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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 63 (2017): Edición 4 (September 2017)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2454-0358
Publicado por primera vez
14 Dec 2009
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

7 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

Combining multiple statistical methods to evaluate the performance of process-based vegetation models across three forest stands

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 153 - 172

Resumen

Abstract

Process-based vegetation models are crucial tools to better understand biosphere-atmosphere exchanges and ecophysiological responses to climate change. In this contribution the performance of two global dynamic vegetation models, i.e. CARAIB and ISBACC, and one stand-scale forest model, i.e. 4C, was compared to long-term observed net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) time series from eddy covariance monitoring stations at three old-grown European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest stands. Residual analysis, wavelet analysis and singular spectrum analysis were used beside conventional scalar statistical measures to assess model performance with the aim of defining future targets for model improvement. We found that the most important errors for all three models occurred at the edges of the observed NEE distribution and the model errors were correlated with environmental variables on a daily scale. These observations point to possible projection issues under more extreme future climate conditions. Recurrent patterns in the residuals over the course of the year were linked to the approach to simulate phenology and physiological evolution during leaf development and senescence. Substantial model errors occurred on the multi-annual time scale, possibly caused by the lack of inclusion of management actions and disturbances. Other crucial processes defined were the forest structure and the vertical light partitioning through the canopy. Further, model errors were shown not to be transmitted from one time scale to another. We proved that models should be evaluated across multiple sites, preferably using multiple evaluation methods, to identify processes that request reconsideration.

Palabras clave

  • singular spectrum analysis
  • residual analysis
  • wavelets
  • Fagus sylvatica
  • net ecosystem carbon exchange
access type Acceso abierto

Epigenetic memory effects in forest trees: a victory of “Michurinian biology”?

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 173 - 179

Resumen

Abstract

The study reviews trait inheritance, which is in contradiction with the rules of Mendelian genetics, and which was object of controversies among biologists (sometimes with grave political consequences) in the USSR and Sovietcontrolled countries in the 1930s-1960s. “Carryover” or “memory” effects of the climate, to which maternal trees are exposed during seed development, on phenological behavior and other adaptively relevant traits of their offspring in conifers are mentioned; similar effects are associated with the germination and early growth environment. Molecular mechanisms underlying these effects include covalent modifications of DNA or DNA-associated proteins (cytosine methylation, various types of histone modifications), micro-RNAs and small interfering RNAs. Tools for the identification of these modifications are reviewed with a focus on cytosine methylation, along with an overview of the hitherto knowledge on the occurrence of DNA modifications in forest trees. The practical implications of epigenetic inheritance in forest trees are discussed with the focus on the adaptation to climate change and legislation on forest reproductive materials.

Palabras clave

  • epigenetics
  • carryover effects
  • cytosine methylation
  • MSAP
  • climate change
  • Lysenko
access type Acceso abierto

Succession of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) communities after windthrow disturbance in a montane Norway spruce forest in the Hrubý Jeseník Mts. (Czech Republic)

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 180 - 187

Resumen

Abstract

Wind disturbances are a key factor that is significantly involved in the life cycle of natural boreomontane coniferous forests. As most of these forests are currently intensively managed, we have limited knowledge on succession following natural disturbance. Succession in a Norway spruce stand after a windthrow event was studied using ground beetles as model bioindication taxa in the Hrubý Jeseník Mts. (Czech Republic). The study documented that the composition of ground beetle communities was significantly associated with stand age and its microclimatic parameters (particularly the minimal temperature and average and minimal humidity). Forest species including prey specialists, hygrophilous species, as well as habitat generalists were the most abundant in the mature stand, where the forest had the highest humidity and the least profound minimal temperatures. In contrast, open-habitat species, including euryoecious species and relict species of higher elevations, reached their highest abundances in clearing shortly after the windthrow. In clearing the humidity was lower and the temperature fluctuated significantly (the lowest minimal temperatures). Ground beetles, including forest species, were the least abundant in young stands (10 and 20 years after windthrow). We conclude that old stands are of particular importance because they harbour the highest abundance and diversity of ground beetles with various ecological requirements. Natural wind disturbances are important as well since they increase diversity by enabling the occurrence of many non-forest species. Hence, a mosaic of stands of different ages with a sufficient proportion of old stands should be maintained when managing montane coniferous forests.

Palabras clave

  • forest stand development
  • microclimate
  • multivariate analysis
  • windstorm
access type Acceso abierto

Economic value production of trees as a criterion of their maturity in an uneven-aged forest

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 188 - 194

Resumen

Abstract

Tree maturity of the four main tree species that are most frequent in the uneven-aged forests of the Western Carpathians was analysed. The maturity was determined on the base of the economic value production in relation to tree diameter. We derived mean timber values of spruce, fir, pine, and beech trees (€ m−3) depending on their diameters, quality and stem damage, and in the case of beech also depending on tree age. The assortment structure was calculated using the models of tree assortment tables that account for the stated tree parameters. The assortment prices were taken from the price list of logs in assortment and diameter classes of the Forests of the Slovak Republic, state enterprise, for the year 2016. Trees are mature when their mean timber monetary value is at maximum. Results show, that the highest mean value production of the majority of beech trees of average and above-average stem quality is 70 - 80 € m−3 for trees with diameters between 45 and 55 cm. Monetary values of spruce and fir trees with diameters above 60 to 90 cm are 80 - 95 € m−3, while the monetary values of pine trees with the same diameters are approximately 70 - 115 € m−3. The value production of trees is reduced if the stems are of worse quality or damaged, but in the case of beech it also decreases with greater diameter or tree age.

