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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 64 (2018): Edición 1 (March 2018)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

7 Artículos

Original Paper

Acceso abierto

Land use changes and development of the non-forest woody vegetation in the Danubian Lowland in Slovakia

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 3 - 15

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to assess the changes in the landscape structure of the Žitný Ostrov territory and in the woody species of the non-forest woody vegetation (NFWV) over the past 120 years. Within the assessed periods of 1892, 1949, 1969 and 2015, the shares of arable land increased by 17% while the ratio of the built-up areas with gardens increased by 3.7%. At the same time, natural habitats, grassland, waterlogged meadows and wetlands decreased by 26%. These changes, concerning small mosaic plots as well as large cultural blocks, were caused by the intensification of agriculture after 1948. Ecological stability and biodiversity of these areas has decreased. Thereafter 60 windbreaks were planted from 1951–1952 in an area of 30 ha. In total, 37 woody species were planted, of which 22 were alien species. After 25 years (in 1976), 19 of the same windbreaks were surveyed, observing 16 native and 12 alien woody species. During these periods, many rare alien and coniferous species died. In 2015, 13 windbreaks with 39 woody species were identified, both in the tree and the shrubby layer. The downside is that four of the long-time surviving species are invasive trees.

Palabras clave

  • landscape structure changes
  • windbreaks
  • woody species
  • long-term monitoring
Acceso abierto

Weight parameters of body parts in sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) from the Konstantinolázeňsko microregion, the Czech Republic

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 16 - 23

Resumen

Abstract

Sika deer is widely spread species, in Czech Republic mostly occurred in West Bohemia. This species is defined as one of the most harmful ungulate game in the forests. For the wildlife population of sika deer in the microregion Konstantinolázeňsko in West Bohemia, total weight after the hunt, weight after expelling organs, weight of the head and distal parts of the limbs, and weight of the internal organs (heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney) were determined. Correlations between the weights of specific body parts (organs) were evaluated. Ratio between the weight after expelling organs (after gralloch) and the weight after hunt (total weight) was determined. The weight after expelling organs was 74% of the total weight. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the age and weight of individuals, and between the male age and the weight of the head. Without taking into account age differences, we show that males have a higher body weight than females, a form of sexual dimorphism.

Palabras clave

  • sika deer
  • venision
  • dressed body weight
  • organs weight
  • gralloch, trophy
Acceso abierto

Effect of different management on quality and value production of pure beech stands in Slovakia

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 24 - 32

Resumen

Abstract

Value production is one of the most important information for comparing different management strategies in forestry. Although the value production of forest stands is affected by various factors (stem and assortment quality, stem dimension, stem injury, price of assortments), thinning can be considered as one of the most important one. This paper aims at the evaluation of qualitative and value production in homogeneous beech stands, which were managed by two different thinning types for period of 45 to 55 years: (i) – heavy thinning from below (C grade according to the German forest research institutes released in 1902) and (ii) – Štefančík´s free-crown thinning. The third variant was control (iii) – subplot with no interventions. Silvicultural quality characteristics of the lower half of the stem were assessed using a 4-class scale (A – the best quality, D – the worst quality). Assortment structure (commercial quality) was estimated for each stem by an assortment model developed in the past. Nearly 3,000 individual trees aged from 83 to 105 years from 23 subplots established across the Slovakia territory were assessed. The highest volume of the best silvicultural quality of stems (A class) has been reached in forests where Štefančík´s free-crown thinning was applied (57 – 85%) while the lowest (22 – 56%) on subplots with no management. The proportion of two best commercial quality assortments (I + II) was highest in forests managed by heavy thinning from below (21 – 29%) and the lowest when no treatment was applied (7 – 19%). The highest value production (expressed in € ha−1) was reached in the forests treated by free-crown thinning. Results suggested the overall positive impact of thinning on the increase of value production in beech forests. Particularly, the free-crown thinning focusing on selection of best quality trees should be preferred as it leads, besides its sufficient value production, to a higher vertical differentiation of the beech forests.

