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AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 61 (2022): Edition 3 (September 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Edition 2 (June 2022)

Volume 61 (2022): Edition 1 (March 2022)

Volume 60 (2021): Edition 3 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edition 2 (January 2021)

Volume 60 (2021): Edition 1 (January 2021)

Volume 59 (2020): Edition 4 (December 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edition 3 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edition 2 (January 2020)

Volume 59 (2020): Edition 1 (January 2020)

Volume 58 (2019): Edition 4 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edition 3 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edition 2 (January 2019)

Volume 58 (2019): Edition 1 (January 2019)

Volume 57 (2018): Edition 4 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edition 3 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edition 2 (January 2018)

Volume 57 (2018): Edition 1 (January 2018)

Volume 56 (2017): Edition 4 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edition 3 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edition 2 (January 2017)

Volume 56 (2017): Edition 1 (January 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2545-3149
Première publication
01 Mar 1961
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais, Polonais

Chercher

Volume 59 (2020): Edition 2 (January 2020)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2545-3149
Première publication
01 Mar 1961
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais, Polonais

Chercher

5 Articles
Accès libre

Microorganisms As Indoor And Outdoor Air Biological Pollution

Publié en ligne: 24 Feb 2022
Pages: 115 - 127

Résumé

Abstract

Air pollution is a major threat to human health. Biological air pollution is predominantly caused by the pollen of plants, fungi, bacteria and viruses. The main sources of microorganisms in the air include soil, water and the decomposition of organic matter, while anthropogenic sources are represented by landfills, wastewater treatment plants, composting facilities and traffic. Microorganism populations in the air can be seasonal or relatively constant, but the most frequent increase in their occurrence is recorded in the summer and autumn. Studies show that humidity, the presence of carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations are the main factors affecting the diversity of bacteria and the percentage of pathogenic bacteria present in outdoor air. Microorganisms in the air inside residential buildings are primarily concentrated on dust particles. Approximately 60% of dust microbiota are spores of mould fungi. The key emitters of microorganisms into the atmosphere are municipal wastewater treatment plants. The bacteria and pathogens released are potentially resistant to antibiotics, rendering the bioaerosols of wastewater treatment plants a possible hazard to human health. There is a need for further research aimed at explaining the magnitude of impacts of air microorganisms on human health.

1. Introduction. 2. Sources, transport and factors affecting the presence of microorganisms in the outdoor air. 3. Microorganisms in the air inside residential buildings. 4. Microorganisms in indoor air in offices and public spaces. 5. Microorganisms in the air of industrial facilities. 6. Bioaerosols within sewage treatment plants. 7. Air microorganisms as an important factor influencing human health. 8. Conclusions

Key words

  • air
  • bacteria
  • health
  • human
  • microorganisms

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie
  • człowiek
  • mikroorganizmy
  • powietrze
  • zdrowie
Accès libre

Risk Of Transmission Of Tick-Borne Diseases By Blood Transfusion

Publié en ligne: 24 Feb 2022
Pages: 129 - 137

Résumé

Abstract

The fear of blood transfusion-borne infections has been a problem since the beginning of the blood therapy era. One of the phases of all infectious diseases, including those transmitted by ticks, is the incubation period, during which there are no clinical symptoms due to the presence of microorganisms in the blood. For this reason, blood drawn from an infected donor can be a potential source of infection for the recipient at this time. Literature data show that there are no documented reports of the possibility of transmitting B. burgdorferi infection (Lyme etiological factor) to healthy man by blood transfusion. However, cases of transfusions of such infections as babesiosis, anaplasmosis, rickettsiosis, and fever, bartonellosis have been reported. Tick-borne infections are not included in the criteria for permanent (except tularemia) or temporary disqualification for blood donor candidates and for contraindications for blood sampling. Tests for routine detection of tick-borne pathogens in blood therapy are also not used. Therefore, knowledge of the dynamics of the phases of these diseases, periods of infectivity and occurring in the blood in conjunction with medical history, physical examination and the results of auxiliary diagnostic tests are of fundamental importance for the safety of blood recipients.

