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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 66 (2020): Edición 2 (June 2020)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

8 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Editorial to the thematic issue: Silviculture and forest production under climate change

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 61 - 62

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Assisted migration vs. close-to-nature forestry: what are the prospects for tree populations under climate change?

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 63 - 70

Resumen

Abstract

Climate change is currently perceived as the most important challenge faced globally by ecosystems and human society. The predicted changes of temperature and precipitation patterns are expected to alter the environmental conditions to which forest trees in Europe are adapted, and expose them to new pests and pathogens. This would unavoidably lead to a huge loss of ecosystem services provided to society, and at the local scale may potentially endanger the very existence of forests. In this study, we reviewed biological background and limits of mechanisms by which tree populations may cope with climate change: adaptation by natural selection, gene flow, epigenetic phenomena and phenotypic plasticity, as well as forest management strategies, which rely on these mechanisms. We argue that maintaining genetic diversity is important in the long-term view but natural selection cannot ensure sufficiently rapid response to environmental change. On the other hand, epigenetic memory effects may change adaptively relevant traits within a single generation, while close-to-nature forestry practices are the basic requirement to make use of epigenetics. Assisted migration, as a frequently suggested mitigation option, relies primarily on the knowledge gained from provenance research; the review analyses potential pitfalls of this strategy. We suggest that all approaches, i.e., leaving a part of forests without management, close-to-nature forestry, and transfer of forest reproductive materials from sources presumably adapted to future climates are combined across the landscape in an integrative manner.

Palabras clave

  • adaptation
  • epigenetics
  • phenotypic plasticity
  • provenance
  • climate change mitigation
Acceso abierto

Substitution of Norway spruce for Douglas-fir: changes of soil microbial activities as climate change induced shift in species composition – a case study

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 71 - 77

Resumen

Abstract

Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) is the most common utilized introduced tree species in the tem-is the most common utilized introduced tree species in the temperate zone, planted in many European countries. Also, in the Czech Republic it represents the most planted exotic species as well. Its planted area exceeds 6,000 ha and represents 0.25% of the forest area of the country. In the last years, this species is supposed as convenient substitution for declining Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) stands under current climatic change (extreme drought, bark beetle outbreak). The changed species composition affects also soil dynamic processes, including litter decomposition and transformation. In the presented study, the respiration rate and nitrification intensity were compared in the stand parts dominated by Norway spruce and Douglas-fir in comparable site conditions (410 m a.s.l., 650 mm, 8 ºC, gleyic Luvisol, fresh oak-fir site with Oxalis acetosella, age 97 years). Analyses were performed in laboratory conditions by standard methods determining actual (basal) and potential respiration activity and intensity of ammonia and nitrate ion production. Admixture of Douglas-fir considerably intensified decomposition activities (soil respiration) and profoundly increased the nitrification rate in the surface humus and uppermost mineral soil layer – Ah horizon. Increased interest in the Douglas-fir silviculture needs increased care for forest soil dynamics with respect of nitrogen balance.

Palabras clave

  • forest soils
  • soil microbiology
  • soil respiration
  • ammonification
  • nitrification
Acceso abierto

Litterfall nutrient return in thinned young stands with Douglas fir

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 78 - 84

Resumen

Abstract

The use of Douglas fir (DF) is on the increase in the Czech Republic. This tree species shows a good production and also a beneficial impact on soil to some extent. We studied both amount and properties of litterfall in 18 to 20-year-old stands with DF in 2011. Two experimental plots were DF-dominated and one showed ca. 20 – 30% share of Scots pine (SP) at the beginning of observation. The experiments consisted of two treatments such as unthinned control and 50 – 62% trees’ density reduction accounting for 43 – 59% basal area reduction. Litterfall was collected using litter traps of 0.25 m2 area in 3 – 4 traps per treatment. Forest floor L and F were taken in 2011 and 2018 to investigate the development of their amount after thinning. Both whole-period sum and mean annual litterfall were reduced after thinning compared to controls. The mean annual litterfall totaled ca. 3 t ha−1 in 20-year-old DF–dominated stands. This amount represents an annual nutrient return of 30 – 40 kg N, 1 – 3 kg P, 3 – 5 kg K, 12 – 30 kg Ca and 1 – 2 kg Mg per one hectare. The reduction of the annual litterfall was more pronounced in DF–dominated stands. All thinned plots showed increased decomposition rates reflected in lower total L+F amounts in both DF–dominated plots whereas unthinned plots accumulated more L+F at the end. The mixed DF–SP plot showed reduced L and increased F layer amounts in both unthinned and thinned treatments with only minor change to L+F sum between 2011 and 2018.

