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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 66 (2020): Edición 1 (March 2020)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

5 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

Assessment of load and quality of logging residues from clear-felling areas in Järvselja: a case study from Southeast Estonia

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2020
Páginas: 3 - 11

Resumen

Abstract

The properties of biomass-based fuel and combustion tests showed that logging residues are promising renewable energy sources. The data used in this study were collected from four clear-felling areas in Järvselja Training and Experimental Forest Centre, Southeast Estonia in 2013–2014. Logging was carried out by harvesters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) dominated stands with a small admixture of other tree species according to the cut-to-length method and logging residues were placed in heaps. The aim of this research is to assess different characteristics of logging residues (quantity, moisture content, energetic potential, ash content and amount) in clear-felling areas. The highest load of slash was measured on the birch dominated study site, where the dry weight of the logging residues was 29 t ha−1. Only the branch fraction moisture content on the black alder dominated site (35.4%) was clearly different from respective values on other sites (21.6–25.4%). The highest calorific value of the residues was assessed with the residues from the birch dominated site, where in moist sample it was 365 GJ ha−1 and in dry matter 585 GJ ha−1. The heating value of the fresh residues is highest in coniferous trees. The highest ash content in branch segments was registered for the black alder dominated site. Järvselja data indicate higher quality in conifer dominated sites, yet a higher load of logging residues in broadleaf dominated stands.

Palabras clave

  • bioenergy
  • biomass of forest residues
  • energetic potential
  • moisture content
  • ash content
access type Acceso abierto

Variability of forwarder truckload parameters in the Pryazha forestry division of the Republic of Karelia (Russia): A computer experiment

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2020
Páginas: 12 - 22

Resumen

Abstract

The goal of the present research is to analyze parameters of a bundle of logs for various models of forwarders in the Pryazha division of forestry of the Republic of Karelia. The investigated parameters were mass and volume of a bundle of logs, stacking factor of the bundle and the number of wood assortments in the bundle. The following models of forwarders have been investigated: John Deere 1210E, John Deere 1110E, Ponsse Elk, Ponsse Wisent, Amkodor 2661-01, Rottne F13D, Rottne F15D, Rottne F18D. We estimated the parameters of bundles formed from spruce sawlog 6.1 m long and bundles formed from spruce pulpwood 4 m long. Data on stem forms from harvester recorders have been collected to assess the parameters of a bundle of logs. Parameters of bundles have been determined based on computer experiment. The experiment consists of the following steps: random selection of the stem from the database; simulation of the cut-to-length process; simulation of log stacking process; calculation of parameters of a bundle of logs. We found that parameters of bundles vary to a quite substantial extent. Average variability of a bundle of logs formed of 6.1 m long spruce sawlog is 4.5 t, variability of the volume is 5.8 m3, and variability of the number of wood assortments in a bundle is 49 pcs. For a bundle made up of 4 m long spruce pulpwood variability of mass is on average 2.8 t, that of volume – 2.09 m3, that of the number of wood assortments – 57 pc. The presented results can inform transportation of wood on cutting areas, planning timber harvesting, as well as development new logging machines.

Palabras clave

  • simulation study
  • computer experiment
  • mass of bundle
  • volume of bundle
  • number of logs in a bundle
  • load capacity
access type Acceso abierto

Effect of climate and air pollution on radial growth of mixed forests: Abies alba Mill. vs. Picea abies (L.) Karst.

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2020
Páginas: 23 - 36

Resumen

Abstract

Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) are main tree species of Central Europe that are currently highly vulnerable in times of global climate change. The research deals with the effect of climate and air pollution on radial growth of silver fir and Norway spruce in mixed age-varied (56 – 146 years) forests in the Jeseníky Protected Landscape Area, the Czech Republic. The objectives were to evaluate biodiversity, structure and production, specifically interaction of radial growth of fir and spruce to air pollution (SO2, NOX, tropospheric ozone) and climatic factors (precipitation, air temperature). Concentration of SO2 and NOX had negative effect on radial growth of fir, while radial growth of spruce was more negatively influenced by tropospheric ozone. Fir showed higher variability in radial growth and was more sensitive to climatic factors compared to spruce. On the other hand, fir was relatively adaptable tree species that regenerated very well when the pressure of stress factors subsided (air pollution load, Caucasian bark beetle, frost damage). Low temperature was a limiting factor of radial growth in the study mountainous area, especially for fir. Fir was significantly sensitive to late frost, respectively, spruce to winter desiccation and spring droughts with synergism of air pollution load. Generally, older forest stands were more negatively influenced by air pollution load and climatic extremes compared to young trees.

