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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 66 (2020): Edición 3 (September 2020)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

6 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

Tree height and species composition of young forest stands fifteen years after the large-scale wind disturbance in Tatra National Park

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 131 - 140

Resumen

Abstract

In November 2004, the windstorm Alžbeta damaged over 12 thousand ha of forests in the High Tatra Mts. It was the largest wind disaster in the modern forestry history of Slovakia. The process of forest regeneration at the post-disturbance area has to be monitored together with the effectiveness of implemented forestry measures. Therefore, we focused on tree measurements at 90 monitoring plots (MP) in 1 × 1 km net placed in the post-disturbance area in the Tatra National Park. We recorded tree species, number of trees (density) and tree heights. Besides that, stem diameters of trees with breast height diameter over 7 cm were measured. The field work was performed in the growing season of 2019, i.e. about 15 years after the wind disturbance. In total, 20 tree species, 15 broadleaves and 5 coniferous ones, were recorded at MP. The most frequent (28.9% of all trees) species was Norway spruce followed by silver birch (18.6%), rowan (16.9%) and goat willow (15.2%). Four species, i.e. European larch, wild cherry, grey alder and common alder contributed to the total number of trees between 1.8 and 4.8% each. Share of all other species together was about 5%. Tree height frequency was left-sided for the whole sampling set (all species together), as well as for individual species. Most of young trees were less than 1m high, but some of them exceeded 10 m. Further, tree density of over 100 individuals per are (100 m2) was found at 1/3 of all MPs. As many as 25% of MPs were characterized with tree densities between 61 and 90 individuals. At 23% of MPs, the number of trees was up to 30 individuals per are, and 20% of MPs had between 31 and 60 small trees per are. The results suggested that the post-disturbance forest stands in the High Tatras would be more resistant to wind storms and very probably also to bark beetles after reaching maturity than those, which were destructed and declined at the beginning of 21st century.

Palabras clave

  • post-disturbance area
  • forest regeneration
  • young forest stands
  • tree density
  • tree species
access type Acceso abierto

Combined fertilizers versus dolomitic limestone: A comparative study from a forest habitat with Norway spruce

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 141 - 150

Resumen

Abstract

The research paper with character of case study deals with the influence of amelioration on soil as well as the Norway spruce nutrition and growth, with the focus on dolomitic limestone and combined fertilizer applications. The study was performed in the 7-year-old forest stand (Nízký Jeseník Mountains, Czech Republic, 100% Norway spruce, podzol, mor humus form, slightly undulated slope, 770 m a.s.l.). The soil properties (soil reaction, nutrient status, C/N ratio and cation exchange capacity), the plant nutrition, the plant biomass production and the health status were measured. Neither the expected significant increase in pH due to liming in the root zone nor the increase in calcium and magnesium in the soil was confirmed. In the dolomitic limestone treatment, the highest hydrolytic acidity reaching 260 mmol+/kg, the worst development of assimilatory organs, the growth and health status of individuals were ascertained one year after the usage. The application of combined fertilizers resulted in the highest response in the needle biomass production (0.35 g/100 needles compared to less than 0.30 g/100 needles in the dolomitic limestone treatment), in the potassium and phosphorus nutrition status (suboptimal 4–4.5% of potassium in dolomitic limestone and the control treatment compared to optimal 5.5–7.5% in the combined fertilizers treatments) and simultaneously to the optimization of the health status. Specifically, in forest stands, the effect of dolomitic limestone is rather overestimated and furthermore, chemical amelioration requires the detailed knowledge of the forest site.

Palabras clave

  • forest soil
  • acidification
  • reclamation practice
  • plant nutrition
  • nutrient antagonism
access type Acceso abierto

Cutting practices in mature stands of Tilia cordata Mill.

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 151 - 158

Resumen

Abstract

The right timing for replacing mature and over-mature forest stands with a young generation of trees is evident as it ensures continuity in forest management. The study aimed to assess the efficiency of cutting practices in mature stands of Tilia cordata Mill. Mono-dominant and poly-dominant, even- and different-aged linden tree forests in the southern Urals were studied. The study found that in the first years following the small scale forest cutting practices (the Murakhtanov method), retention trees of Tilia cordata Mill. showed longer crowns (by 0.3 ± 0.01 m) and higher crown diameter indices (by 0.11 ± 0.04 m). A single selection showed that nectar secretion potential was 2.1 ± 0.06 mg/flower in the first assessment year, the index was 1.8 ± 0.03 mg/flower in the control forest area where no trees were cut. In the third assessment year, nectar secretion potential rose to 4.1 ± 0.04 mg/flower, while the index fell to 2.0 ± 0.01 mg/flower in the control forest area. The comparative analysis of the shoot growth capacity in stools of different diameters showed that shoots regrew from 82% of stumps. Shoots did not regrow from stumps affected by rot, those ones destroyed in the cutting process, and also from stumps of 59 – 62 cm in diameter.