Palabras clave

  • litterfall
  • forest floor
  • thinning
  • nutrients
  • Douglas fir
Acceso abierto

Soil erosion in Mediterranean chestnut tree plantations at risk due to climate change and land abandonment

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 85 - 96

Resumen

Abstract

Chestnut cultivation is a type of traditional centennial exploitation in southern areas of Extremadura. Currently, chestnut is in danger of extinction due to the effects of climate change, some diseases (e.g. Cryphonectria parasitica) and land mismanagement. The high temporal variability of rainfall leads to soil erosion in chestnut cultivation. New forms of management are proposed to try, among other things, to reduce soil losses. This study quantifies soil losses in areas under tree canopies and open areas considering two different age plantations; 1990s and 1960s. To achieve the proposed goal 18 erosion plots were installed as paired plots under tree canopies and open areas in both plantations. The total amount of rainfall per event, tree cover, bare soil, runoff coefficient and sediment concentration were also measured in every plot. The results showed that the highest percentage of bare soil (> 45%) coincides with the period of greatest tree cover (> 75%). The open areas and the youngest plantation showed soil losses higher than the areas under the tree and the oldest plantation. In addition, soil losses increase as higher percentages of bare soil are recorded. We conclude that the size of the trees and a better soil stability in older plantations help reduce soil losses.

Palabras clave

  • soil losses
  • land management
  • rural areas
  • traditional crops
  • sustainability
Acceso abierto

Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) as a species suitable for the upcoming seasons with frequent dry periods

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 97 - 103

Resumen

Abstract

Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) has higher tolerance to dry periods and to lower soil nutrient content. It seems to be more resistant to tracheomycosis and therefore it should be considered as a promising species on selected forest sites. The research plots are situated in the Louny region with significant rainfall deficit; good model area for future expected climatic changes. New plantation of northern red oak and sessile oak on together 10 subplots with 500 plants were measured between 2015 and 2019. Results proved significant level (α = 0.05) of better height growth of northern red oak as well as higher resistance to dry periods (lower mortality). Lang’s Rain Factor proved to be a good indicator of difficult climatic condition during growing seasons and therefore could be used for realistic evaluation of possible success or failure of artificial regeneration.

Palabras clave

  • climatic changes
  • regeneration
  • height growth
  • Lang’s Rain Factor
Acceso abierto

Does shelterwood regeneration on natural Scots pine sites under changing environmental conditions represent a viable alternative to traditional clear-cut management?

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 104 - 115

Resumen

Abstract

In the context of climate change, the crucial question is how silvicultural treatments should be modified, in order to reach favourable conditions for initiating natural regeneration of forest stands. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of clear-cutting, basal area reduction (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8) and soil preparation (milling cutter, forestry mulcher, brush rake and control variant without soil preparation) on the regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the conditions of natural pine sites (Northern Bohemia). Seedling numbers, heights and crown widths were recorded on transects representing all combinations of stand densities treatments and soil preparations variants three years after the silvicultural operations. Seed traps were installed to determine the numbers of seeds from 2016 to 2018. Soil water potential (Delmhorst Instrument Company) and soil temperature (sensor Pt1000 A–class sensors, EMS Brno) were measured. All variants of soil preparation had higher numbers of seedlings compared to control variant. When comparing stand densities, total numbers of seedlings were the highest in stand density 0.4 (cutter 32,402 ± 34,208 S.D. ind.ha−1; mulcher 26,832 ± 24,088 S.D. ind.ha−1; rake 24,496 ± 22,913 S.D. ind.ha−1). This stand density was also beneficial with respect to seed numbers, seedling characteristics and soil moisture and temperature characteristics. We conclude that shelterwood regeneration on natural Scots pine sites is promising silvicultural approach and may become an important tool in mitigating negative effects of climate change in the future.

