the second part, examples from Central and Eastern Europe are used in an attempt to elucidate the concept of a ‘creative post-socialist city’ by identifying some basic features of creative actions /processes as well as a creative environment, both exogenous and endogenous. The former is embedded in different local networks, both formal (institutionalised) and informal, whereas the structure of the latter is strongly path-dependent. In the third part we critically discuss the role of local policies on the development of creative industries, pointing out some of their shortcomings and drawing up recommendations for future policy measures.

Mots clés

  • creative city
  • creative industries
  • post-socialist transformation
  • urban policies
access type Accès libre

Population Potential as a Modulator of Land use Changes in Poland’S Metropolitan Areas

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 37 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

Land use is defined as a spatial distribution of individual forms of land cover patches, utilised or not utilised by humans within the framework of mutual and spatial relationships. It refers to the functional character of a given terrain, and is also identified with a socio-economic description of the land surface. Changes in land use can be interpreted as a complex and, to some extent, a random process. These assumptions serve as a point of departure in an attempt to evaluate spatial and temporal differences in land use changes in the metropolitan areas of Poland, using the entropy formula. The analysis focuses on population development as a factor that impacts upon land use change. The approach proposed here allows us to study land use dynamics in detail, with the help of cartographic visualisation.

Mots clés

  • land use
  • metropolitan area
  • population potential
  • entropy
access type Accès libre

Contemporary Determinants of the Development of Socio-Economic Regions

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 51 - 61

Résumé

Abstract

This article examines the effect on the development of socio-economic regions in Poland of contemporary external determinants considered at the European and the world scale. It consists of two parts. The first gives a description of the main general processes that are external determinants of regional development today: modernisation changes, globalisation, metropolitanisation, and European integration. Part two is empirical in character and seeks to find regional manifestations and effects of those determinants in Poland, and to establish how they influence regional income and spatial differences in its value.

Mots clés

  • external determinants
  • modernisation
  • globalisation
  • metropolitanisation
  • European integration
  • regional development
  • regional differences
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Variations in the Spatial Distribution of Areas of Economic Growth and Stagnation in Poland: Determinants and Consequences

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 63 - 77

Résumé

Abstract

This study seeks to identify the spatial distribution of and changes in areas of economic growth and stagnation in Poland resulting from spatial differences in the process of the country’s socio-economic advancement. The research covered two spatial systems, NUTS 2 and NUTS 4, and embraced the following steps: (1) identification of the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its determinants; (2) analysis of variations in the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its consequences; and (3) conclusions from the development trajectories identified and recommendations for intervention measures to be taken under cohesion policy.

The results presented here come from one of the stages of a research conducted under the project Socio-economic development and the formation of areas of economic growth and stagnation, funded by the National Science Centre (N N306 791940). The project is implemented by a team of staff members of the Department of Regional Analysis of the Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, headed by the present author.

Mots clés

  • differences
  • growth
  • stagnation
  • areas
  • region
  • subregion
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 79 - 86

Résumé

Abstract

Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

Poland and Russia, supported by Germany, applied to the EU for small border traffic to cover the entire territory of the Oblast. According to the European Commission, the proposed solution would be a European exception. The agreement on small border traffic came into force on July 27, 2012, covering the entire area of the Kaliningrad Oblast and selected Polish poviats of Pomerania and Warmia-Mazuria voivodeships. Towards the end of the first quarter of 2013, the number of Poles crossing the border showed a rising tendency, and starting from the second through the third quarter of 2013, the number of Russians coming to Poland grew more dynamically.

The visits of Kaliningrad residents, apart from commercially oriented ones, also include recreation, tourism, medical tourism visits, etc. Kaliningrad citizens looking for leisure, recreation and entertainment come to participate in great sporting and cultural events in Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia. The local self governments of poviats covered by small border traffic noted a clear upturn in the economies and trade of their regions.

The development of cross-border cooperation, including small border traffic, has not resulted in attracting a substantial number of Polish tourists to the Kaliningrad Oblast, but it has provided such a possibility. This region is quite expensive for the average Pole. However, as scientists from Kaliningrad projected, with the easing of the visa system and the development of transport and tourist infrastructure the role of tourism shows a growing trend.