Palabras clave

  • target diameters
  • stem quality
  • stem damage
  • assortment structure
  • selection management system
access type Acceso abierto

The impact of precision of tree position measurements and different plot designs on the estimates of tree level production and diversity parameters

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 195 - 202

Resumen

Abstract

Sample plots are basic units of statistical forest inventories. The choice of their shape and size, and sampling methods have changed over time due to economic constraints, efficiency and changes in human demands on data about forests. In the presented study we analysed the impact of three different sampling units: fixed-area plots, fixed-different-area plots, and nested concentric plots, on the estimates of tree level production and diversity parameters. These sampling units were measured during the regional inventory at the University Forest Enterprise of Technical University Zvolen, Slovakia, which was repeated four times (1986, 1992, 1998, 2012). Within each inventory plot, all positions of trees were repeatedly and independently measured three times (1986, 1998, 2012) by different operators using different tools. From these data we quantified the error of tree position resulting from human and technological factors and analysed its impact on the estimates of tree level diversity and production parameters. The selected parameters were: number of trees, stand basal area, standing volume per hectare, number of tree species and number of vertical tree layers. The results indicate that the plot design primarily affects ecological characteristics of forests. Fixed-area plots seem to be the most suitable sampling unit from the point of multi-criteria evaluation of forest status and forest change.

Palabras clave

  • sample plot
  • forest inventory
  • monitoring
  • sampling simulation
  • sampling error
access type Acceso abierto

Reconstructing past forest status using inventory and tree ring data to support uneven-aged forest management

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 203 - 211

Resumen

Abstract

The decision to change forest management system from the traditional even-aged to the selection one based on statistical inventory is often limited by a missing previous inventory. To avoid this issue, we used available forest inventory data from ca 2 000 ha of mixed uneven-aged beech-fir-spruce-pine forest and tree ring data from 831 trees to reconstruct forest status from one decade ago. For this purpose, we have created three sets of species-specific models: 1) diameter-stump models to reconstruct the diameter of missing trees, 2) diameter-increment models based on tree ring data to estimate past diameters, and 3) height-diameter models to estimate past tree heights. This approach has allowed us to completely reconstruct the state of the forest as it was ten years ago and use the results as a substitution for a previously missing inventory.

Palabras clave

  • stump-diameter models
  • height-diameter models
  • diameter increment models
  • forest inventory
  • selection forest management
access type Acceso abierto

Long-term transformation of submontane spruce-beech forests in the Jizerské hory Mts.: dynamics of natural regeneration

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 213 - 225

Resumen

Abstract

The paper deals with development of the natural regeneration of even-aged spruce-beech forests during their transformation to uneven-aged stands with diversified structure at the Jedlový důl area in the Protected Landscape Area Jizerské hory Mts., Czech Republic. Shelterwood management system and free felling policy based on selection principles has been applied there since 1979 with the support of admixed tree species of the natural species composition, especially silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). The research was focuses on structure and development of natural regeneration with the emphasis on ungulate damage and interaction with tree layer from 1979 to 2015. In the course of 36 years, the regeneration structure was diversified towards the close-to-nature tree species composition, spatial and age structure. The number of regeneration recruits increased in average from 941 to 41,669 ind ha-1. During this period share of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) significantly (p < 0.01) increased (by 53.6%), while the share of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) decreased (by 51.5%), such as damage caused by ungulate (by 61.4%) with the highest loses on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) and silver fir. Moreover, the parent trees had a significant negative influence on natural regeneration at smaller spacing (within a 1 - 5 m radius from the stem). Both, regeneration potential and effective role of the tree layer during the forest transformation has been confirmed as important prerequisites for ongoing forest transformation.

Palabras clave

  • regeneration development
  • forest transformation
  • shelterwood system
  • stand structure
  • browsing damage
7 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

Combining multiple statistical methods to evaluate the performance of process-based vegetation models across three forest stands

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 153 - 172

Resumen

Abstract

Process-based vegetation models are crucial tools to better understand biosphere-atmosphere exchanges and ecophysiological responses to climate change. In this contribution the performance of two global dynamic vegetation models, i.e. CARAIB and ISBACC, and one stand-scale forest model, i.e. 4C, was compared to long-term observed net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) time series from eddy covariance monitoring stations at three old-grown European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest stands. Residual analysis, wavelet analysis and singular spectrum analysis were used beside conventional scalar statistical measures to assess model performance with the aim of defining future targets for model improvement. We found that the most important errors for all three models occurred at the edges of the observed NEE distribution and the model errors were correlated with environmental variables on a daily scale. These observations point to possible projection issues under more extreme future climate conditions. Recurrent patterns in the residuals over the course of the year were linked to the approach to simulate phenology and physiological evolution during leaf development and senescence. Substantial model errors occurred on the multi-annual time scale, possibly caused by the lack of inclusion of management actions and disturbances. Other crucial processes defined were the forest structure and the vertical light partitioning through the canopy. Further, model errors were shown not to be transmitted from one time scale to another. We proved that models should be evaluated across multiple sites, preferably using multiple evaluation methods, to identify processes that request reconsideration.

