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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 65 (2019): Edición 3-4 (September 2019)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

10 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Modelling in forestry sciences, high technologies and decision-support systems in forestry and wood-processing

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 145 - 146

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Forest modelling and visualisation – state of the art and perspectives

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 147 - 165

Resumen

Abstract

The paper provides a detailed overview on forest models from various perspectives. The presented classification scheme of forest models uses concept, object, space and time as variables to place models in specific categories and thus provides an integrated approach for model categorisation. A short description of individual categories with the examples of models helps to understand their nature. In total 34 forest models were classified according to the created scheme. Forest visualisation has also an important place in forest modelling. Here it is described from the point of different visualisations methods and used technologies. Inputs that are necessary for the models but are often not available and need to be derived using specialised tools – various forms of data generators are presented too. Important perspectives and challenges of further development of forest models and visualisation technologies were specified as well.

Palabras clave

  • simulations
  • prognostic tools
  • virtual reality
  • hybridisation
  • input variables
Acceso abierto

Fir (Abies spp.) stand biomass additive model for Eurasia sensitive to winter temperature and annual precipitation

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 166 - 179

Resumen

Abstract

Climate change, especially modified courses of temperature and precipitation, has a significant impact on forest functioning and productivity. Moreover, some alterations in tree biomass allocation (e.g. root to shoot ratio, foliage to wood parts) might be expected in these changing ecological conditions. Therefore, we attempted to model fir stand biomass (t ha−1) along the trans-Eurasian hydrothermal gradients using the data from 272 forest stands. The model outputs suggested that all biomass components, except for the crown mass, change in a common pattern, but in different ratios. Specifically, in the range of mean January temperature and precipitation of −30°C to +10°C and 300 to 900 mm, fir stand biomass increases with both increasing temperature and precipitation. Under an assumed increase of January temperature by 1°C, biomass of roots and of all components of the aboveground biomass of fir stands increased (under the assumption that the precipitation level did not change). Similarly, an assumed increase in precipitation by 100 mm resulted in the increased biomass of roots and of all aboveground components. We conclude that fir seems to be a perspective taxon from the point of its productive properties in the ongoing process of climate change.

Palabras clave

  • fir forests
  • stand biomass
  • regression models
  • additive biomass equations
  • hydrothermal indices
Acceso abierto

Changes in growth caused by climate change and other limiting factors in time affect the optimal equilibrium of close-to-nature forest management

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 180 - 190

Resumen

Abstract

Historical radial increment data based on tree ring analyses from the close-to-nature experimental forest management unit Smolnícka Osada in Central Slovakia were used for retrospective modelling of changes in forest dynamics to estimate the sensitivity of management planning goals under climate change. Four example years representing historical periods with typically different species-specific patterns of radial increment in mixed beech-fir-spruce forest (1910, 1950, 1980, and 2014) served as virtual starting points for the modelling. An advanced density-dependent matrix transition model was utilised for modelling stand dynamics. An integrated tool for nonlinear financial optimisation searched for an optimal management equilibrium. In addition to transition probabilities adjusted from increment data, some assumptions for changes in ingrowth and mortality related to the increment, as well as a case study concerning the reduced ingrowth changed by game browsing intensity, were tested for modelling more realistic historical ecological conditions. The sensitivity study revealed changes in the optimal management equilibrium represented by optimal basal area, tree species composition, diameter distribution and target harvest diameter over time due to the adapted ecological modelling. The main lesson of the past for the future is to avoid placing too much trust in the simple extrapolation of current trends, such as the observed continual decline in spruce related to climate change, but to be aware of temporal and possibly reversible processes, such as the observed extensive fir recovery after the reduction of air pollution. Tree species diversity appears to be the best option for the uncertain future.

Palabras clave

  • Subplex algorithm
  • simultaneous nonlinear optimisation
  • matrix transition model
  • near-natural forestry
  • uneven-aged management
Acceso abierto

Predicting forest stand variables from airborne LiDAR data using a tree detection method in Central European forests

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 191 - 197

Resumen

Abstract

In this study, the individual tree detection approach (ITD) was used to estimate forest stand variables, such as mean height, mean diameter, and total volume. Specifically, we applied the multisource-based method implemented in reFLex software (National Forest Centre, Slovakia) which uses all the information contained in the original point cloud and a priori information. For the accuracy assessment, four reference forest stands with different types of species mixture and the area of 7.5 ha were selected and measured. Furthermore, independent measurements of 1 372 trees were made for the construction of allometric models. The author’s ITD-based method provided slightly more accurate estimations for stands with substantial or moderate dominance of coniferous trees. However, no statistically significant effect of species mix on the overall accuracy was confirmed (p < 0.05). The root mean square error did not exceed 1.9 m for mean height, 3.0 cm for mean diameter, and 12.88 m3 ha−1 for total volume.