1. Introduction. 2. Spirochetes infections. 2.2. Lyme borreliosis. 2.2. Borrelia myiamotoi infections. 3. Spotted Fever Group rickettsioses. 4. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis 5. Bartonella sp. Infections. 6. Babesiosis. 7. Summary

Key words

  • Tick-borne diseases
  • blood transfusion

Słowa kluczowe

  • Choroby przenoszone przez kleszcze
  • transfuzja krwi
Accès libre

Cronobacter Spp. – The Serious Risk In A Baby Food

Publié en ligne: 24 Feb 2022
Pages: 139 - 151

Résumé

Abstract

Cronobacter spp. are considered opportunistic pathogens in all age groups, especially in premature babies, children with low birth weight, the elderly and immunocompromised people. Currently, the genus Cronobacter includes seven species: C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis, C. muytjesii, C. universalis, C. dublinensis and C. condimenti. The first three species of Cronobacter have been associated with clinical infections of newborns and premature babies. Cronobacter bacterial infections can cause neuritis, encephalomyelitis, the formation of abscesses and cysts of the brain leading to hydrocephalus and necrotizing enterocolitis. Often infected with Cronobacter spp. are rare, the mortality rate is very high, as well as the costs associated with temporarily treating post-infection complications. Cronobacter spp. due to the production of capsule and biofilm, high thermotolerance is resistant to drying and survival loads in milk replacers and other products with water activity. Cronobacter spp. isolated from milk replacers used for the initial feeding of infants, with vegetables, cereals, potatoes, spices, meat, fish, cheese, tofu, rice, pasta, chocolate, tea and abiotic surfaces in a hospital, with medical products and equipment. Under the Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005, Cronobacter spp. should be absent in thirty 10 g samples of infant formulas and infant dietetic powders intended for infants up to 6 months old. The subject of the study is the assessment of the occurrence the hazard caused by Cronobacter in food in the light of applicable requirements.

1. Introduction. 2. Symptoms and pathogenicity Cronobacter spp. 3. Legal requirements. 4. Virulence mechanism Cronobacter spp. 5. Taxonomy Cronobacter spp. 6. Occurrence Cronobacter spp. in food. 7. Resistance Cronobacter spp. to stress conditions. 8. Biofilm formation by bacteria genus Cronobacter. 9. Detection and determination of numbers Cronobacter spp. 10. Antibiotic resistance Cronobacter spp. 11. Summary

Key words

  • biofilm
  • pathogenicity
  • spp.
  • virulence
  • detection

Słowa kluczowe

  • biofilm
  • chorobotwórczość
  • spp.
  • wirulencja
  • wykrywanie
Accès libre

Mechanisms Of Dermatophyte Resistance To Antifungal Substances

Publié en ligne: 24 Feb 2022
Pages: 153 - 165

Résumé

Abstract

Dermatophytes are pathogenic fungi with high affinity for keratinised structures present in nails, skin, and hair causing superficial infections known as skin mycoses or dermatomycoses. The disease is characterised by variable prognosis. Its clinical picture is largely dependent on the immune status of the host and can range from local skin or subcutaneous infections to invasive, disseminated, and life-threatening infections. In the first decades of the 20th century, the first concerns were raised about the growing prevalence of fungal infections in humans, which was ascribed to various environmental factors and anthropopressure. Consequently, the first therapeutic attempts were made to treat these infections. At present, at least several different groups of antifungal drugs are available for medical treatment. Nevertheless, the overlapping mechanisms of action of these substances and discontinuation of therapy by patients may contribute to the emergence of resistance of strains, including multi-drug resistance. The aim of this study is to review the literature focused on the mechanisms of resistance developed by dermatophytes to antifungal substances. Through evolution, these fungi have developed complex cellular response systems comprising elements of the environment-cell signalling system, responses to stressors, and tolerance to harmful chemical substances. Such stimuli as exposure of dermatophytes to an antifungal drug, damage to their cell wall, and disturbances in the osmolarity of the environment with generation of reactive oxygen species can be activators of signalling pathways targeted at mitigation of the effects of sudden cellular stress. A majority of molecular mechanisms underlying the response to these stressors also constitute a mechanism of tolerance and resistance to antifungal substances. In the future, elucidation of these mechanisms may lead to development of new chemotherapeutics that will become a key strategy in the treatment of dermatophyte strains exhibiting resistance to currently available antifungal drugs.