Mots clés

  • small border traffic
  • cross-border cooperation
  • Kaliningrad Oblast
access type Accès libre

Agrarian-Economic Structure of Agricultural Holdings in Poland and East Germany: Selected Elements of Comparative Analysis

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 87 - 101

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine differences in the development of farms in Poland against the agriculture of East Germany, and to show areas with similar conditions for development. The time range of the research covered the years 2002-2010, i.e. the stage of preparation of Polish agriculture for accession to the European Union, the implementation of pre-accession aid programmes, and the establishment and implementation of the tools of the Common Agricultural Policy. To assess the level of agricultural development, natural, productive and social characteristics were adopted. Spatial variations in the analysed features were based on the variation coefficient (Vz), and the level of agricultural development, on Perkal’s index (Wi). In the analysed period the range of variation and the degree of the spatial dispersion of sub-indices changed, indicating a deepening of the polarisation processes in agriculture. The implementation of CAP intensified the process of specialisation and modernisation in agriculture, an example of which is the increase in the average farm size and in agricultural productivity. On the other hand, agricultural production intensified, as exemplified by a decrease in the minimum value in six of the analysed characteristics, which indicates growing disparities.

Mots clés

  • agriculture
  • agrarian structure
  • crop and animal production
  • Poland
  • Germany
access type Accès libre

Quality of Life and Attractiveness of Small Towns: A Comparison of France and Poland

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 103 - 113

Résumé

Abstract

Nowadays the issue of the quality of life tends to be more and more important for the attractiveness of spaces in the context of increasing commuting and social demand for a good living environment. Small towns are often seen as places where “the living is easy” and social ties are dense. They are therefore a good basis for analysing the quality of life. This is a transversal and complex notion which is not always easy to define. This paper is based on surveys conducted in small Polish and French towns in order to analyse perceptions of the quality of life by both their inhabitants and local leaders, and their potential place in the attractiveness of small towns.

Mots clés

  • small towns
  • quality of life
  • attractiveness of towns
  • Poland
  • France
access type Accès libre

Social Inclusion by Revitalisation? The Potential of Disused Industrial Areas as an Opportunity for Mitigating Social Polarisation

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 115 - 125

Résumé

Abstract

The paper concerns the relation between revitalisation projects and socio-economic polarisation, and discusses the potential of new urban spaces for social inclusion. The phenomenon is considered on the example of recreational facilities that have emerged from brownfields located in the Ruhr region (Germany). It was ascertained that the diversity of implemented projects was important in terms of the significance of revitalisation processes for social polarisation tendencies. It allowed regional authorities to create income-generating facilities and spaces that can be used regardless of income, and to resolve deficits in urban recreational facilities. It was also noted that the Ruhr examples could provide guidance for the recently begun revitalisation processes in the Upper Silesian industrial area (Poland).

Mots clés

  • revitalisation of brownfields
  • recreational facilities
  • Ruhr area in Germany
  • Upper Silesia in Poland
access type Accès libre

Military Brownfields in the Czech Republic and the Potential for their Revitalisation, Focused on their Residential Function

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 127 - 138

Résumé

Abstract

One of the basic transformation processes of the period since 1989 has been that of demilitarisation. Among other things, one of its consequences is the emergence of abandoned military buildings and areas - so-called military brownfields. These kinds of brownfields have a large number of specific features to which their subsequent revitalisation must necessarily be adapted. Since a large number of these areas are situated within municipalities or are directly adjacent to them, it is essential for their revitalisation to be approached with great sensitivity. This contribution deals with chosen examples of Czech revitalised post-military areas with a special view to their residential function, which is presently their dominant functional use.

Mots clés

  • military brownfield
  • revitalisation
  • residential function
  • Czech Republic
access type Accès libre

Delimitation of Nodal Regions Based on Transport Flows: Case Study of the Czech Republic

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 139 - 150

Résumé

Abstract

The delimitation of nodal regions belongs among the fundamental methods of studying spatial organisation. Nodal regions are defined as regions in which intraregional interactions are closed. With respect to the available information on spatial interactions, nodal regions are defined especially on the basis of data on commuting to work, migration flows, etc. Much less attention, however, has been paid to the theoretical and methodological questions of delimitation of nodal regions based on transport flows. In this case, transport flows that rank among the bearers of basic spatial interactions have high explanatory power, as they reflect not only commuting relations (commuting to work), but also service, business, recreational and other relations. The goal of this paper is to delimit nodal regions based on car transport flows in two regions in the Czech Republic and to evaluate their relevance in studying complex socio-economic relations within the regions.

Keywords

  • nodal regions
  • road transport
  • regionalisation
  • Czech Republic
access type Accès libre

Spatial Diversity of Biotechnology Centres in Germany

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 151 - 169

Résumé

Abstract

Biotechnology is considered one of the key advanced technology sectors of the future. Its development is conditional on basic research in technologically advanced research institutes and appropriately qualified human resources. The optimum environment stimulating the development of biotechnology is that of production centres having joint industrial and R&D operations.

