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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 67 (2021): Edición 1 (March 2021)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

6 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

Innovative methods of non-destructive evaluation of log quality

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 3 - 13

Resumen

Abstract

For the sustainability of an important renewable resource, such as wood, it is important to significantly increase the efficiency of its processing. A large part of this raw material ends up in the wood processing industry, where it is used for the production of pulp, paper, construction and furniture timber, floors and others. Therefore, it is very important to gain the knowledge needed for optimal valuation of raw wood material, through quality detection and classification into quality classes. There are many defectoscopic methods working on different physical principles. The most familiar of these methods are semi-destructive and non-destructive, as they do not cause damage to the tree or wood during assessment. The aim of this article is to describe, assess and compare known semi-destructive and non-destructive methods for the assessment of wood properties. This article describes basic visual inspection, basic semi-destructive methods (Pilodyn, Resistograph) and advanced semi-destructive methods (SilviScan®, DiscBot®) as well. Non-destructive methods use mostly acoustic wave motion (acoustic, ultrasonic), high-frequency waves (using georadar, microwave) and methods based on visual evaluation (image, laser). At last, there are X–ray methods with the latest technology using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). The implementation of modern non-destructive methods is of great importance for the application of principles of Industry 4.0, where these methods provide collecting of data on the material properties, in its entire production flow of log processing.

Palabras clave

  • X–ray method
  • acoustic methods
  • georadar methods
  • laser methods
  • industry 4.0
  • CT scanner
access type Acceso abierto

Forest educators as bearers and implementers of deep ecology ideas

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 14 - 20

Resumen

Abstract

People think very little about the consequences of consumer and ecological manners. Responsibility for raising children to sustainable behaviour is transmitted to educational institutions that bear the full weight of this burden. Non-teaching experts such as foresters enter the educational process. These specialists are called “forest educators”. At the 14th European Forest Pedagogics Congress 2019 in Latvia, 167 forest educators from Europe met, and 52 of them were willing to participate in a qualitative research survey. This paper aimed to identify why foresters, as people without pedagogical education and despite the unfavourable funding, become educators. The following questions guided this research: What leads them to start organizing educational and adventure programmes for children and the public? Is their intrinsic motivation based on an unconscious level to implement ideas of Deep Ecology? Philosophy of Arne Naess and semi-structured interviews with forest educators in the form of the Pyramid Model of Wengraf, through which qualitative data were obtained, methodologically approached this paper. Interviews with foresters revealed their values, needs, motivation, dominant psychological-ethical moments and prosocial behaviour that brings inner satisfaction and pedagogical activity as an added value of their profession. Forest educators have a unique philosophical system related to nature and the environment. They subconsciously follow and develop the ideas of Deep Ecology through the methods of Forest Pedagogy. The paper presents the way of involving forest educators into the distance and online teaching due to the Coronavirus pandemic, as well as the topic for further research in this area.

Palabras clave

  • Arne Naess
  • ecosophy
  • education for the 21st century
  • Forest Pedagogy online
  • Wengraf Pyramid model
access type Acceso abierto

Postfire tree mortality and fire resistance patterns in pine forests of Ukraine

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 21 - 29

Resumen

Abstract

The study was conducted in pure Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands within the forest steppe physiographic region of Ukraine damaged by surface fires with different intensity. The aim of the research is to determine the effect of different fire intensity on pine stand and individual trees, considering tree morphometric parameters and type of damage. The intensity and duration of fire-related tree mortality was different in stands with different age. We found that tree fire resistance is driven by tree diameter, height of the rough bark, and natural degree of thickness. The proportion of dead trees one year after the spring fires in the middle-aged pine stands was 5 times lower and in mature pine stands even 10 times lower than after the summer fires. The critical damage to tree crowns in young pine trees causing their death is 80% of the needles burned. In the middle-aged pine trees, critical damage depended on the size of trees. The death of large, mature trees after smoldering summer fires was associated with the accumulation of a large stock of forest litter and duff near the tree-base, which contributed to the increased intensity of fire and its localization near the base part of the trees. Based on our findings, postfire tree mortality models have been developed for different age groups of pine stands.