1. Introduction. 2. Current antifungal drugs. 3. Exposure of the pathogen to drugs, stress response, and adaptation. 4. Mechanisms of drug efflux from the cell. 5. Mechanisms of drug detoxification. 6. Transcriptional modulation of signalling pathway genes. 7. Role of heat shock proteins in drug resistance. 8. Mutations in target enzyme genes inducing drug resistance. 9. Structural elements of the cell contributing to drug resistance. 10. Summary

Key words

  • dermatophytes
  • antifungal substances
  • drug resistance

Słowa kluczowe

  • dermatofity
  • substancje przeciwgrzybicze
  • lekooporność
Accès libre

Influence Of Yeast And Lactic Acid Bacteria On The Content Of Volatile Compounds And Other Oenological Parameters Of Wines

Publié en ligne: 24 Feb 2022
Pages: 167 - 178

Résumé

Abstract

The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on the content of volatile compounds, ethanol, glycerol and volatile acidity of wines as well as the importance of inoculation with non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeast for improving the aromatic complexity and characteristic features of wines were discussed in the paper. Moreover, the consequence of sequential inoculation of S. cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria Oenococcus oeni on the content of volatile compounds, diacetyl, acetoine, volatile acidity, degradation of malic acid, content of diethyl succinate, ethyl lactate, biogenic amines was presented. The advantage of simultaneous inoculation, which is the reduction of fermentation time, was emphasized. The work highlights the role of indigenous strains of yeast and lactic acid bacteria in increasing the regional character of wines. The importance of enzymes produced by yeast and bacteria, as well as the increased interest in the ability of non-O. oeni species, such as Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, to perform malolactic fermentation were also discussed.

1. Introduction. 2. Alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. 3. Effect of yeast and lactic acid bacteria on oenological parameters of wines. 3.1. S. cerevisiae. 3.2. Non-Saccharomyces. 3.3. Lactic acid bacteria. 4. Summary

Mots clés

  • wine
  • yeast
  • lactic acid bacteria

Słowa kluczowe

  • wino
  • drożdże
  • bakterie mlekowe
5 Articles
Accès libre

Microorganisms As Indoor And Outdoor Air Biological Pollution

Publié en ligne: 24 Feb 2022
Pages: 115 - 127

Résumé

Abstract

Air pollution is a major threat to human health. Biological air pollution is predominantly caused by the pollen of plants, fungi, bacteria and viruses. The main sources of microorganisms in the air include soil, water and the decomposition of organic matter, while anthropogenic sources are represented by landfills, wastewater treatment plants, composting facilities and traffic. Microorganism populations in the air can be seasonal or relatively constant, but the most frequent increase in their occurrence is recorded in the summer and autumn. Studies show that humidity, the presence of carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations are the main factors affecting the diversity of bacteria and the percentage of pathogenic bacteria present in outdoor air. Microorganisms in the air inside residential buildings are primarily concentrated on dust particles. Approximately 60% of dust microbiota are spores of mould fungi. The key emitters of microorganisms into the atmosphere are municipal wastewater treatment plants. The bacteria and pathogens released are potentially resistant to antibiotics, rendering the bioaerosols of wastewater treatment plants a possible hazard to human health. There is a need for further research aimed at explaining the magnitude of impacts of air microorganisms on human health.