Palabras clave

  • coppice shoots
  • nectar-producing tree
  • regeneration
  • small-forest cutting
  • Mill
access type Acceso abierto

Silver birch aboveground biomass allocation pattern, stem and foliage traits with regard to intraspecific crown competition

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 159 - 169

Resumen

Abstract

In the conditions of Central Europe, silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) has so far not been an important species for commercial purposes but might be relevant from ecological point of view. For instance, prompt succession by birch and other pioneer tree species at large-scale post-disturbance areas is necessary to compensate for previous carbon losses by natural disasters. Therefore, our attention was focused on 14-year-old birch trees growing at the wind-thrown area in the High Tatra Mts. (northern Slovakia). We sampled aboveground biomass of 20 silver birch trees representing four classes of crown competition: 0 – competition free crowns, 1 – crowns under mild competition, 2 – crowns under moderate competition, 3 – crowns under severe competition. We studied biomass allocated to stems, branches and foliage, and basic properties of stems and foliage. The crown-competition free birches were nearly 13 m high, and their aboveground tree biomass was 150 kg. The biomass of birches under severe competition was five times lower. Crown competition modified biomass ratios of foliage to branch as well as of branch to stem. Our results showed that birches under severe competition stress invest more in height than in diameter. At the same time, crown competition modified foliage weight and specific leaf area (SLA), which was clear mostly in the upper part of the crowns. However, foliage area was influenced by crown competition only to a negligible extent. Our main finding is that foliage position (upper, middle or lower third of crown) affected foliage properties more than intraspecific crown competition. Finally, we pointed out that silver birch is a rather productive species that is not ecologically demanding. Therefore, it might be a prospective tree species under the ongoing climate change and the present period of intensification in renewable resources utilisation.

Palabras clave

  • post-disturbance area
  • Tatra National Park
  • tree components
  • crown competition
  • young stand
  • specific foliage area
access type Acceso abierto

An integrated framework for Web-based visualisation of forest resources estimated from remote sensing data

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 170 - 176

Resumen

Abstract

Advanced remote sensing technologies has recently become an effective tool for monitoring of forest ecosystems. However, there is a growing need for online dissemination of geospatial data from these activities. We developed and assessed a framework which integrates (1) an algorithm for estimation of forest stand variables based on remote sensing data and (2) a web-map application for 2D and 3D visualisation of geospatial data. The performance of proposed framework was assessed in a Forest Management Unit Vígľaš (Slovakia, Central Europe) covering a total area of 12,472 ha. The mean error of remote sensing-based estimations of forest resources reached values of 16.4%, 12.1%, –26.8%, and –35.4% for the mean height, mean diameter, volume per hectare, and trees per hectare, respectively. The web-map application is stable and allows real-time visualization of digital terrain model, aerial imagery, thematic maps used in forestry or geology, and 968,217 single trees at forest management unit level.

Palabras clave

  • geo-visualization
  • WebGL
  • level of details
  • Forest inventory
  • airborne LiDAR
access type Acceso abierto

Analysis of the time efficiency of skidding technology based on the skidders

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 177 - 187

Resumen

Abstract

The time efficiency and principles of ergonomics related to timber skidding are based on the time consumption per work cycle as well as on the time consumption per individual work operations. Regarding the demands on the environmental requirements and ever increasing cost of work, it is necessary to objectively evaluate the inevitable time consumption required for timber skidding using all technologies. The paper summarised the results of time studies for skidder technologies. The time study compares the time consumption and productivity of cable skidders and cable-grapple skidders, with the main focus on developing time prediction models. The main aim of the study was to objectify the skidder time consumption and establish the impact of production factors on the time consumption of partial work operations of skidders. Within the time study 231 work cycles were measured, and 53 snapshots of work day with using methods continual time study. The overall time consumption of the work cycle and gross production rate of the monitored cable and cable-grapple skidders is affected by the following production factors: the skidding distance, volume of skidded logs and number of skidded logs. The impact of individual production factors on the overall time consumption of the work cycle is different for each group of skidders. Non-operation times of the skidder operators’ shifts represent 24.6% with the highest part taken by the technical operation of the work place. The mean gross production rate of the monitored skidders varied from 33.3 to 6.91 m3 h−1.