Palabras clave

  • surface fires
  • smoldering fires
  • postfire mortality models
  • bark char
  • crown scorch
  • season of fire
access type Acceso abierto

Habitat selection of semi-free ranging European bison: Do bison preferred natural open habitats?

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 30 - 34

Resumen

Abstract

European bison (Bison bonasus) were successfully reintroduced in many free or semi-free areas across Europe during the last decades. Due to the increased numbers, the conflicts between human activities and bison are more frequent. Therefore the knowledge about spatial activity and habitat preference in new regions is the need for management decision making. We studied daily and seasonal habitat use of the semi-free European bison herd in the Czech Republic from 2014 to 2019. The lead cows of the herd were collared with the GPS devices with a 30-minutes GPS fixes interval. The bison herd strongly preferred the managed open areas and supplementary feeding stations during the seasons (Jacob´s index from 0.49 to 0.99). On the contrary, they avoided the forest type and unmanaged open habitats (Jacob´s index from −0.23 to −0.69). The managed meadows and feeding places they used almost exclusively during the night while the forest during the day-light.

Palabras clave

  • habitat preference
  • Jacob´s index
  • forest
  • open areas
  • feeding station
access type Acceso abierto

Effects of forest disturbance on seasonal soil temperature changes in the Tatra Mountains in southern Poland

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 35 - 44

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of forest disturbance on seasonal changes in soil temperature in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). In the years 2015–2020 soil temperatures were measured at a depth of 20 cm on north- and south-facing mountain slopes in a catchment where forest was disturbed by hurricane-force winds in 2013 and in a control neighboring woodland catchment. The effect of forest disturbance was manifested first and foremost in an increase in the soil temperature during the summer months – average by 1.8 to 2.4 °C on a south-facing mountain slope – and by about 1 °C on a north-facing slope. The buffer effect of forest on soil temperature can be observed via lower coefficients of correlation between soil temperature and air temperature in a woodland catchment versus a disturbed catchment in the summer. In the winter, the effect of forest disturbance on soil temperature was less pronounced than in the summer. Small differences in soil temperature in the winter between the woodland catchment and the disturbed catchment were associated with the presence of snow cover and its capacity to yield thermal insulation. Good insulation of the soil from the atmosphere generated by snow cover yielded a very weak relationship between soil temperature and air temperature in the winter. In springtime the soil temperature increased the fastest on a south-facing slope in the disturbed catchment while in the autumn season, soil temperatures declined most rapidly on a slope facing north in the disturbed catchment.

Palabras clave

  • soil temperature
  • forest disturbance
  • windthrow
  • seasonal changes
  • Tatra Mountains
access type Acceso abierto

Influence of different exposition of larch wood facade models on their surface degradation processes

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 45 - 53

Resumen

Abstract

Wood, as a building material, is nowadays more often used outdoors. From the point of view of environment care, wood constructions and use of renewable materials belongs between modern increasing trends in industry. Wooden facades, more often used without surface treatment, are the important part of this trend. In Central Europe, European larch (Larix decidua) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) are especially popular materials for wooden facade elements. The aim of this study is to characterize the surface degradation of untreated facade models from both European and Siberian larch wood. The wood species, orientation to the sides of the world and construction type of the facade were the evaluation factors, which were regularly examined during 24 months of outdoor exposure via measuring the changes of surface colour, gloss, wettability and visual appearance in the form of cracks and resin leaking. The influence of all evaluated factors on the measured properties was determined. The results of this work can help to proper use of untreated larch wood on facade elements in practice.