1. Introduction. 2. Sources, transport and factors affecting the presence of microorganisms in the outdoor air. 3. Microorganisms in the air inside residential buildings. 4. Microorganisms in indoor air in offices and public spaces. 5. Microorganisms in the air of industrial facilities. 6. Bioaerosols within sewage treatment plants. 7. Air microorganisms as an important factor influencing human health. 8. Conclusions

Key words

  • air
  • bacteria
  • health
  • human
  • microorganisms

Słowa kluczowe

  • bakterie
  • człowiek
  • mikroorganizmy
  • powietrze
  • zdrowie
Accès libre

Risk Of Transmission Of Tick-Borne Diseases By Blood Transfusion

Publié en ligne: 24 Feb 2022
Pages: 129 - 137

Résumé

Abstract

The fear of blood transfusion-borne infections has been a problem since the beginning of the blood therapy era. One of the phases of all infectious diseases, including those transmitted by ticks, is the incubation period, during which there are no clinical symptoms due to the presence of microorganisms in the blood. For this reason, blood drawn from an infected donor can be a potential source of infection for the recipient at this time. Literature data show that there are no documented reports of the possibility of transmitting B. burgdorferi infection (Lyme etiological factor) to healthy man by blood transfusion. However, cases of transfusions of such infections as babesiosis, anaplasmosis, rickettsiosis, and fever, bartonellosis have been reported. Tick-borne infections are not included in the criteria for permanent (except tularemia) or temporary disqualification for blood donor candidates and for contraindications for blood sampling. Tests for routine detection of tick-borne pathogens in blood therapy are also not used. Therefore, knowledge of the dynamics of the phases of these diseases, periods of infectivity and occurring in the blood in conjunction with medical history, physical examination and the results of auxiliary diagnostic tests are of fundamental importance for the safety of blood recipients.

1. Introduction. 2. Spirochetes infections. 2.2. Lyme borreliosis. 2.2. Borrelia myiamotoi infections. 3. Spotted Fever Group rickettsioses. 4. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis 5. Bartonella sp. Infections. 6. Babesiosis. 7. Summary

Key words

  • Tick-borne diseases
  • blood transfusion

Słowa kluczowe

  • Choroby przenoszone przez kleszcze
  • transfuzja krwi
Accès libre

Cronobacter Spp. – The Serious Risk In A Baby Food

Publié en ligne: 24 Feb 2022
Pages: 139 - 151

Résumé

Abstract

Cronobacter spp. are considered opportunistic pathogens in all age groups, especially in premature babies, children with low birth weight, the elderly and immunocompromised people. Currently, the genus Cronobacter includes seven species: C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. turicensis, C. muytjesii, C. universalis, C. dublinensis and C. condimenti. The first three species of Cronobacter have been associated with clinical infections of newborns and premature babies. Cronobacter bacterial infections can cause neuritis, encephalomyelitis, the formation of abscesses and cysts of the brain leading to hydrocephalus and necrotizing enterocolitis. Often infected with Cronobacter spp. are rare, the mortality rate is very high, as well as the costs associated with temporarily treating post-infection complications. Cronobacter spp. due to the production of capsule and biofilm, high thermotolerance is resistant to drying and survival loads in milk replacers and other products with water activity. Cronobacter spp. isolated from milk replacers used for the initial feeding of infants, with vegetables, cereals, potatoes, spices, meat, fish, cheese, tofu, rice, pasta, chocolate, tea and abiotic surfaces in a hospital, with medical products and equipment. Under the Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 of 15 November 2005, Cronobacter spp. should be absent in thirty 10 g samples of infant formulas and infant dietetic powders intended for infants up to 6 months old. The subject of the study is the assessment of the occurrence the hazard caused by Cronobacter in food in the light of applicable requirements.