Palabras clave

  • time consumption
  • time study
  • wheeled skidders
  • time prediction models
  • productivity
6 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

Tree height and species composition of young forest stands fifteen years after the large-scale wind disturbance in Tatra National Park

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 131 - 140

Resumen

Abstract

In November 2004, the windstorm Alžbeta damaged over 12 thousand ha of forests in the High Tatra Mts. It was the largest wind disaster in the modern forestry history of Slovakia. The process of forest regeneration at the post-disturbance area has to be monitored together with the effectiveness of implemented forestry measures. Therefore, we focused on tree measurements at 90 monitoring plots (MP) in 1 × 1 km net placed in the post-disturbance area in the Tatra National Park. We recorded tree species, number of trees (density) and tree heights. Besides that, stem diameters of trees with breast height diameter over 7 cm were measured. The field work was performed in the growing season of 2019, i.e. about 15 years after the wind disturbance. In total, 20 tree species, 15 broadleaves and 5 coniferous ones, were recorded at MP. The most frequent (28.9% of all trees) species was Norway spruce followed by silver birch (18.6%), rowan (16.9%) and goat willow (15.2%). Four species, i.e. European larch, wild cherry, grey alder and common alder contributed to the total number of trees between 1.8 and 4.8% each. Share of all other species together was about 5%. Tree height frequency was left-sided for the whole sampling set (all species together), as well as for individual species. Most of young trees were less than 1m high, but some of them exceeded 10 m. Further, tree density of over 100 individuals per are (100 m2) was found at 1/3 of all MPs. As many as 25% of MPs were characterized with tree densities between 61 and 90 individuals. At 23% of MPs, the number of trees was up to 30 individuals per are, and 20% of MPs had between 31 and 60 small trees per are. The results suggested that the post-disturbance forest stands in the High Tatras would be more resistant to wind storms and very probably also to bark beetles after reaching maturity than those, which were destructed and declined at the beginning of 21st century.

Palabras clave

  • post-disturbance area
  • forest regeneration
  • young forest stands
  • tree density
  • tree species
access type Acceso abierto

Combined fertilizers versus dolomitic limestone: A comparative study from a forest habitat with Norway spruce

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 141 - 150

Resumen

Abstract

The research paper with character of case study deals with the influence of amelioration on soil as well as the Norway spruce nutrition and growth, with the focus on dolomitic limestone and combined fertilizer applications. The study was performed in the 7-year-old forest stand (Nízký Jeseník Mountains, Czech Republic, 100% Norway spruce, podzol, mor humus form, slightly undulated slope, 770 m a.s.l.). The soil properties (soil reaction, nutrient status, C/N ratio and cation exchange capacity), the plant nutrition, the plant biomass production and the health status were measured. Neither the expected significant increase in pH due to liming in the root zone nor the increase in calcium and magnesium in the soil was confirmed. In the dolomitic limestone treatment, the highest hydrolytic acidity reaching 260 mmol+/kg, the worst development of assimilatory organs, the growth and health status of individuals were ascertained one year after the usage. The application of combined fertilizers resulted in the highest response in the needle biomass production (0.35 g/100 needles compared to less than 0.30 g/100 needles in the dolomitic limestone treatment), in the potassium and phosphorus nutrition status (suboptimal 4–4.5% of potassium in dolomitic limestone and the control treatment compared to optimal 5.5–7.5% in the combined fertilizers treatments) and simultaneously to the optimization of the health status. Specifically, in forest stands, the effect of dolomitic limestone is rather overestimated and furthermore, chemical amelioration requires the detailed knowledge of the forest site.

Palabras clave

  • forest soil
  • acidification
  • reclamation practice
  • plant nutrition
  • nutrient antagonism
access type Acceso abierto

Cutting practices in mature stands of Tilia cordata Mill.

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 151 - 158

Resumen

Abstract

The right timing for replacing mature and over-mature forest stands with a young generation of trees is evident as it ensures continuity in forest management. The study aimed to assess the efficiency of cutting practices in mature stands of Tilia cordata Mill. Mono-dominant and poly-dominant, even- and different-aged linden tree forests in the southern Urals were studied. The study found that in the first years following the small scale forest cutting practices (the Murakhtanov method), retention trees of Tilia cordata Mill. showed longer crowns (by 0.3 ± 0.01 m) and higher crown diameter indices (by 0.11 ± 0.04 m). A single selection showed that nectar secretion potential was 2.1 ± 0.06 mg/flower in the first assessment year, the index was 1.8 ± 0.03 mg/flower in the control forest area where no trees were cut. In the third assessment year, nectar secretion potential rose to 4.1 ± 0.04 mg/flower, while the index fell to 2.0 ± 0.01 mg/flower in the control forest area. The comparative analysis of the shoot growth capacity in stools of different diameters showed that shoots regrew from 82% of stumps. Shoots did not regrow from stumps affected by rot, those ones destroyed in the cutting process, and also from stumps of 59 – 62 cm in diameter.