Palabras clave

  • stand density
  • soil preparation
  • fructification
  • natural regeneration
  • soil moisture
  • soil temperature
Acceso abierto

Silviculture as a tool to support stability and diversity of forests under climate change: study from Krkonoše Mountains

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 116 - 129

Resumen

Abstract

In Europe, warming, droughts and the rise of extreme climate events have an increasing significant negative effect on forest stands. Therefore, it is necessary to create appropriate adaptation strategies of silviculture to mitigate the impacts of global climate change on forest ecosystems in Central Europe. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate stand production, structure and diversity on eight experimental research plots in the Krkonoše Mountains. Subsequently, three variants of management were compared in mixed stands at the age of 17 – 20 years originating from natural regeneration: A) control variant (stands before thinning), B) applied newly designed thinning in the context of climate change adaptation and C) simulative thinning from below. Number of trees decreased from 3,256 trees ha−1 by 32% after adaptation thinning and by 36% after thinning from below. The basal area decreased in variant B by 22% and in variant C by 12%. Structural diversity and tree species richness increased after application of adaptation thinning, while decrease of diameter differentiation and total diversity was observed after thinning from below. Moreover, horizontal structure changed from aggregated spatial pattern to random distribution after the interventions, especially under adaptation thinning. The newly designed structuralizing adaptation thinning method seems to be a more suitable option in given habitat and stand conditions compared to the commonly performed thinning from below. In future, this issue will certainly require further close cooperation of forestry experts in order to arrive at optimal variants of solutions differentiated according to specific conditions.

Palabras clave

  • thinning
  • forest adaptation
  • stand structure
  • timber production
  • Central Europe
8 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Editorial to the thematic issue: Silviculture and forest production under climate change

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 61 - 62

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Assisted migration vs. close-to-nature forestry: what are the prospects for tree populations under climate change?

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 63 - 70

Resumen

Abstract

Climate change is currently perceived as the most important challenge faced globally by ecosystems and human society. The predicted changes of temperature and precipitation patterns are expected to alter the environmental conditions to which forest trees in Europe are adapted, and expose them to new pests and pathogens. This would unavoidably lead to a huge loss of ecosystem services provided to society, and at the local scale may potentially endanger the very existence of forests. In this study, we reviewed biological background and limits of mechanisms by which tree populations may cope with climate change: adaptation by natural selection, gene flow, epigenetic phenomena and phenotypic plasticity, as well as forest management strategies, which rely on these mechanisms. We argue that maintaining genetic diversity is important in the long-term view but natural selection cannot ensure sufficiently rapid response to environmental change. On the other hand, epigenetic memory effects may change adaptively relevant traits within a single generation, while close-to-nature forestry practices are the basic requirement to make use of epigenetics. Assisted migration, as a frequently suggested mitigation option, relies primarily on the knowledge gained from provenance research; the review analyses potential pitfalls of this strategy. We suggest that all approaches, i.e., leaving a part of forests without management, close-to-nature forestry, and transfer of forest reproductive materials from sources presumably adapted to future climates are combined across the landscape in an integrative manner.