1. Introduction. 2. Symptoms and pathogenicity Cronobacter spp. 3. Legal requirements. 4. Virulence mechanism Cronobacter spp. 5. Taxonomy Cronobacter spp. 6. Occurrence Cronobacter spp. in food. 7. Resistance Cronobacter spp. to stress conditions. 8. Biofilm formation by bacteria genus Cronobacter. 9. Detection and determination of numbers Cronobacter spp. 10. Antibiotic resistance Cronobacter spp. 11. Summary

Key words

  • biofilm
  • pathogenicity
  • spp.
  • virulence
  • detection

Słowa kluczowe

  • biofilm
  • chorobotwórczość
  • spp.
  • wirulencja
  • wykrywanie
Accès libre

Mechanisms Of Dermatophyte Resistance To Antifungal Substances

Publié en ligne: 24 Feb 2022
Pages: 153 - 165

Résumé

Abstract

Dermatophytes are pathogenic fungi with high affinity for keratinised structures present in nails, skin, and hair causing superficial infections known as skin mycoses or dermatomycoses. The disease is characterised by variable prognosis. Its clinical picture is largely dependent on the immune status of the host and can range from local skin or subcutaneous infections to invasive, disseminated, and life-threatening infections. In the first decades of the 20th century, the first concerns were raised about the growing prevalence of fungal infections in humans, which was ascribed to various environmental factors and anthropopressure. Consequently, the first therapeutic attempts were made to treat these infections. At present, at least several different groups of antifungal drugs are available for medical treatment. Nevertheless, the overlapping mechanisms of action of these substances and discontinuation of therapy by patients may contribute to the emergence of resistance of strains, including multi-drug resistance. The aim of this study is to review the literature focused on the mechanisms of resistance developed by dermatophytes to antifungal substances. Through evolution, these fungi have developed complex cellular response systems comprising elements of the environment-cell signalling system, responses to stressors, and tolerance to harmful chemical substances. Such stimuli as exposure of dermatophytes to an antifungal drug, damage to their cell wall, and disturbances in the osmolarity of the environment with generation of reactive oxygen species can be activators of signalling pathways targeted at mitigation of the effects of sudden cellular stress. A majority of molecular mechanisms underlying the response to these stressors also constitute a mechanism of tolerance and resistance to antifungal substances. In the future, elucidation of these mechanisms may lead to development of new chemotherapeutics that will become a key strategy in the treatment of dermatophyte strains exhibiting resistance to currently available antifungal drugs.

1. Introduction. 2. Current antifungal drugs. 3. Exposure of the pathogen to drugs, stress response, and adaptation. 4. Mechanisms of drug efflux from the cell. 5. Mechanisms of drug detoxification. 6. Transcriptional modulation of signalling pathway genes. 7. Role of heat shock proteins in drug resistance. 8. Mutations in target enzyme genes inducing drug resistance. 9. Structural elements of the cell contributing to drug resistance. 10. Summary

Key words

  • dermatophytes
  • antifungal substances
  • drug resistance

Słowa kluczowe

  • dermatofity
  • substancje przeciwgrzybicze
  • lekooporność
Accès libre

Influence Of Yeast And Lactic Acid Bacteria On The Content Of Volatile Compounds And Other Oenological Parameters Of Wines

Publié en ligne: 24 Feb 2022
Pages: 167 - 178

Résumé

Abstract

The effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on the content of volatile compounds, ethanol, glycerol and volatile acidity of wines as well as the importance of inoculation with non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeast for improving the aromatic complexity and characteristic features of wines were discussed in the paper. Moreover, the consequence of sequential inoculation of S. cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria Oenococcus oeni on the content of volatile compounds, diacetyl, acetoine, volatile acidity, degradation of malic acid, content of diethyl succinate, ethyl lactate, biogenic amines was presented. The advantage of simultaneous inoculation, which is the reduction of fermentation time, was emphasized. The work highlights the role of indigenous strains of yeast and lactic acid bacteria in increasing the regional character of wines. The importance of enzymes produced by yeast and bacteria, as well as the increased interest in the ability of non-O. oeni species, such as Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, to perform malolactic fermentation were also discussed.

1. Introduction. 2. Alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. 3. Effect of yeast and lactic acid bacteria on oenological parameters of wines. 3.1. S. cerevisiae. 3.2. Non-Saccharomyces. 3.3. Lactic acid bacteria. 4. Summary

Mots clés

  • wine
  • yeast
  • lactic acid bacteria

Słowa kluczowe

  • wino
  • drożdże
  • bakterie mlekowe

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