The growth of this sector in Germany began later than in the USA or other West European countries. But, thanks to the regional policy pursued by the state stimulating the development of biotechnology clusters, in a period of fifteen years or so, Germany has become the global leader. This paper presents the process of developing biotechnology centres in Germany as well as their spatial distribution, accompanied by their short description.

Mots clés

  • biotechnology
  • Germany
  • regions
  • clusters
  • economic geography
access type Accès libre

Ukrainian Post-Communist Transformation: Causes, Consequences and Threats

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 171 - 180

Résumé

Abstract

The post-communist transformation of Ukraine differs significantly from that of other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. First of all, Ukraine’s transition from totalitarianism to democracy has been long and still remains uncompleted. The process of the democratic transformation in Ukraine is non-linear and can be described by frequent changes in transformation phases. The ultimate result of the country’s transformation determines to a considerable extent the geopolitical stability in entire Central and Eastern Europe.

Mots clés

  • transformation
  • democracy
  • Ukraine
  • Central and Eastern Europe
  • Russian Federation
access type Accès libre

Editorial

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 181 - 182

Résumé

14 Articles
access type Accès libre

Urban Geography Evolving: Toward an Evolutionary Urban Geography

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 7 - 18

Résumé

Abstract

Despite growing interest in the application of evolutionary concepts to research questions in human geography, the literature is largely characterised by metaphors or analogies that are disconnected from a broader evolutionary theoretical framework. This paper takes initial steps toward developing such a framework for the subfield of urban geography by defining critical elements and relationships from Darwinian and multilevel selection theories. It then synthesises those components in an application to the issues of urban blight and disorder, to demonstrate how an evolutionary understanding of urban spatial phenomena - an “evolutionary urban geography” - can produce new insights for managing complex processes.

Mots clés

  • evolutionary urban geography
  • urban change
  • urban decline
  • evolution
access type Accès libre

Role of Creative Industries in the Post-Socialist Urban Transformation

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 19 - 35

Résumé

Abstract

Over the past two decades the cities in Central and Eastern Europe have witnessed a wide-ranging transformation in many aspects. The introduction of a market-oriented economy after half a century of socialism has brought about deep social, economic, cultural and political changes. The first stage of the changes, the 1990s, involved the patching up of structural holes left by the previous system. The post-socialist city had to face challenges of the future while carrying the ballast of the past. Rapid progress in catching up with the West transformed the city a great deal. Later on, the advent of the 21st century brought a new wave of development processes based, among other things, on creativity and innovation. Hence our contribution aims to explore the role of creativity and creative industries in the post-socialist urban transformation. The article consists of three basic parts. In the first we present the concept of a ‘creative post-socialist city’ and define the position of creative industries in it. We also indicate some similarities to and differences from the West European approaches to this issue. In the second part, examples from Central and Eastern Europe are used in an attempt to elucidate the concept of a ‘creative post-socialist city’ by identifying some basic features of creative actions /processes as well as a creative environment, both exogenous and endogenous. The former is embedded in different local networks, both formal (institutionalised) and informal, whereas the structure of the latter is strongly path-dependent. In the third part we critically discuss the role of local policies on the development of creative industries, pointing out some of their shortcomings and drawing up recommendations for future policy measures.

Mots clés

  • creative city
  • creative industries
  • post-socialist transformation
  • urban policies
access type Accès libre

Population Potential as a Modulator of Land use Changes in Poland’S Metropolitan Areas

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 37 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

Land use is defined as a spatial distribution of individual forms of land cover patches, utilised or not utilised by humans within the framework of mutual and spatial relationships. It refers to the functional character of a given terrain, and is also identified with a socio-economic description of the land surface. Changes in land use can be interpreted as a complex and, to some extent, a random process. These assumptions serve as a point of departure in an attempt to evaluate spatial and temporal differences in land use changes in the metropolitan areas of Poland, using the entropy formula. The analysis focuses on population development as a factor that impacts upon land use change. The approach proposed here allows us to study land use dynamics in detail, with the help of cartographic visualisation.