Palabras clave

  • adaptation
  • epigenetics
  • phenotypic plasticity
  • provenance
  • climate change mitigation
Acceso abierto

Substitution of Norway spruce for Douglas-fir: changes of soil microbial activities as climate change induced shift in species composition – a case study

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 71 - 77

Resumen

Abstract

Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) is the most common utilized introduced tree species in the tem-is the most common utilized introduced tree species in the temperate zone, planted in many European countries. Also, in the Czech Republic it represents the most planted exotic species as well. Its planted area exceeds 6,000 ha and represents 0.25% of the forest area of the country. In the last years, this species is supposed as convenient substitution for declining Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) stands under current climatic change (extreme drought, bark beetle outbreak). The changed species composition affects also soil dynamic processes, including litter decomposition and transformation. In the presented study, the respiration rate and nitrification intensity were compared in the stand parts dominated by Norway spruce and Douglas-fir in comparable site conditions (410 m a.s.l., 650 mm, 8 ºC, gleyic Luvisol, fresh oak-fir site with Oxalis acetosella, age 97 years). Analyses were performed in laboratory conditions by standard methods determining actual (basal) and potential respiration activity and intensity of ammonia and nitrate ion production. Admixture of Douglas-fir considerably intensified decomposition activities (soil respiration) and profoundly increased the nitrification rate in the surface humus and uppermost mineral soil layer – Ah horizon. Increased interest in the Douglas-fir silviculture needs increased care for forest soil dynamics with respect of nitrogen balance.

Palabras clave

  • forest soils
  • soil microbiology
  • soil respiration
  • ammonification
  • nitrification
Acceso abierto

Litterfall nutrient return in thinned young stands with Douglas fir

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 78 - 84

Resumen

Abstract

The use of Douglas fir (DF) is on the increase in the Czech Republic. This tree species shows a good production and also a beneficial impact on soil to some extent. We studied both amount and properties of litterfall in 18 to 20-year-old stands with DF in 2011. Two experimental plots were DF-dominated and one showed ca. 20 – 30% share of Scots pine (SP) at the beginning of observation. The experiments consisted of two treatments such as unthinned control and 50 – 62% trees’ density reduction accounting for 43 – 59% basal area reduction. Litterfall was collected using litter traps of 0.25 m2 area in 3 – 4 traps per treatment. Forest floor L and F were taken in 2011 and 2018 to investigate the development of their amount after thinning. Both whole-period sum and mean annual litterfall were reduced after thinning compared to controls. The mean annual litterfall totaled ca. 3 t ha−1 in 20-year-old DF–dominated stands. This amount represents an annual nutrient return of 30 – 40 kg N, 1 – 3 kg P, 3 – 5 kg K, 12 – 30 kg Ca and 1 – 2 kg Mg per one hectare. The reduction of the annual litterfall was more pronounced in DF–dominated stands. All thinned plots showed increased decomposition rates reflected in lower total L+F amounts in both DF–dominated plots whereas unthinned plots accumulated more L+F at the end. The mixed DF–SP plot showed reduced L and increased F layer amounts in both unthinned and thinned treatments with only minor change to L+F sum between 2011 and 2018.

Palabras clave

  • litterfall
  • forest floor
  • thinning
  • nutrients
  • Douglas fir
Acceso abierto

Soil erosion in Mediterranean chestnut tree plantations at risk due to climate change and land abandonment

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 85 - 96

Resumen

Abstract

Chestnut cultivation is a type of traditional centennial exploitation in southern areas of Extremadura. Currently, chestnut is in danger of extinction due to the effects of climate change, some diseases (e.g. Cryphonectria parasitica) and land mismanagement. The high temporal variability of rainfall leads to soil erosion in chestnut cultivation. New forms of management are proposed to try, among other things, to reduce soil losses. This study quantifies soil losses in areas under tree canopies and open areas considering two different age plantations; 1990s and 1960s. To achieve the proposed goal 18 erosion plots were installed as paired plots under tree canopies and open areas in both plantations. The total amount of rainfall per event, tree cover, bare soil, runoff coefficient and sediment concentration were also measured in every plot. The results showed that the highest percentage of bare soil (> 45%) coincides with the period of greatest tree cover (> 75%). The open areas and the youngest plantation showed soil losses higher than the areas under the tree and the oldest plantation. In addition, soil losses increase as higher percentages of bare soil are recorded. We conclude that the size of the trees and a better soil stability in older plantations help reduce soil losses.