Palabras clave

  • pure beech stands
  • thinnings
  • stem quality
  • assortment structure
  • value production
Acceso abierto

Impact of applied silvicultural systems on spatial pattern of hornbeam-oak forests

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 33 - 45

Resumen

Abstract

The spatial pattern of forest closely affects tree competition that drives the most of processes in forest ecosystems. Therefore, we focused on evaluation of the horizontal structure of high forest, coppice with standards and low forest in hornbeam-oak forests in the Protected Landscape Area Český kras (Czech Republic). The horizontal structure of tree layer individuals with crown projection centroids and natural regeneration was analysed for durmast oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.), European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) and small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) stands. Horizontal structure of the tree stems of the studied tree species in high forest was random, in oak it was moderately regular. In coppice with standards it was random in oak, in hornbeam and linden it was aggregated within 3 – 5 m and random up to a larger spacing. In low forest at a distance of 4 – 6 m the horizontal structure of the three studied tree species was aggregated while it was random at a larger spacing. The horizontal structure of natural regeneration was aggregated in all forest types. In coppice with standards and high forest, parent stand had significant negative effect on the natural regeneration at smaller distance (to 1.4 m from the stem). Crown centroids were more regularly distributed than tree stems, especially in low forest (2.0 m) and in linden (2.3 m). Our results contribute to existing knowledge about silvicultural systems and their impact on hornbeam-oak forests with implications for forest management and nature protection.

Palabras clave

  • forest management
  • horizontal structure
  • forest dynamics
  • natural regeneration
  • Czech Republic
Acceso abierto

Efficiency of the Slovak forestry in comparison to other European countries: An application of Data Envelopment Analysis

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 46 - 54

Resumen

Abstract

Efficiency improvement is important for increasing the competitiveness of any sector and the same is essential for the forestry sector. A non-parametric approach – Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used for the assessment of forestry efficiency. The paper presents the results of the efficiency evaluation of forestry in European countries using DEA. One basic and two modified models (labour and wood sale) were proposed, based on available input and output data from Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts for Forests and specific conditions of forestry also. The sample size was 22 countries and the data for 2005–2008 was processed. Obtained results show average efficiency in the range of 69 – 90% (depending on the model). Based on the results of the analysis following can be concluded: Slovak forestry achieved under average efficiency in comparison to other European countries, there were great differences in efficiency among individual countries; state of economy (advanced countries and countries with economy in transition) and region did not influence the efficiency statistically significant.

Palabras clave

  • efficiency assessment
  • Data Envelopment Analysis
  • forestry sector
  • labour model
  • wood sale model
Acceso abierto

Communities of woody vegetation and wood destroying fungi in natural and semi-natural forests of kyiv city, Ukraine

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 55 - 66

Resumen

Abstract

Selected forestry parameters were investigated in the system of trees and wood-destroying fungi in the natural forests of the Kyiv city on a gradient of recreational transformation. We investigated the vitality, age compositions, and health condition of woody plants (11 species), and species, systematic, trophic and spatial compositions of xylotrophic fungi (51 species, 224 findings of xylotrophs representing 34 genera, 20 families, 7 orders of divisions Basidiomycota; class Agaricomycetes). The results showed that communities of woody vegetation and xylotrophic fungi in forests depend on the degree of recreational transformation of the environment. Vitality, age compositions and health condition of trees altered species composition of xylotrophs.

Palabras clave

  • consortium relation
  • natural forests
  • woody plants
  • xylotrophic fungi

Review Paper

Acceso abierto

Hollow tree fire is a useless forest fire category

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 67 - 78

Resumen

Abstract

In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the term “hollow tree fire“ was first used in a publication in 1956 without being well defined and was then uncritically used in other publications. The term refers to fires occurring in the rotted, inner trunks of trees. The main aim of the current study was to determine whether the term should be considered a useful category for the statistical analysis of forest fires. The nature and causes of fires from 2006–2015 were assessed by performing a detailed analysis of the Fire Rescue Service of the Czech Republic (FRS CR) database. The database included a total of 7,256 fires in the natural environment, but only 18 of these were hollow tree fires. Most hollow tree fires were initiated by human carelessness, and only three were initiated by lightning. Based on our critical consideration of fire attributes, hollow tree fires should not be considered a category of forest fire. The presence of rotten trees is, however, a serious problem because such trees represent long-lasting sources of fire in forest stands and because they complicate firefighting. The numbers of rotten trees in forests is increasing, and firefighters should be made aware of the complications of extinguishing fires involving rotten trees in forests.