Palabras clave

  • colour changes
  • facades
  • larch wood
  • surface degradation
  • weathering
6 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

Innovative methods of non-destructive evaluation of log quality

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 3 - 13

Resumen

Abstract

For the sustainability of an important renewable resource, such as wood, it is important to significantly increase the efficiency of its processing. A large part of this raw material ends up in the wood processing industry, where it is used for the production of pulp, paper, construction and furniture timber, floors and others. Therefore, it is very important to gain the knowledge needed for optimal valuation of raw wood material, through quality detection and classification into quality classes. There are many defectoscopic methods working on different physical principles. The most familiar of these methods are semi-destructive and non-destructive, as they do not cause damage to the tree or wood during assessment. The aim of this article is to describe, assess and compare known semi-destructive and non-destructive methods for the assessment of wood properties. This article describes basic visual inspection, basic semi-destructive methods (Pilodyn, Resistograph) and advanced semi-destructive methods (SilviScan®, DiscBot®) as well. Non-destructive methods use mostly acoustic wave motion (acoustic, ultrasonic), high-frequency waves (using georadar, microwave) and methods based on visual evaluation (image, laser). At last, there are X–ray methods with the latest technology using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). The implementation of modern non-destructive methods is of great importance for the application of principles of Industry 4.0, where these methods provide collecting of data on the material properties, in its entire production flow of log processing.

Palabras clave

  • X–ray method
  • acoustic methods
  • georadar methods
  • laser methods
  • industry 4.0
  • CT scanner
access type Acceso abierto

Forest educators as bearers and implementers of deep ecology ideas

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 14 - 20

Resumen

Abstract

People think very little about the consequences of consumer and ecological manners. Responsibility for raising children to sustainable behaviour is transmitted to educational institutions that bear the full weight of this burden. Non-teaching experts such as foresters enter the educational process. These specialists are called “forest educators”. At the 14th European Forest Pedagogics Congress 2019 in Latvia, 167 forest educators from Europe met, and 52 of them were willing to participate in a qualitative research survey. This paper aimed to identify why foresters, as people without pedagogical education and despite the unfavourable funding, become educators. The following questions guided this research: What leads them to start organizing educational and adventure programmes for children and the public? Is their intrinsic motivation based on an unconscious level to implement ideas of Deep Ecology? Philosophy of Arne Naess and semi-structured interviews with forest educators in the form of the Pyramid Model of Wengraf, through which qualitative data were obtained, methodologically approached this paper. Interviews with foresters revealed their values, needs, motivation, dominant psychological-ethical moments and prosocial behaviour that brings inner satisfaction and pedagogical activity as an added value of their profession. Forest educators have a unique philosophical system related to nature and the environment. They subconsciously follow and develop the ideas of Deep Ecology through the methods of Forest Pedagogy. The paper presents the way of involving forest educators into the distance and online teaching due to the Coronavirus pandemic, as well as the topic for further research in this area.

Palabras clave

  • Arne Naess
  • ecosophy
  • education for the 21st century
  • Forest Pedagogy online
  • Wengraf Pyramid model
access type Acceso abierto

Postfire tree mortality and fire resistance patterns in pine forests of Ukraine

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 21 - 29

Resumen

Abstract

The study was conducted in pure Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands within the forest steppe physiographic region of Ukraine damaged by surface fires with different intensity. The aim of the research is to determine the effect of different fire intensity on pine stand and individual trees, considering tree morphometric parameters and type of damage. The intensity and duration of fire-related tree mortality was different in stands with different age. We found that tree fire resistance is driven by tree diameter, height of the rough bark, and natural degree of thickness. The proportion of dead trees one year after the spring fires in the middle-aged pine stands was 5 times lower and in mature pine stands even 10 times lower than after the summer fires. The critical damage to tree crowns in young pine trees causing their death is 80% of the needles burned. In the middle-aged pine trees, critical damage depended on the size of trees. The death of large, mature trees after smoldering summer fires was associated with the accumulation of a large stock of forest litter and duff near the tree-base, which contributed to the increased intensity of fire and its localization near the base part of the trees. Based on our findings, postfire tree mortality models have been developed for different age groups of pine stands.