Palabras clave

  • forest inventory
  • airborne laser scanning
  • individual tree detection
  • multisource-based method
Acceso abierto

The vertical accuracy of digital terrain models derived from the close-range photogrammetry point cloud using different methods of interpolation and resolutions

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 198 - 205

Resumen

Abstract

Structure-from-motion (SfM) in combination with multi-view stereo (MVS) represent techniques, which allow efficient generation of the point cloud from close-range photogrammetry (CRP) images of forest ground. Recent software products for the generation of digital terrain models (DTM) includes a wide range of interpolation methods. Previous studies showed different errors in elevations of DTMs interpolated with different methods. This study aims to analyze differences between the elevations of DTMs derived from CRP point cloud using different methods of interpolation. Six methods of interpolation included in modular system OPALS were tested in the study. In addition to simple methods of interpolation such as Snap or Moving average, more complex methods were used for interpolation of the DTMs elevations. For each method, 5 DTMs with resolution ranging from 1 to 20 cm were generated. Elevations of the DTMs were compared with the elevations of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) surveyed check points. RMSE of DTMs elevations ranges from 3.4 cm to 16.2 cm. Differences between the elevations of DTMs interpolated using different methods and resolution were further investigated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA rejected the statistical significance of the differences. Additionally, the spatial distribution of errors was analyzed. The analysis indicates that the interpolation of the extreme DTM values can be expected at the edges of the DTM when using the CRP images captured from single passing through the study site.

Palabras clave

  • close-range photogrammetry
  • digital terrain model
  • OPALS
  • structure-from-motion
  • multi-view stereo
Acceso abierto

Suitability of MODIS-based NDVI index for forest monitoring and its seasonal applications in Central Europe

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 206 - 217

Resumen

Abstract

The paper demonstrates the multipurpose application of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from MODIS products for forest monitoring across the Central-European macro-region Slovakia and Hungary (i.e., the Western Carpathians and Pannonian basin). Relationships between forest dynamics and NDVI were analysed and used for determining the onset of phenophases in spring and autumn and for the assessment of forest growth and health condition. To identify the phenophases, the NDVI profile during the year was established by fitting a double logistic sigmoid function to data and phenological metrics were developed based on the calculated extreme values of the sigmoid function and its derivatives. According to our analyses, leaf unfolding and leaf fall were significantly delayed or advanced in 2018 with the increase of altitude and latitude (p < 0.01). The longitudinal aspect was significant only in the autumn phenophase with earlier onset of leaf fall towards to the east. The duration of the growing season varied extensively within the region, mainly according to altitudinal and latitudinal occurrence of beech forests. Positive associations between annual tree-ring width and standardized summer NDVI were found for conifers at local scale. The highest correlation period was between July 12 and August 12 as the most critical periods for forest growth. Slight positive correlation can be observed during March – April that could be associated with the varying start of the growing seasons. In the forest health study, whereas NDVI values could well identify the location and extent of a recent forest damage due to a combination of snow break and wind break, an urgent demand for more detailed field data was obvious.

Palabras clave

  • MODIS
  • NDVI
  • forest phenology
  • growing season
  • tree ring
  • health condition
Acceso abierto

Possibilities of image analysis for quality wood sorting

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 218 - 222

Resumen

Abstract

Wood assessment optimization should be the top priority of the forestry subjects that are fundamentally dependent on the income from its sale. The aim of this paper is to analyse the beech, oak and ash tree logs that were categorized into quality classes according to the size of one of the qualitative characters related to the surface area (false heartwood, rot). The classical methodology used in forestry was compared with the application of ImageJ software. In total, thirty logs were analysed. The characters of false heartwood and rot were chosen and evaluated according to their size on the log end. There were no other characters that obstructed the categorization into quality classes. The ImageJ software application led to improved assessment (transfer to a higher quality class) in 56% of the logs. The volume of the evaluated assortments was 18.43 m3. The total difference in the value of the assortments with the ImageJ software application reached + €70.44 (+ 4.7%). The analysis therefore confirmed that in case of a considerable irregularity in a qualitative character (when the surface area of the character significantly differs from the circumscribed circular surface), the standard STN EN 1309–3 methodology systematically overvalues the surface area of this character. That affects the assessment potential of the specific log.