Palabras clave

  • rot
  • damage
  • firefighting
  • Norvay spruce
  • central Europe
7 Artículos

Original Paper

Acceso abierto

Land use changes and development of the non-forest woody vegetation in the Danubian Lowland in Slovakia

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 3 - 15

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to assess the changes in the landscape structure of the Žitný Ostrov territory and in the woody species of the non-forest woody vegetation (NFWV) over the past 120 years. Within the assessed periods of 1892, 1949, 1969 and 2015, the shares of arable land increased by 17% while the ratio of the built-up areas with gardens increased by 3.7%. At the same time, natural habitats, grassland, waterlogged meadows and wetlands decreased by 26%. These changes, concerning small mosaic plots as well as large cultural blocks, were caused by the intensification of agriculture after 1948. Ecological stability and biodiversity of these areas has decreased. Thereafter 60 windbreaks were planted from 1951–1952 in an area of 30 ha. In total, 37 woody species were planted, of which 22 were alien species. After 25 years (in 1976), 19 of the same windbreaks were surveyed, observing 16 native and 12 alien woody species. During these periods, many rare alien and coniferous species died. In 2015, 13 windbreaks with 39 woody species were identified, both in the tree and the shrubby layer. The downside is that four of the long-time surviving species are invasive trees.

Palabras clave

  • landscape structure changes
  • windbreaks
  • woody species
  • long-term monitoring
Acceso abierto

Weight parameters of body parts in sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) from the Konstantinolázeňsko microregion, the Czech Republic

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 16 - 23

Resumen

Abstract

Sika deer is widely spread species, in Czech Republic mostly occurred in West Bohemia. This species is defined as one of the most harmful ungulate game in the forests. For the wildlife population of sika deer in the microregion Konstantinolázeňsko in West Bohemia, total weight after the hunt, weight after expelling organs, weight of the head and distal parts of the limbs, and weight of the internal organs (heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney) were determined. Correlations between the weights of specific body parts (organs) were evaluated. Ratio between the weight after expelling organs (after gralloch) and the weight after hunt (total weight) was determined. The weight after expelling organs was 74% of the total weight. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the age and weight of individuals, and between the male age and the weight of the head. Without taking into account age differences, we show that males have a higher body weight than females, a form of sexual dimorphism.

Palabras clave

  • sika deer
  • venision
  • dressed body weight
  • organs weight
  • gralloch, trophy
Acceso abierto

Effect of different management on quality and value production of pure beech stands in Slovakia

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 24 - 32

Resumen

Abstract

Value production is one of the most important information for comparing different management strategies in forestry. Although the value production of forest stands is affected by various factors (stem and assortment quality, stem dimension, stem injury, price of assortments), thinning can be considered as one of the most important one. This paper aims at the evaluation of qualitative and value production in homogeneous beech stands, which were managed by two different thinning types for period of 45 to 55 years: (i) – heavy thinning from below (C grade according to the German forest research institutes released in 1902) and (ii) – Štefančík´s free-crown thinning. The third variant was control (iii) – subplot with no interventions. Silvicultural quality characteristics of the lower half of the stem were assessed using a 4-class scale (A – the best quality, D – the worst quality). Assortment structure (commercial quality) was estimated for each stem by an assortment model developed in the past. Nearly 3,000 individual trees aged from 83 to 105 years from 23 subplots established across the Slovakia territory were assessed. The highest volume of the best silvicultural quality of stems (A class) has been reached in forests where Štefančík´s free-crown thinning was applied (57 – 85%) while the lowest (22 – 56%) on subplots with no management. The proportion of two best commercial quality assortments (I + II) was highest in forests managed by heavy thinning from below (21 – 29%) and the lowest when no treatment was applied (7 – 19%). The highest value production (expressed in € ha−1) was reached in the forests treated by free-crown thinning. Results suggested the overall positive impact of thinning on the increase of value production in beech forests. Particularly, the free-crown thinning focusing on selection of best quality trees should be preferred as it leads, besides its sufficient value production, to a higher vertical differentiation of the beech forests.