Mots clés

  • land use
  • metropolitan area
  • population potential
  • entropy
access type Accès libre

Contemporary Determinants of the Development of Socio-Economic Regions

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 51 - 61

Résumé

Abstract

This article examines the effect on the development of socio-economic regions in Poland of contemporary external determinants considered at the European and the world scale. It consists of two parts. The first gives a description of the main general processes that are external determinants of regional development today: modernisation changes, globalisation, metropolitanisation, and European integration. Part two is empirical in character and seeks to find regional manifestations and effects of those determinants in Poland, and to establish how they influence regional income and spatial differences in its value.

Mots clés

  • external determinants
  • modernisation
  • globalisation
  • metropolitanisation
  • European integration
  • regional development
  • regional differences
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Variations in the Spatial Distribution of Areas of Economic Growth and Stagnation in Poland: Determinants and Consequences

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 63 - 77

Résumé

Abstract

This study seeks to identify the spatial distribution of and changes in areas of economic growth and stagnation in Poland resulting from spatial differences in the process of the country’s socio-economic advancement. The research covered two spatial systems, NUTS 2 and NUTS 4, and embraced the following steps: (1) identification of the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its determinants; (2) analysis of variations in the spatial distribution of areas of economic growth and stagnation, by region and subregion, and of its consequences; and (3) conclusions from the development trajectories identified and recommendations for intervention measures to be taken under cohesion policy.

The results presented here come from one of the stages of a research conducted under the project Socio-economic development and the formation of areas of economic growth and stagnation, funded by the National Science Centre (N N306 791940). The project is implemented by a team of staff members of the Department of Regional Analysis of the Institute of Socio-Economic Geography and Spatial Management, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, headed by the present author.

Mots clés

  • differences
  • growth
  • stagnation
  • areas
  • region
  • subregion
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 79 - 86

Résumé

Abstract

Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

Poland and Russia, supported by Germany, applied to the EU for small border traffic to cover the entire territory of the Oblast. According to the European Commission, the proposed solution would be a European exception. The agreement on small border traffic came into force on July 27, 2012, covering the entire area of the Kaliningrad Oblast and selected Polish poviats of Pomerania and Warmia-Mazuria voivodeships. Towards the end of the first quarter of 2013, the number of Poles crossing the border showed a rising tendency, and starting from the second through the third quarter of 2013, the number of Russians coming to Poland grew more dynamically.

The visits of Kaliningrad residents, apart from commercially oriented ones, also include recreation, tourism, medical tourism visits, etc. Kaliningrad citizens looking for leisure, recreation and entertainment come to participate in great sporting and cultural events in Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia. The local self governments of poviats covered by small border traffic noted a clear upturn in the economies and trade of their regions.

The development of cross-border cooperation, including small border traffic, has not resulted in attracting a substantial number of Polish tourists to the Kaliningrad Oblast, but it has provided such a possibility. This region is quite expensive for the average Pole. However, as scientists from Kaliningrad projected, with the easing of the visa system and the development of transport and tourist infrastructure the role of tourism shows a growing trend.

Mots clés

  • small border traffic
  • cross-border cooperation
  • Kaliningrad Oblast
access type Accès libre

Agrarian-Economic Structure of Agricultural Holdings in Poland and East Germany: Selected Elements of Comparative Analysis

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 87 - 101

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine differences in the development of farms in Poland against the agriculture of East Germany, and to show areas with similar conditions for development. The time range of the research covered the years 2002-2010, i.e. the stage of preparation of Polish agriculture for accession to the European Union, the implementation of pre-accession aid programmes, and the establishment and implementation of the tools of the Common Agricultural Policy. To assess the level of agricultural development, natural, productive and social characteristics were adopted. Spatial variations in the analysed features were based on the variation coefficient (Vz), and the level of agricultural development, on Perkal’s index (Wi). In the analysed period the range of variation and the degree of the spatial dispersion of sub-indices changed, indicating a deepening of the polarisation processes in agriculture. The implementation of CAP intensified the process of specialisation and modernisation in agriculture, an example of which is the increase in the average farm size and in agricultural productivity. On the other hand, agricultural production intensified, as exemplified by a decrease in the minimum value in six of the analysed characteristics, which indicates growing disparities.

Mots clés

  • agriculture
  • agrarian structure
  • crop and animal production
  • Poland
  • Germany
access type Accès libre

Quality of Life and Attractiveness of Small Towns: A Comparison of France and Poland

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 103 - 113

Résumé

Abstract

Nowadays the issue of the quality of life tends to be more and more important for the attractiveness of spaces in the context of increasing commuting and social demand for a good living environment. Small towns are often seen as places where “the living is easy” and social ties are dense. They are therefore a good basis for analysing the quality of life. This is a transversal and complex notion which is not always easy to define. This paper is based on surveys conducted in small Polish and French towns in order to analyse perceptions of the quality of life by both their inhabitants and local leaders, and their potential place in the attractiveness of small towns.

