Magazine et Edition

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 61 (2022): Edition 4 (December 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Edition 3 (September 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Edition 2 (June 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Edition 1 (March 2022)

Volume 60 (2021): Edition 4 (December 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edition 3 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edition 2 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edition 1 (January 2021)

Volume 59 (2020): Edition 4 (December 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edition 3 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edition 2 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edition 1 (January 2020)

Volume 58 (2019): Edition 4 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edition 3 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edition 2 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edition 1 (January 2019)

Volume 57 (2018): Edition 4 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edition 3 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edition 2 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edition 1 (January 2018)

Volume 56 (2017): Edition 4 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edition 3 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edition 2 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edition 1 (January 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2545-3149
Première publication
01 Mar 1961
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais, Polonais

Chercher

Volume 61 (2022): Edition 1 (March 2022)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2545-3149
Première publication
01 Mar 1961
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais, Polonais

Chercher

5 Articles
Accès libre

Vaccines Against Anthrax – Selected Research

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 7 - 12

Résumé

Abstract

New strategies in the development of anthrax vaccines and therapeutics have been presented. Recently, considerable progress has been made in the finding of new drugs and suitable therapy for anthrax. Very promising research considers the use of antimicrobials against selected bacteria species, including antibiotic-resistant strains. However, alternative therapeutic options should also be considered, among them vaccines. Bacillus anthracis spores are still the most dangerous weapon amongst pathogens which can be used in a bioterror attack. In this case, research for new anti-anthrax preparations is of primary importance for the protection of humans and animals. The overview of the most recent data shows the many new and promising possibilities for effective strategies in the development of vaccines and anti-anthrax preparations. The most effective of them should be available in the National Stockpile in the event of a biological crisis.

Mots clés

  • antibiotics
  • protective antigen
  • recombinant
  • vaccines
Accès libre

The Role of the Bacteroides spp. in Bacteraemia

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 13 - 20

Résumé

Abstract

Anaerobic bacteraemia is not frequent (1.2–13.7%), but is associated with a high mortality rate of 16–27%. Anaerobic infections including bacteraemia nearly always arise from contamination by endogenous bacteria into contiguous or other sites like gastrointestinal tracts, genito-urinary tracts, abscesses etc. Factors leading to anaerobic bacteraemia are mainly surgical procedures, crush injuries, the presence of foreign bodies, tissue necrosis, tumours, diabetes. The most common infectious anaerobic agents are Gram-negative bacilli belonging to the Bacteroides/Parabacteroides, which under normal conditions constitute the natural human microflora. An important factor in the virulency of B. fragilis is the ability to form abscesses; a limited infection may progress to bacteraemia and then systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Anaerobic bacteraemia mainly affects adults, with elderly patients over 65 years with underlying diseases. The importance of anaerobic bacteria in neonatal bacteraemia and sepsis is a relatively new phenomenon. In contrast the prevalence of anaerobes in bloodstream infections in children is extremely rare with children between 2 and 6 years of age having the least risk ranging 0–0.5% overall. The incidence of recovery of anaerobes in neonatal bacteraemia varies between 1.8% and 12.5%. The majority of cases reported in the literature were due to Bacteroides spp. (41%) other cultured anaerobes belonged to Clostridium spp. (32%), Peptostreptococcus spp. (20%).