Palabras clave

  • log quality
  • wood sorting
  • image analysis
  • wood proporties
Acceso abierto

Marketing support of decision-making at the forest enterprise: A case study on roundwood assortments portfolio

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 223 - 232

Resumen

Abstract

This paper focuses on the marketing support of decision-making at the forest enterprise on the example of forestry products, concretely, of roundwood assortments on the chosen state forest enterprise in the Slovak Republic. The most used marketing decision-making models as SWOT, BCG, and GE matrices with support of ABC analysis were used for chosen research purpose. Additionally, these models were compared to confirm their reliability and expressing power for marketing management of forest enterprise. The conclusions confirm that the use of these models build a strong framework for the decision-making support of forest enterprise management. The outcomes of models contribute to each other and they do not contradict. However, it is necessary to have a strong base of forestry practice knowledge due to the correct interpretation of these models. In contrast to other industrial companies, forest sector is a very specific regarding the long rotation and payback period. The main pillar of the product portfolio and forest enterprise either are assortments of the III. qualitative class and broadleaf pulpwood with the 86% share on total revenues. Concerning the prevalence of threats and company strengths, it is necessary to choose diversification management approach for the product portfolio.

Palabras clave

  • decision-making
  • marketing
  • models
  • forest enterprise
  • strategic management
Acceso abierto

Multi-objective land allocation for zoning of ecosystem services in mountain forests

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 233 - 244

Resumen

Abstract

The paper proposes a system for zoning of mountain areas based on the level of provisioning of ecosystem services. Techniques of multi-objective land allocation were applied to allocate complementary and conflicting objectives. The zoning system consists of four phases: i) Identification of criteria for the evaluation of ecosystem services; ii) Quantification of criteria for three different forestland states; iii) Evaluation of potential and effect of the forest on providing the ecosystem services and iv) Zoning of ecosystem services with their prioritization and spatial allocation of support measures. The study was conducted in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia). Erosion control, avalanche control, wood production and cultural services were evaluated. The greatest differences between potential and effect of the evaluated ecosystem services were identified for the avalanche control. A comparison of our results with the existing (control) map of ecosystem services has proved that the proposed system is a potent means for multi-objective forest planning.

Palabras clave

  • decision support
  • ecosystem services
  • fuzzy logic
  • mountain forests
  • multi-objective land allocation
10 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Modelling in forestry sciences, high technologies and decision-support systems in forestry and wood-processing

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 145 - 146

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Forest modelling and visualisation – state of the art and perspectives

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 147 - 165

Resumen

Abstract

The paper provides a detailed overview on forest models from various perspectives. The presented classification scheme of forest models uses concept, object, space and time as variables to place models in specific categories and thus provides an integrated approach for model categorisation. A short description of individual categories with the examples of models helps to understand their nature. In total 34 forest models were classified according to the created scheme. Forest visualisation has also an important place in forest modelling. Here it is described from the point of different visualisations methods and used technologies. Inputs that are necessary for the models but are often not available and need to be derived using specialised tools – various forms of data generators are presented too. Important perspectives and challenges of further development of forest models and visualisation technologies were specified as well.

Palabras clave

  • simulations
  • prognostic tools
  • virtual reality
  • hybridisation
  • input variables
Acceso abierto

Fir (Abies spp.) stand biomass additive model for Eurasia sensitive to winter temperature and annual precipitation

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 166 - 179

Resumen

Abstract

Climate change, especially modified courses of temperature and precipitation, has a significant impact on forest functioning and productivity. Moreover, some alterations in tree biomass allocation (e.g. root to shoot ratio, foliage to wood parts) might be expected in these changing ecological conditions. Therefore, we attempted to model fir stand biomass (t ha−1) along the trans-Eurasian hydrothermal gradients using the data from 272 forest stands. The model outputs suggested that all biomass components, except for the crown mass, change in a common pattern, but in different ratios. Specifically, in the range of mean January temperature and precipitation of −30°C to +10°C and 300 to 900 mm, fir stand biomass increases with both increasing temperature and precipitation. Under an assumed increase of January temperature by 1°C, biomass of roots and of all components of the aboveground biomass of fir stands increased (under the assumption that the precipitation level did not change). Similarly, an assumed increase in precipitation by 100 mm resulted in the increased biomass of roots and of all aboveground components. We conclude that fir seems to be a perspective taxon from the point of its productive properties in the ongoing process of climate change.