Palabras clave

  • coppice shoots
  • nectar-producing tree
  • regeneration
  • small-forest cutting
  • Mill
access type Acceso abierto

Silver birch aboveground biomass allocation pattern, stem and foliage traits with regard to intraspecific crown competition

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 159 - 169

Resumen

Abstract

In the conditions of Central Europe, silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) has so far not been an important species for commercial purposes but might be relevant from ecological point of view. For instance, prompt succession by birch and other pioneer tree species at large-scale post-disturbance areas is necessary to compensate for previous carbon losses by natural disasters. Therefore, our attention was focused on 14-year-old birch trees growing at the wind-thrown area in the High Tatra Mts. (northern Slovakia). We sampled aboveground biomass of 20 silver birch trees representing four classes of crown competition: 0 – competition free crowns, 1 – crowns under mild competition, 2 – crowns under moderate competition, 3 – crowns under severe competition. We studied biomass allocated to stems, branches and foliage, and basic properties of stems and foliage. The crown-competition free birches were nearly 13 m high, and their aboveground tree biomass was 150 kg. The biomass of birches under severe competition was five times lower. Crown competition modified biomass ratios of foliage to branch as well as of branch to stem. Our results showed that birches under severe competition stress invest more in height than in diameter. At the same time, crown competition modified foliage weight and specific leaf area (SLA), which was clear mostly in the upper part of the crowns. However, foliage area was influenced by crown competition only to a negligible extent. Our main finding is that foliage position (upper, middle or lower third of crown) affected foliage properties more than intraspecific crown competition. Finally, we pointed out that silver birch is a rather productive species that is not ecologically demanding. Therefore, it might be a prospective tree species under the ongoing climate change and the present period of intensification in renewable resources utilisation.

Palabras clave

  • post-disturbance area
  • Tatra National Park
  • tree components
  • crown competition
  • young stand
  • specific foliage area
access type Acceso abierto

An integrated framework for Web-based visualisation of forest resources estimated from remote sensing data

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 170 - 176

Resumen

Abstract

Advanced remote sensing technologies has recently become an effective tool for monitoring of forest ecosystems. However, there is a growing need for online dissemination of geospatial data from these activities. We developed and assessed a framework which integrates (1) an algorithm for estimation of forest stand variables based on remote sensing data and (2) a web-map application for 2D and 3D visualisation of geospatial data. The performance of proposed framework was assessed in a Forest Management Unit Vígľaš (Slovakia, Central Europe) covering a total area of 12,472 ha. The mean error of remote sensing-based estimations of forest resources reached values of 16.4%, 12.1%, –26.8%, and –35.4% for the mean height, mean diameter, volume per hectare, and trees per hectare, respectively. The web-map application is stable and allows real-time visualization of digital terrain model, aerial imagery, thematic maps used in forestry or geology, and 968,217 single trees at forest management unit level.

Palabras clave

  • geo-visualization
  • WebGL
  • level of details
  • Forest inventory
  • airborne LiDAR
access type Acceso abierto

Analysis of the time efficiency of skidding technology based on the skidders

Publicado en línea: 24 Aug 2020
Páginas: 177 - 187

Resumen

Abstract

The time efficiency and principles of ergonomics related to timber skidding are based on the time consumption per work cycle as well as on the time consumption per individual work operations. Regarding the demands on the environmental requirements and ever increasing cost of work, it is necessary to objectively evaluate the inevitable time consumption required for timber skidding using all technologies. The paper summarised the results of time studies for skidder technologies. The time study compares the time consumption and productivity of cable skidders and cable-grapple skidders, with the main focus on developing time prediction models. The main aim of the study was to objectify the skidder time consumption and establish the impact of production factors on the time consumption of partial work operations of skidders. Within the time study 231 work cycles were measured, and 53 snapshots of work day with using methods continual time study. The overall time consumption of the work cycle and gross production rate of the monitored cable and cable-grapple skidders is affected by the following production factors: the skidding distance, volume of skidded logs and number of skidded logs. The impact of individual production factors on the overall time consumption of the work cycle is different for each group of skidders. Non-operation times of the skidder operators’ shifts represent 24.6% with the highest part taken by the technical operation of the work place. The mean gross production rate of the monitored skidders varied from 33.3 to 6.91 m3 h−1.

Palabras clave

  • time consumption
  • time study
  • wheeled skidders
  • time prediction models
  • productivity

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