Blood cultures remain the gold standard for detection of the etiologic both anaerobes and aerobes agent of bloodstream infection. In recent years significant progress has been made in the methods used in the diagnosis of anaerobes, which significantly reduced the time and cost of the examination. Currently, the mass spectometry MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing are increasingly used for anaerobic bacteria identification. In 2022, EUCAST published standardized disk diffusion method for the drug susceptibility testing of Bacteroides spp. and other 4 clinically significant anaerobes. Determining the sensitivity of anaerobes to antibiotics is important due to the increasing drug resistance in this group. Number of B. fragilis strains resistant to clindamycin and moxifloxacin is increasing. According to the published studies sensitivity to clindamycin and moxifloxacin is significantly rare and occurs in 64% and 68% of isolates and in 50.8% and 58.2% respectively. Carbapenems and metronidazole continue to be the most effective active antibiotics to be used in the empirical therapy of anaerobic bacteraemia. There are case reports of infections caused by multidrug-resistant strains of Bacteroides spp, meaning resistant to at least three antibiotics from different groups. Rapid microbial diagnosis, targeted therapy and surgical treatment of a possible source of infection are crucial in treatment of sepsis caused by anaerobic bacteria.

Mots clés

  • bacteraemia
  • antimicrobial resistance

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakteriemia
  • oporność na antybiotyki
Accès libre

Genetically Modified Bacteria – The Perspective of Application in Prevention, Diagnostics and Therapy

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 21 - 29

Résumé

Abstract

The microbiota plays an important role in human health. Disturbance in microbiota composition can be compensated by administration of probiotic microorganisms. However, their application is associated with some constraints. Probiotics are commonly used in disease prevention, whereas they play only a supportive role in disease therapy. Moreover, probiotics during technological processes and gastrointestinal tract passage may lose their beneficial properties. These constraints can be overcome by genetic modification of bacteria. The current research shows that genetically modified bacteria can have new biological properties and can be used in diagnostics and therapy.

Mots clés

  • genetically modified bacteria
  • pharmabiotics
  • microbiota
  • probiotics

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie modyfikowane genetycznie
  • farmabiotyki
  • mikrobiota
  • probiotyki
Accès libre

Potential Possibilities of HPV DNA Detection in Liquid Biopsy for Diagnosis of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 31 - 38

Résumé

Abstract

Liquid biopsy involves testing extracellular DNA (cfDNA – circulating, cell-free DNA) circulating in the blood and deriving from normal or cancer cells. Analysis of a small amount of blood can be a rich source of information about the health status of cancer patient. Liquid biopsy may be an alternative to tumor biopsy, but it presents particular value in cases of inaccessibility of tissue samples and the possibility of repeating it many times. The tumor-derived cfDNA fraction is called circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in oncology. An example of ctDNA may be the genome sequences of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which is the etiological factor of some head and neck cancers (HNC), in particular of the oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). HPV16 is the most common genotype found in OPC. Noninvasive and frequent determination of HPV16 DNA (ctHPV16) in the blood gives the opportunity to monitor the course of the disease during and after treatment. Very good tools for HPV DNA detection are techniques based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) like quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). The use of these techniques for virus DNA detection in the blood gives high specificity and sensitivity of the analysis. Determination of ctHPV16 after treatment may be helpful in diagnosis of residual disease, which is difficult to assess in radiological imaging. The ctHPV16 biomarker can be successfully used to diagnose the effects of treatment of patients with OPC, which in the future may be helpful in making therapeutic decisions.

Mots clés

  • circulating tumor DNA
  • liquid biopsy
  • oropharyngeal cancer

Słowa kluczowe

  • krążący nowotworowy DNA
  • płynna biopsja
  • wirus brodawczaka ludzkiego
  • rak gardła środkowego
Accès libre

Somatic Coliphages as an Indicator in Drinking Water Quality Assessment

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 39 - 48

Résumé

Abstract

Coliphages are bacterial viruses that have been tested for many years to dermine their usefulness as indicators of faecal contamination and presence of human viral pathogens in water. Retrospective analyzes of water-borne outbreaks have shown that E. coli tests are not enough to assure the safety of water intended for human consumption. Coliphages are more resistant to disinfection in comparison with bacterial indicators and are able to survive at considerable distance from source of contamination. Using of coliphages as indicators, to ensure better control and safety of drinking water had been recommended by WHO experts and introduced in Directive (EU) 2020/2184. Somatic coliphages are new indicators of water microbiological quality assessment, including indication of intestinal viruses. They can be used to verify processes of water treatment and to assess efficiency of removing intestinal viruses.