Palabras clave

  • fir forests
  • stand biomass
  • regression models
  • additive biomass equations
  • hydrothermal indices
Acceso abierto

Changes in growth caused by climate change and other limiting factors in time affect the optimal equilibrium of close-to-nature forest management

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 180 - 190

Resumen

Abstract

Historical radial increment data based on tree ring analyses from the close-to-nature experimental forest management unit Smolnícka Osada in Central Slovakia were used for retrospective modelling of changes in forest dynamics to estimate the sensitivity of management planning goals under climate change. Four example years representing historical periods with typically different species-specific patterns of radial increment in mixed beech-fir-spruce forest (1910, 1950, 1980, and 2014) served as virtual starting points for the modelling. An advanced density-dependent matrix transition model was utilised for modelling stand dynamics. An integrated tool for nonlinear financial optimisation searched for an optimal management equilibrium. In addition to transition probabilities adjusted from increment data, some assumptions for changes in ingrowth and mortality related to the increment, as well as a case study concerning the reduced ingrowth changed by game browsing intensity, were tested for modelling more realistic historical ecological conditions. The sensitivity study revealed changes in the optimal management equilibrium represented by optimal basal area, tree species composition, diameter distribution and target harvest diameter over time due to the adapted ecological modelling. The main lesson of the past for the future is to avoid placing too much trust in the simple extrapolation of current trends, such as the observed continual decline in spruce related to climate change, but to be aware of temporal and possibly reversible processes, such as the observed extensive fir recovery after the reduction of air pollution. Tree species diversity appears to be the best option for the uncertain future.

Palabras clave

  • Subplex algorithm
  • simultaneous nonlinear optimisation
  • matrix transition model
  • near-natural forestry
  • uneven-aged management
Acceso abierto

Predicting forest stand variables from airborne LiDAR data using a tree detection method in Central European forests

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 191 - 197

Resumen

Abstract

In this study, the individual tree detection approach (ITD) was used to estimate forest stand variables, such as mean height, mean diameter, and total volume. Specifically, we applied the multisource-based method implemented in reFLex software (National Forest Centre, Slovakia) which uses all the information contained in the original point cloud and a priori information. For the accuracy assessment, four reference forest stands with different types of species mixture and the area of 7.5 ha were selected and measured. Furthermore, independent measurements of 1 372 trees were made for the construction of allometric models. The author’s ITD-based method provided slightly more accurate estimations for stands with substantial or moderate dominance of coniferous trees. However, no statistically significant effect of species mix on the overall accuracy was confirmed (p < 0.05). The root mean square error did not exceed 1.9 m for mean height, 3.0 cm for mean diameter, and 12.88 m3 ha−1 for total volume.

Palabras clave

  • forest inventory
  • airborne laser scanning
  • individual tree detection
  • multisource-based method
Acceso abierto

The vertical accuracy of digital terrain models derived from the close-range photogrammetry point cloud using different methods of interpolation and resolutions

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 198 - 205

Resumen

Abstract

Structure-from-motion (SfM) in combination with multi-view stereo (MVS) represent techniques, which allow efficient generation of the point cloud from close-range photogrammetry (CRP) images of forest ground. Recent software products for the generation of digital terrain models (DTM) includes a wide range of interpolation methods. Previous studies showed different errors in elevations of DTMs interpolated with different methods. This study aims to analyze differences between the elevations of DTMs derived from CRP point cloud using different methods of interpolation. Six methods of interpolation included in modular system OPALS were tested in the study. In addition to simple methods of interpolation such as Snap or Moving average, more complex methods were used for interpolation of the DTMs elevations. For each method, 5 DTMs with resolution ranging from 1 to 20 cm were generated. Elevations of the DTMs were compared with the elevations of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) surveyed check points. RMSE of DTMs elevations ranges from 3.4 cm to 16.2 cm. Differences between the elevations of DTMs interpolated using different methods and resolution were further investigated using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA rejected the statistical significance of the differences. Additionally, the spatial distribution of errors was analyzed. The analysis indicates that the interpolation of the extreme DTM values can be expected at the edges of the DTM when using the CRP images captured from single passing through the study site.