Palabras clave

  • surface fires
  • smoldering fires
  • postfire mortality models
  • bark char
  • crown scorch
  • season of fire
access type Acceso abierto

Habitat selection of semi-free ranging European bison: Do bison preferred natural open habitats?

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 30 - 34

Resumen

Abstract

European bison (Bison bonasus) were successfully reintroduced in many free or semi-free areas across Europe during the last decades. Due to the increased numbers, the conflicts between human activities and bison are more frequent. Therefore the knowledge about spatial activity and habitat preference in new regions is the need for management decision making. We studied daily and seasonal habitat use of the semi-free European bison herd in the Czech Republic from 2014 to 2019. The lead cows of the herd were collared with the GPS devices with a 30-minutes GPS fixes interval. The bison herd strongly preferred the managed open areas and supplementary feeding stations during the seasons (Jacob´s index from 0.49 to 0.99). On the contrary, they avoided the forest type and unmanaged open habitats (Jacob´s index from −0.23 to −0.69). The managed meadows and feeding places they used almost exclusively during the night while the forest during the day-light.

Palabras clave

  • habitat preference
  • Jacob´s index
  • forest
  • open areas
  • feeding station
access type Acceso abierto

Effects of forest disturbance on seasonal soil temperature changes in the Tatra Mountains in southern Poland

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 35 - 44

Resumen

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of forest disturbance on seasonal changes in soil temperature in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). In the years 2015–2020 soil temperatures were measured at a depth of 20 cm on north- and south-facing mountain slopes in a catchment where forest was disturbed by hurricane-force winds in 2013 and in a control neighboring woodland catchment. The effect of forest disturbance was manifested first and foremost in an increase in the soil temperature during the summer months – average by 1.8 to 2.4 °C on a south-facing mountain slope – and by about 1 °C on a north-facing slope. The buffer effect of forest on soil temperature can be observed via lower coefficients of correlation between soil temperature and air temperature in a woodland catchment versus a disturbed catchment in the summer. In the winter, the effect of forest disturbance on soil temperature was less pronounced than in the summer. Small differences in soil temperature in the winter between the woodland catchment and the disturbed catchment were associated with the presence of snow cover and its capacity to yield thermal insulation. Good insulation of the soil from the atmosphere generated by snow cover yielded a very weak relationship between soil temperature and air temperature in the winter. In springtime the soil temperature increased the fastest on a south-facing slope in the disturbed catchment while in the autumn season, soil temperatures declined most rapidly on a slope facing north in the disturbed catchment.

Palabras clave

  • soil temperature
  • forest disturbance
  • windthrow
  • seasonal changes
  • Tatra Mountains
access type Acceso abierto

Influence of different exposition of larch wood facade models on their surface degradation processes

Publicado en línea: 26 Mar 2021
Páginas: 45 - 53

Resumen

Abstract

Wood, as a building material, is nowadays more often used outdoors. From the point of view of environment care, wood constructions and use of renewable materials belongs between modern increasing trends in industry. Wooden facades, more often used without surface treatment, are the important part of this trend. In Central Europe, European larch (Larix decidua) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) are especially popular materials for wooden facade elements. The aim of this study is to characterize the surface degradation of untreated facade models from both European and Siberian larch wood. The wood species, orientation to the sides of the world and construction type of the facade were the evaluation factors, which were regularly examined during 24 months of outdoor exposure via measuring the changes of surface colour, gloss, wettability and visual appearance in the form of cracks and resin leaking. The influence of all evaluated factors on the measured properties was determined. The results of this work can help to proper use of untreated larch wood on facade elements in practice.

Palabras clave

  • colour changes
  • facades
  • larch wood
  • surface degradation
  • weathering

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