Mots clés

  • somatic coliphages
  • Directive (EU) 2020/2184
  • testing methods
  • water intended for human consumption

Słowa kluczowe

  • colifagi somatyczne
  • dyrektywa (UE) 2020/2184
  • metody badań
  • woda przeznaczona do spożycia
5 Articles
Accès libre

Vaccines Against Anthrax – Selected Research

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 7 - 12

Résumé

Abstract

New strategies in the development of anthrax vaccines and therapeutics have been presented. Recently, considerable progress has been made in the finding of new drugs and suitable therapy for anthrax. Very promising research considers the use of antimicrobials against selected bacteria species, including antibiotic-resistant strains. However, alternative therapeutic options should also be considered, among them vaccines. Bacillus anthracis spores are still the most dangerous weapon amongst pathogens which can be used in a bioterror attack. In this case, research for new anti-anthrax preparations is of primary importance for the protection of humans and animals. The overview of the most recent data shows the many new and promising possibilities for effective strategies in the development of vaccines and anti-anthrax preparations. The most effective of them should be available in the National Stockpile in the event of a biological crisis.

Mots clés

  • antibiotics
  • protective antigen
  • recombinant
  • vaccines
Accès libre

The Role of the Bacteroides spp. in Bacteraemia

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 13 - 20

Résumé

Abstract

Anaerobic bacteraemia is not frequent (1.2–13.7%), but is associated with a high mortality rate of 16–27%. Anaerobic infections including bacteraemia nearly always arise from contamination by endogenous bacteria into contiguous or other sites like gastrointestinal tracts, genito-urinary tracts, abscesses etc. Factors leading to anaerobic bacteraemia are mainly surgical procedures, crush injuries, the presence of foreign bodies, tissue necrosis, tumours, diabetes. The most common infectious anaerobic agents are Gram-negative bacilli belonging to the Bacteroides/Parabacteroides, which under normal conditions constitute the natural human microflora. An important factor in the virulency of B. fragilis is the ability to form abscesses; a limited infection may progress to bacteraemia and then systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Anaerobic bacteraemia mainly affects adults, with elderly patients over 65 years with underlying diseases. The importance of anaerobic bacteria in neonatal bacteraemia and sepsis is a relatively new phenomenon. In contrast the prevalence of anaerobes in bloodstream infections in children is extremely rare with children between 2 and 6 years of age having the least risk ranging 0–0.5% overall. The incidence of recovery of anaerobes in neonatal bacteraemia varies between 1.8% and 12.5%. The majority of cases reported in the literature were due to Bacteroides spp. (41%) other cultured anaerobes belonged to Clostridium spp. (32%), Peptostreptococcus spp. (20%).

Blood cultures remain the gold standard for detection of the etiologic both anaerobes and aerobes agent of bloodstream infection. In recent years significant progress has been made in the methods used in the diagnosis of anaerobes, which significantly reduced the time and cost of the examination. Currently, the mass spectometry MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing are increasingly used for anaerobic bacteria identification. In 2022, EUCAST published standardized disk diffusion method for the drug susceptibility testing of Bacteroides spp. and other 4 clinically significant anaerobes. Determining the sensitivity of anaerobes to antibiotics is important due to the increasing drug resistance in this group. Number of B. fragilis strains resistant to clindamycin and moxifloxacin is increasing. According to the published studies sensitivity to clindamycin and moxifloxacin is significantly rare and occurs in 64% and 68% of isolates and in 50.8% and 58.2% respectively. Carbapenems and metronidazole continue to be the most effective active antibiotics to be used in the empirical therapy of anaerobic bacteraemia. There are case reports of infections caused by multidrug-resistant strains of Bacteroides spp, meaning resistant to at least three antibiotics from different groups. Rapid microbial diagnosis, targeted therapy and surgical treatment of a possible source of infection are crucial in treatment of sepsis caused by anaerobic bacteria.