Palabras clave

  • silver fir
  • Norway spruce
  • tree-ring dating
  • stand structure
  • biodiversity
  • Central Europe
access type Acceso abierto

Harmfulness of root rot in the stands planted on formerly arable land and clear-cuts after annosum-infected pine forests in Chernihiv Polissya physiographic region of Ukraine

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2020
Páginas: 37 - 48

Resumen

Abstract

The study was conducted in pure Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests and mixed forests of Scots pine and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) within the Chernihiv Polissya physiographic region of Ukraine. The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of forest mensuration characteristics and health condition of pine and mixed pine-birch stands planted on formerly arable lands and cutover areas after pine stands infected by annosum root rot. It was found that in pine stands planted on formerly arable land, the average diameter of living trees in the root rot disease focus was 1–6% larger and the average diameter of dead trees was 11–23% larger than those outside the disease focus. Due to the pathological loss inside the disease foci, the pine stand density was much lower – by 14–38% and the growing stock volume was 16–35% less as compared to the outside areas. Mixed pine-birch stands (with a predominance of pine trees), established on the cutover areas after pine stands affected by root rot, had a 20% greater stock volume and the birch-pine stands (with birch predominance) in the clear-cuts had 18% greater stock volume than pure pine stands inside the root rot disease area. The pine trees were assessed as “weakened” in the mixed stands and as “severely weakened” in the pure pine stand inside the disease focus. The birch trees in mixed stands were characterized as “healthy”.

Palabras clave

  • Scots pine
  • health condition
  • root rot
  • disease focus
access type Acceso abierto

Beetles and nematodes associated with wither Scots pines

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2020
Páginas: 49 - 59

Resumen

Abstract

This study focused on the occurrence of xylophagous beetles and nematodes in the different parts of Pinus sylvestris L. trees of different health condition in the pure stands in Zhytomyr region (Central Polissya). Stem fragments with thin, thick and transitional bark, branches and twigs were examined in each of 12 model trees. Xylophagous beetles were identified by adults or by galleries. Nematodes were isolated from wood samples in the laboratory using the Baermann method and identified by morphometric characteristics. Among 10 species of xylophagous beetles, Ips acuminatus (frequency 16.7%; dominance 17.9%) and I. sexdentatus (frequency 11.1%, dominance 54.6%) dominated, which prefer the fragments with thin and thick bark respectively. No xylophagous beetle was found in the healthy and slightly weakened trees. Among 15 nematode species, 40% were saproxylic, 33.3% entomophilic, 13.3% phytophagous, and by 6.7% predators and species associated with fungi. An entomophilic nematodes Cryptaphelenchus macrogaster f. acuminati was common in all parts of stem and branches (frequency of occurrence 25–33.3%). An entomophilic nematodes Parasitorhabditis acuminati and a predator Fuchsia buetschlii acuminati had the highest frequency of occurrence (41.7%) under the thin bark and in the branches. The frequency of these species in colonized with xylophagous insects stem fragments with thin bark was significantly higher than in respective not colonized fragments.

Palabras clave

  • entomophilic nematodes
  • phytophagous nematodes
  • predator
  • saproxylic nematode
5 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

Assessment of load and quality of logging residues from clear-felling areas in Järvselja: a case study from Southeast Estonia

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2020
Páginas: 3 - 11

Resumen

Abstract

The properties of biomass-based fuel and combustion tests showed that logging residues are promising renewable energy sources. The data used in this study were collected from four clear-felling areas in Järvselja Training and Experimental Forest Centre, Southeast Estonia in 2013–2014. Logging was carried out by harvesters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) dominated stands with a small admixture of other tree species according to the cut-to-length method and logging residues were placed in heaps. The aim of this research is to assess different characteristics of logging residues (quantity, moisture content, energetic potential, ash content and amount) in clear-felling areas. The highest load of slash was measured on the birch dominated study site, where the dry weight of the logging residues was 29 t ha−1. Only the branch fraction moisture content on the black alder dominated site (35.4%) was clearly different from respective values on other sites (21.6–25.4%). The highest calorific value of the residues was assessed with the residues from the birch dominated site, where in moist sample it was 365 GJ ha−1 and in dry matter 585 GJ ha−1. The heating value of the fresh residues is highest in coniferous trees. The highest ash content in branch segments was registered for the black alder dominated site. Järvselja data indicate higher quality in conifer dominated sites, yet a higher load of logging residues in broadleaf dominated stands.

Palabras clave

  • bioenergy
  • biomass of forest residues
  • energetic potential
  • moisture content
  • ash content
access type Acceso abierto

Variability of forwarder truckload parameters in the Pryazha forestry division of the Republic of Karelia (Russia): A computer experiment

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2020
Páginas: 12 - 22

Resumen

Abstract

The goal of the present research is to analyze parameters of a bundle of logs for various models of forwarders in the Pryazha division of forestry of the Republic of Karelia. The investigated parameters were mass and volume of a bundle of logs, stacking factor of the bundle and the number of wood assortments in the bundle. The following models of forwarders have been investigated: John Deere 1210E, John Deere 1110E, Ponsse Elk, Ponsse Wisent, Amkodor 2661-01, Rottne F13D, Rottne F15D, Rottne F18D. We estimated the parameters of bundles formed from spruce sawlog 6.1 m long and bundles formed from spruce pulpwood 4 m long. Data on stem forms from harvester recorders have been collected to assess the parameters of a bundle of logs. Parameters of bundles have been determined based on computer experiment. The experiment consists of the following steps: random selection of the stem from the database; simulation of the cut-to-length process; simulation of log stacking process; calculation of parameters of a bundle of logs. We found that parameters of bundles vary to a quite substantial extent. Average variability of a bundle of logs formed of 6.1 m long spruce sawlog is 4.5 t, variability of the volume is 5.8 m3, and variability of the number of wood assortments in a bundle is 49 pcs. For a bundle made up of 4 m long spruce pulpwood variability of mass is on average 2.8 t, that of volume – 2.09 m3, that of the number of wood assortments – 57 pc. The presented results can inform transportation of wood on cutting areas, planning timber harvesting, as well as development new logging machines.