Mots clés

  • small towns
  • quality of life
  • attractiveness of towns
  • Poland
  • France
access type Accès libre

Social Inclusion by Revitalisation? The Potential of Disused Industrial Areas as an Opportunity for Mitigating Social Polarisation

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 115 - 125

Résumé

Abstract

The paper concerns the relation between revitalisation projects and socio-economic polarisation, and discusses the potential of new urban spaces for social inclusion. The phenomenon is considered on the example of recreational facilities that have emerged from brownfields located in the Ruhr region (Germany). It was ascertained that the diversity of implemented projects was important in terms of the significance of revitalisation processes for social polarisation tendencies. It allowed regional authorities to create income-generating facilities and spaces that can be used regardless of income, and to resolve deficits in urban recreational facilities. It was also noted that the Ruhr examples could provide guidance for the recently begun revitalisation processes in the Upper Silesian industrial area (Poland).

Mots clés

  • revitalisation of brownfields
  • recreational facilities
  • Ruhr area in Germany
  • Upper Silesia in Poland
access type Accès libre

Military Brownfields in the Czech Republic and the Potential for their Revitalisation, Focused on their Residential Function

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 127 - 138

Résumé

Abstract

One of the basic transformation processes of the period since 1989 has been that of demilitarisation. Among other things, one of its consequences is the emergence of abandoned military buildings and areas - so-called military brownfields. These kinds of brownfields have a large number of specific features to which their subsequent revitalisation must necessarily be adapted. Since a large number of these areas are situated within municipalities or are directly adjacent to them, it is essential for their revitalisation to be approached with great sensitivity. This contribution deals with chosen examples of Czech revitalised post-military areas with a special view to their residential function, which is presently their dominant functional use.

Mots clés

  • military brownfield
  • revitalisation
  • residential function
  • Czech Republic
access type Accès libre

Delimitation of Nodal Regions Based on Transport Flows: Case Study of the Czech Republic

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 139 - 150

Résumé

Abstract

The delimitation of nodal regions belongs among the fundamental methods of studying spatial organisation. Nodal regions are defined as regions in which intraregional interactions are closed. With respect to the available information on spatial interactions, nodal regions are defined especially on the basis of data on commuting to work, migration flows, etc. Much less attention, however, has been paid to the theoretical and methodological questions of delimitation of nodal regions based on transport flows. In this case, transport flows that rank among the bearers of basic spatial interactions have high explanatory power, as they reflect not only commuting relations (commuting to work), but also service, business, recreational and other relations. The goal of this paper is to delimit nodal regions based on car transport flows in two regions in the Czech Republic and to evaluate their relevance in studying complex socio-economic relations within the regions.

Keywords

  • nodal regions
  • road transport
  • regionalisation
  • Czech Republic
access type Accès libre

Spatial Diversity of Biotechnology Centres in Germany

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 151 - 169

Résumé

Abstract

Biotechnology is considered one of the key advanced technology sectors of the future. Its development is conditional on basic research in technologically advanced research institutes and appropriately qualified human resources. The optimum environment stimulating the development of biotechnology is that of production centres having joint industrial and R&D operations.

The growth of this sector in Germany began later than in the USA or other West European countries. But, thanks to the regional policy pursued by the state stimulating the development of biotechnology clusters, in a period of fifteen years or so, Germany has become the global leader. This paper presents the process of developing biotechnology centres in Germany as well as their spatial distribution, accompanied by their short description.

Mots clés

  • biotechnology
  • Germany
  • regions
  • clusters
  • economic geography
access type Accès libre

Ukrainian Post-Communist Transformation: Causes, Consequences and Threats

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 171 - 180

Résumé

Abstract

The post-communist transformation of Ukraine differs significantly from that of other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. First of all, Ukraine’s transition from totalitarianism to democracy has been long and still remains uncompleted. The process of the democratic transformation in Ukraine is non-linear and can be described by frequent changes in transformation phases. The ultimate result of the country’s transformation determines to a considerable extent the geopolitical stability in entire Central and Eastern Europe.

Mots clés

  • transformation
  • democracy
  • Ukraine
  • Central and Eastern Europe
  • Russian Federation
access type Accès libre

Editorial

Publié en ligne: 17 Jun 2014
Pages: 181 - 182

Résumé

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