Mots clés

  • bacteraemia
  • antimicrobial resistance

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakteriemia
  • oporność na antybiotyki
Accès libre

Genetically Modified Bacteria – The Perspective of Application in Prevention, Diagnostics and Therapy

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 21 - 29

Résumé

Abstract

The microbiota plays an important role in human health. Disturbance in microbiota composition can be compensated by administration of probiotic microorganisms. However, their application is associated with some constraints. Probiotics are commonly used in disease prevention, whereas they play only a supportive role in disease therapy. Moreover, probiotics during technological processes and gastrointestinal tract passage may lose their beneficial properties. These constraints can be overcome by genetic modification of bacteria. The current research shows that genetically modified bacteria can have new biological properties and can be used in diagnostics and therapy.

Mots clés

  • genetically modified bacteria
  • pharmabiotics
  • microbiota
  • probiotics

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie modyfikowane genetycznie
  • farmabiotyki
  • mikrobiota
  • probiotyki
Accès libre

Potential Possibilities of HPV DNA Detection in Liquid Biopsy for Diagnosis of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 31 - 38

Résumé

Abstract

Liquid biopsy involves testing extracellular DNA (cfDNA – circulating, cell-free DNA) circulating in the blood and deriving from normal or cancer cells. Analysis of a small amount of blood can be a rich source of information about the health status of cancer patient. Liquid biopsy may be an alternative to tumor biopsy, but it presents particular value in cases of inaccessibility of tissue samples and the possibility of repeating it many times. The tumor-derived cfDNA fraction is called circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in oncology. An example of ctDNA may be the genome sequences of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which is the etiological factor of some head and neck cancers (HNC), in particular of the oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). HPV16 is the most common genotype found in OPC. Noninvasive and frequent determination of HPV16 DNA (ctHPV16) in the blood gives the opportunity to monitor the course of the disease during and after treatment. Very good tools for HPV DNA detection are techniques based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) like quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). The use of these techniques for virus DNA detection in the blood gives high specificity and sensitivity of the analysis. Determination of ctHPV16 after treatment may be helpful in diagnosis of residual disease, which is difficult to assess in radiological imaging. The ctHPV16 biomarker can be successfully used to diagnose the effects of treatment of patients with OPC, which in the future may be helpful in making therapeutic decisions.

Mots clés

  • circulating tumor DNA
  • liquid biopsy
  • oropharyngeal cancer

Słowa kluczowe

  • krążący nowotworowy DNA
  • płynna biopsja
  • wirus brodawczaka ludzkiego
  • rak gardła środkowego
Accès libre

Somatic Coliphages as an Indicator in Drinking Water Quality Assessment

Publié en ligne: 31 Mar 2022
Pages: 39 - 48

Résumé

Abstract

Coliphages are bacterial viruses that have been tested for many years to dermine their usefulness as indicators of faecal contamination and presence of human viral pathogens in water. Retrospective analyzes of water-borne outbreaks have shown that E. coli tests are not enough to assure the safety of water intended for human consumption. Coliphages are more resistant to disinfection in comparison with bacterial indicators and are able to survive at considerable distance from source of contamination. Using of coliphages as indicators, to ensure better control and safety of drinking water had been recommended by WHO experts and introduced in Directive (EU) 2020/2184. Somatic coliphages are new indicators of water microbiological quality assessment, including indication of intestinal viruses. They can be used to verify processes of water treatment and to assess efficiency of removing intestinal viruses.

Mots clés

  • somatic coliphages
  • Directive (EU) 2020/2184
  • testing methods
  • water intended for human consumption

Słowa kluczowe

  • colifagi somatyczne
  • dyrektywa (UE) 2020/2184
  • metody badań
  • woda przeznaczona do spożycia

Planifiez votre conférence à distance avec Sciendo