Palabras clave

  • simulation study
  • computer experiment
  • mass of bundle
  • volume of bundle
  • number of logs in a bundle
  • load capacity
access type Acceso abierto

Effect of climate and air pollution on radial growth of mixed forests: Abies alba Mill. vs. Picea abies (L.) Karst.

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2020
Páginas: 23 - 36

Resumen

Abstract

Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) are main tree species of Central Europe that are currently highly vulnerable in times of global climate change. The research deals with the effect of climate and air pollution on radial growth of silver fir and Norway spruce in mixed age-varied (56 – 146 years) forests in the Jeseníky Protected Landscape Area, the Czech Republic. The objectives were to evaluate biodiversity, structure and production, specifically interaction of radial growth of fir and spruce to air pollution (SO2, NOX, tropospheric ozone) and climatic factors (precipitation, air temperature). Concentration of SO2 and NOX had negative effect on radial growth of fir, while radial growth of spruce was more negatively influenced by tropospheric ozone. Fir showed higher variability in radial growth and was more sensitive to climatic factors compared to spruce. On the other hand, fir was relatively adaptable tree species that regenerated very well when the pressure of stress factors subsided (air pollution load, Caucasian bark beetle, frost damage). Low temperature was a limiting factor of radial growth in the study mountainous area, especially for fir. Fir was significantly sensitive to late frost, respectively, spruce to winter desiccation and spring droughts with synergism of air pollution load. Generally, older forest stands were more negatively influenced by air pollution load and climatic extremes compared to young trees.

Palabras clave

  • silver fir
  • Norway spruce
  • tree-ring dating
  • stand structure
  • biodiversity
  • Central Europe
access type Acceso abierto

Harmfulness of root rot in the stands planted on formerly arable land and clear-cuts after annosum-infected pine forests in Chernihiv Polissya physiographic region of Ukraine

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2020
Páginas: 37 - 48

Resumen

Abstract

The study was conducted in pure Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests and mixed forests of Scots pine and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) within the Chernihiv Polissya physiographic region of Ukraine. The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of forest mensuration characteristics and health condition of pine and mixed pine-birch stands planted on formerly arable lands and cutover areas after pine stands infected by annosum root rot. It was found that in pine stands planted on formerly arable land, the average diameter of living trees in the root rot disease focus was 1–6% larger and the average diameter of dead trees was 11–23% larger than those outside the disease focus. Due to the pathological loss inside the disease foci, the pine stand density was much lower – by 14–38% and the growing stock volume was 16–35% less as compared to the outside areas. Mixed pine-birch stands (with a predominance of pine trees), established on the cutover areas after pine stands affected by root rot, had a 20% greater stock volume and the birch-pine stands (with birch predominance) in the clear-cuts had 18% greater stock volume than pure pine stands inside the root rot disease area. The pine trees were assessed as “weakened” in the mixed stands and as “severely weakened” in the pure pine stand inside the disease focus. The birch trees in mixed stands were characterized as “healthy”.

Palabras clave

  • Scots pine
  • health condition
  • root rot
  • disease focus
access type Acceso abierto

Beetles and nematodes associated with wither Scots pines

Publicado en línea: 27 Feb 2020
Páginas: 49 - 59

Resumen

Abstract

This study focused on the occurrence of xylophagous beetles and nematodes in the different parts of Pinus sylvestris L. trees of different health condition in the pure stands in Zhytomyr region (Central Polissya). Stem fragments with thin, thick and transitional bark, branches and twigs were examined in each of 12 model trees. Xylophagous beetles were identified by adults or by galleries. Nematodes were isolated from wood samples in the laboratory using the Baermann method and identified by morphometric characteristics. Among 10 species of xylophagous beetles, Ips acuminatus (frequency 16.7%; dominance 17.9%) and I. sexdentatus (frequency 11.1%, dominance 54.6%) dominated, which prefer the fragments with thin and thick bark respectively. No xylophagous beetle was found in the healthy and slightly weakened trees. Among 15 nematode species, 40% were saproxylic, 33.3% entomophilic, 13.3% phytophagous, and by 6.7% predators and species associated with fungi. An entomophilic nematodes Cryptaphelenchus macrogaster f. acuminati was common in all parts of stem and branches (frequency of occurrence 25–33.3%). An entomophilic nematodes Parasitorhabditis acuminati and a predator Fuchsia buetschlii acuminati had the highest frequency of occurrence (41.7%) under the thin bark and in the branches. The frequency of these species in colonized with xylophagous insects stem fragments with thin bark was significantly higher than in respective not colonized fragments.

Palabras clave

  • entomophilic nematodes
  • phytophagous nematodes
  • predator
  • saproxylic nematode

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