Palabras clave

  • close-range photogrammetry
  • digital terrain model
  • OPALS
  • structure-from-motion
  • multi-view stereo
Acceso abierto

Suitability of MODIS-based NDVI index for forest monitoring and its seasonal applications in Central Europe

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 206 - 217

Resumen

Abstract

The paper demonstrates the multipurpose application of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from MODIS products for forest monitoring across the Central-European macro-region Slovakia and Hungary (i.e., the Western Carpathians and Pannonian basin). Relationships between forest dynamics and NDVI were analysed and used for determining the onset of phenophases in spring and autumn and for the assessment of forest growth and health condition. To identify the phenophases, the NDVI profile during the year was established by fitting a double logistic sigmoid function to data and phenological metrics were developed based on the calculated extreme values of the sigmoid function and its derivatives. According to our analyses, leaf unfolding and leaf fall were significantly delayed or advanced in 2018 with the increase of altitude and latitude (p < 0.01). The longitudinal aspect was significant only in the autumn phenophase with earlier onset of leaf fall towards to the east. The duration of the growing season varied extensively within the region, mainly according to altitudinal and latitudinal occurrence of beech forests. Positive associations between annual tree-ring width and standardized summer NDVI were found for conifers at local scale. The highest correlation period was between July 12 and August 12 as the most critical periods for forest growth. Slight positive correlation can be observed during March – April that could be associated with the varying start of the growing seasons. In the forest health study, whereas NDVI values could well identify the location and extent of a recent forest damage due to a combination of snow break and wind break, an urgent demand for more detailed field data was obvious.

Palabras clave

  • MODIS
  • NDVI
  • forest phenology
  • growing season
  • tree ring
  • health condition
Acceso abierto

Possibilities of image analysis for quality wood sorting

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 218 - 222

Resumen

Abstract

Wood assessment optimization should be the top priority of the forestry subjects that are fundamentally dependent on the income from its sale. The aim of this paper is to analyse the beech, oak and ash tree logs that were categorized into quality classes according to the size of one of the qualitative characters related to the surface area (false heartwood, rot). The classical methodology used in forestry was compared with the application of ImageJ software. In total, thirty logs were analysed. The characters of false heartwood and rot were chosen and evaluated according to their size on the log end. There were no other characters that obstructed the categorization into quality classes. The ImageJ software application led to improved assessment (transfer to a higher quality class) in 56% of the logs. The volume of the evaluated assortments was 18.43 m3. The total difference in the value of the assortments with the ImageJ software application reached + €70.44 (+ 4.7%). The analysis therefore confirmed that in case of a considerable irregularity in a qualitative character (when the surface area of the character significantly differs from the circumscribed circular surface), the standard STN EN 1309–3 methodology systematically overvalues the surface area of this character. That affects the assessment potential of the specific log.

Palabras clave

  • log quality
  • wood sorting
  • image analysis
  • wood proporties
Acceso abierto

Marketing support of decision-making at the forest enterprise: A case study on roundwood assortments portfolio

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 223 - 232

Resumen

Abstract

This paper focuses on the marketing support of decision-making at the forest enterprise on the example of forestry products, concretely, of roundwood assortments on the chosen state forest enterprise in the Slovak Republic. The most used marketing decision-making models as SWOT, BCG, and GE matrices with support of ABC analysis were used for chosen research purpose. Additionally, these models were compared to confirm their reliability and expressing power for marketing management of forest enterprise. The conclusions confirm that the use of these models build a strong framework for the decision-making support of forest enterprise management. The outcomes of models contribute to each other and they do not contradict. However, it is necessary to have a strong base of forestry practice knowledge due to the correct interpretation of these models. In contrast to other industrial companies, forest sector is a very specific regarding the long rotation and payback period. The main pillar of the product portfolio and forest enterprise either are assortments of the III. qualitative class and broadleaf pulpwood with the 86% share on total revenues. Concerning the prevalence of threats and company strengths, it is necessary to choose diversification management approach for the product portfolio.

Palabras clave

  • decision-making
  • marketing
  • models
  • forest enterprise
  • strategic management
Acceso abierto

Multi-objective land allocation for zoning of ecosystem services in mountain forests

Publicado en línea: 20 Nov 2019
Páginas: 233 - 244

Resumen

Abstract

The paper proposes a system for zoning of mountain areas based on the level of provisioning of ecosystem services. Techniques of multi-objective land allocation were applied to allocate complementary and conflicting objectives. The zoning system consists of four phases: i) Identification of criteria for the evaluation of ecosystem services; ii) Quantification of criteria for three different forestland states; iii) Evaluation of potential and effect of the forest on providing the ecosystem services and iv) Zoning of ecosystem services with their prioritization and spatial allocation of support measures. The study was conducted in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia). Erosion control, avalanche control, wood production and cultural services were evaluated. The greatest differences between potential and effect of the evaluated ecosystem services were identified for the avalanche control. A comparison of our results with the existing (control) map of ecosystem services has proved that the proposed system is a potent means for multi-objective forest planning.

Palabras clave

  • decision support
  • ecosystem services
  • fuzzy logic
  • mountain forests
  • multi-objective land allocation

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