Palabras clave

  • pure beech stands
  • thinnings
  • stem quality
  • assortment structure
  • value production
Acceso abierto

Impact of applied silvicultural systems on spatial pattern of hornbeam-oak forests

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 33 - 45

Resumen

Abstract

The spatial pattern of forest closely affects tree competition that drives the most of processes in forest ecosystems. Therefore, we focused on evaluation of the horizontal structure of high forest, coppice with standards and low forest in hornbeam-oak forests in the Protected Landscape Area Český kras (Czech Republic). The horizontal structure of tree layer individuals with crown projection centroids and natural regeneration was analysed for durmast oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.), European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) and small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) stands. Horizontal structure of the tree stems of the studied tree species in high forest was random, in oak it was moderately regular. In coppice with standards it was random in oak, in hornbeam and linden it was aggregated within 3 – 5 m and random up to a larger spacing. In low forest at a distance of 4 – 6 m the horizontal structure of the three studied tree species was aggregated while it was random at a larger spacing. The horizontal structure of natural regeneration was aggregated in all forest types. In coppice with standards and high forest, parent stand had significant negative effect on the natural regeneration at smaller distance (to 1.4 m from the stem). Crown centroids were more regularly distributed than tree stems, especially in low forest (2.0 m) and in linden (2.3 m). Our results contribute to existing knowledge about silvicultural systems and their impact on hornbeam-oak forests with implications for forest management and nature protection.

Palabras clave

  • forest management
  • horizontal structure
  • forest dynamics
  • natural regeneration
  • Czech Republic
Acceso abierto

Efficiency of the Slovak forestry in comparison to other European countries: An application of Data Envelopment Analysis

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 46 - 54

Resumen

Abstract

Efficiency improvement is important for increasing the competitiveness of any sector and the same is essential for the forestry sector. A non-parametric approach – Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used for the assessment of forestry efficiency. The paper presents the results of the efficiency evaluation of forestry in European countries using DEA. One basic and two modified models (labour and wood sale) were proposed, based on available input and output data from Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts for Forests and specific conditions of forestry also. The sample size was 22 countries and the data for 2005–2008 was processed. Obtained results show average efficiency in the range of 69 – 90% (depending on the model). Based on the results of the analysis following can be concluded: Slovak forestry achieved under average efficiency in comparison to other European countries, there were great differences in efficiency among individual countries; state of economy (advanced countries and countries with economy in transition) and region did not influence the efficiency statistically significant.

Palabras clave

  • efficiency assessment
  • Data Envelopment Analysis
  • forestry sector
  • labour model
  • wood sale model
Acceso abierto

Communities of woody vegetation and wood destroying fungi in natural and semi-natural forests of kyiv city, Ukraine

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 55 - 66

Resumen

Abstract

Selected forestry parameters were investigated in the system of trees and wood-destroying fungi in the natural forests of the Kyiv city on a gradient of recreational transformation. We investigated the vitality, age compositions, and health condition of woody plants (11 species), and species, systematic, trophic and spatial compositions of xylotrophic fungi (51 species, 224 findings of xylotrophs representing 34 genera, 20 families, 7 orders of divisions Basidiomycota; class Agaricomycetes). The results showed that communities of woody vegetation and xylotrophic fungi in forests depend on the degree of recreational transformation of the environment. Vitality, age compositions and health condition of trees altered species composition of xylotrophs.

Palabras clave

  • consortium relation
  • natural forests
  • woody plants
  • xylotrophic fungi

Review Paper

Acceso abierto

Hollow tree fire is a useless forest fire category

Publicado en línea: 06 Feb 2018
Páginas: 67 - 78

Resumen

Abstract

In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the term “hollow tree fire“ was first used in a publication in 1956 without being well defined and was then uncritically used in other publications. The term refers to fires occurring in the rotted, inner trunks of trees. The main aim of the current study was to determine whether the term should be considered a useful category for the statistical analysis of forest fires. The nature and causes of fires from 2006–2015 were assessed by performing a detailed analysis of the Fire Rescue Service of the Czech Republic (FRS CR) database. The database included a total of 7,256 fires in the natural environment, but only 18 of these were hollow tree fires. Most hollow tree fires were initiated by human carelessness, and only three were initiated by lightning. Based on our critical consideration of fire attributes, hollow tree fires should not be considered a category of forest fire. The presence of rotten trees is, however, a serious problem because such trees represent long-lasting sources of fire in forest stands and because they complicate firefighting. The numbers of rotten trees in forests is increasing, and firefighters should be made aware of the complications of extinguishing fires involving rotten trees in forests.

Palabras clave

  • rot
  • damage
  • firefighting
  • Norvay spruce
  • central Europe

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