Palabras clave

  • soil losses
  • land management
  • rural areas
  • traditional crops
  • sustainability
Acceso abierto

Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) as a species suitable for the upcoming seasons with frequent dry periods

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 97 - 103

Resumen

Abstract

Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) has higher tolerance to dry periods and to lower soil nutrient content. It seems to be more resistant to tracheomycosis and therefore it should be considered as a promising species on selected forest sites. The research plots are situated in the Louny region with significant rainfall deficit; good model area for future expected climatic changes. New plantation of northern red oak and sessile oak on together 10 subplots with 500 plants were measured between 2015 and 2019. Results proved significant level (α = 0.05) of better height growth of northern red oak as well as higher resistance to dry periods (lower mortality). Lang’s Rain Factor proved to be a good indicator of difficult climatic condition during growing seasons and therefore could be used for realistic evaluation of possible success or failure of artificial regeneration.

Palabras clave

  • climatic changes
  • regeneration
  • height growth
  • Lang’s Rain Factor
Acceso abierto

Does shelterwood regeneration on natural Scots pine sites under changing environmental conditions represent a viable alternative to traditional clear-cut management?

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 104 - 115

Resumen

Abstract

In the context of climate change, the crucial question is how silvicultural treatments should be modified, in order to reach favourable conditions for initiating natural regeneration of forest stands. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of clear-cutting, basal area reduction (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8) and soil preparation (milling cutter, forestry mulcher, brush rake and control variant without soil preparation) on the regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the conditions of natural pine sites (Northern Bohemia). Seedling numbers, heights and crown widths were recorded on transects representing all combinations of stand densities treatments and soil preparations variants three years after the silvicultural operations. Seed traps were installed to determine the numbers of seeds from 2016 to 2018. Soil water potential (Delmhorst Instrument Company) and soil temperature (sensor Pt1000 A–class sensors, EMS Brno) were measured. All variants of soil preparation had higher numbers of seedlings compared to control variant. When comparing stand densities, total numbers of seedlings were the highest in stand density 0.4 (cutter 32,402 ± 34,208 S.D. ind.ha−1; mulcher 26,832 ± 24,088 S.D. ind.ha−1; rake 24,496 ± 22,913 S.D. ind.ha−1). This stand density was also beneficial with respect to seed numbers, seedling characteristics and soil moisture and temperature characteristics. We conclude that shelterwood regeneration on natural Scots pine sites is promising silvicultural approach and may become an important tool in mitigating negative effects of climate change in the future.

Palabras clave

  • stand density
  • soil preparation
  • fructification
  • natural regeneration
  • soil moisture
  • soil temperature
Acceso abierto

Silviculture as a tool to support stability and diversity of forests under climate change: study from Krkonoše Mountains

Publicado en línea: 29 Jun 2020
Páginas: 116 - 129

Resumen

Abstract

In Europe, warming, droughts and the rise of extreme climate events have an increasing significant negative effect on forest stands. Therefore, it is necessary to create appropriate adaptation strategies of silviculture to mitigate the impacts of global climate change on forest ecosystems in Central Europe. The objectives of this paper were to evaluate stand production, structure and diversity on eight experimental research plots in the Krkonoše Mountains. Subsequently, three variants of management were compared in mixed stands at the age of 17 – 20 years originating from natural regeneration: A) control variant (stands before thinning), B) applied newly designed thinning in the context of climate change adaptation and C) simulative thinning from below. Number of trees decreased from 3,256 trees ha−1 by 32% after adaptation thinning and by 36% after thinning from below. The basal area decreased in variant B by 22% and in variant C by 12%. Structural diversity and tree species richness increased after application of adaptation thinning, while decrease of diameter differentiation and total diversity was observed after thinning from below. Moreover, horizontal structure changed from aggregated spatial pattern to random distribution after the interventions, especially under adaptation thinning. The newly designed structuralizing adaptation thinning method seems to be a more suitable option in given habitat and stand conditions compared to the commonly performed thinning from below. In future, this issue will certainly require further close cooperation of forestry experts in order to arrive at optimal variants of solutions differentiated according to specific conditions.

Palabras clave

  • thinning
  • forest adaptation
  • stand structure
  • timber production
  • Central Europe

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