Palabras clave

  • singular spectrum analysis
  • residual analysis
  • wavelets
  • Fagus sylvatica
  • net ecosystem carbon exchange
access type Acceso abierto

Epigenetic memory effects in forest trees: a victory of “Michurinian biology”?

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 173 - 179

Resumen

Abstract

The study reviews trait inheritance, which is in contradiction with the rules of Mendelian genetics, and which was object of controversies among biologists (sometimes with grave political consequences) in the USSR and Sovietcontrolled countries in the 1930s-1960s. “Carryover” or “memory” effects of the climate, to which maternal trees are exposed during seed development, on phenological behavior and other adaptively relevant traits of their offspring in conifers are mentioned; similar effects are associated with the germination and early growth environment. Molecular mechanisms underlying these effects include covalent modifications of DNA or DNA-associated proteins (cytosine methylation, various types of histone modifications), micro-RNAs and small interfering RNAs. Tools for the identification of these modifications are reviewed with a focus on cytosine methylation, along with an overview of the hitherto knowledge on the occurrence of DNA modifications in forest trees. The practical implications of epigenetic inheritance in forest trees are discussed with the focus on the adaptation to climate change and legislation on forest reproductive materials.

Palabras clave

  • epigenetics
  • carryover effects
  • cytosine methylation
  • MSAP
  • climate change
  • Lysenko
access type Acceso abierto

Succession of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) communities after windthrow disturbance in a montane Norway spruce forest in the Hrubý Jeseník Mts. (Czech Republic)

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 180 - 187

Resumen

Abstract

Wind disturbances are a key factor that is significantly involved in the life cycle of natural boreomontane coniferous forests. As most of these forests are currently intensively managed, we have limited knowledge on succession following natural disturbance. Succession in a Norway spruce stand after a windthrow event was studied using ground beetles as model bioindication taxa in the Hrubý Jeseník Mts. (Czech Republic). The study documented that the composition of ground beetle communities was significantly associated with stand age and its microclimatic parameters (particularly the minimal temperature and average and minimal humidity). Forest species including prey specialists, hygrophilous species, as well as habitat generalists were the most abundant in the mature stand, where the forest had the highest humidity and the least profound minimal temperatures. In contrast, open-habitat species, including euryoecious species and relict species of higher elevations, reached their highest abundances in clearing shortly after the windthrow. In clearing the humidity was lower and the temperature fluctuated significantly (the lowest minimal temperatures). Ground beetles, including forest species, were the least abundant in young stands (10 and 20 years after windthrow). We conclude that old stands are of particular importance because they harbour the highest abundance and diversity of ground beetles with various ecological requirements. Natural wind disturbances are important as well since they increase diversity by enabling the occurrence of many non-forest species. Hence, a mosaic of stands of different ages with a sufficient proportion of old stands should be maintained when managing montane coniferous forests.

Palabras clave

  • forest stand development
  • microclimate
  • multivariate analysis
  • windstorm
access type Acceso abierto

Economic value production of trees as a criterion of their maturity in an uneven-aged forest

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 188 - 194

Resumen

Abstract

Tree maturity of the four main tree species that are most frequent in the uneven-aged forests of the Western Carpathians was analysed. The maturity was determined on the base of the economic value production in relation to tree diameter. We derived mean timber values of spruce, fir, pine, and beech trees (€ m−3) depending on their diameters, quality and stem damage, and in the case of beech also depending on tree age. The assortment structure was calculated using the models of tree assortment tables that account for the stated tree parameters. The assortment prices were taken from the price list of logs in assortment and diameter classes of the Forests of the Slovak Republic, state enterprise, for the year 2016. Trees are mature when their mean timber monetary value is at maximum. Results show, that the highest mean value production of the majority of beech trees of average and above-average stem quality is 70 - 80 € m−3 for trees with diameters between 45 and 55 cm. Monetary values of spruce and fir trees with diameters above 60 to 90 cm are 80 - 95 € m−3, while the monetary values of pine trees with the same diameters are approximately 70 - 115 € m−3. The value production of trees is reduced if the stems are of worse quality or damaged, but in the case of beech it also decreases with greater diameter or tree age.

Palabras clave

  • target diameters
  • stem quality
  • stem damage
  • assortment structure
  • selection management system
access type Acceso abierto

The impact of precision of tree position measurements and different plot designs on the estimates of tree level production and diversity parameters

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 195 - 202

Resumen

Abstract

Sample plots are basic units of statistical forest inventories. The choice of their shape and size, and sampling methods have changed over time due to economic constraints, efficiency and changes in human demands on data about forests. In the presented study we analysed the impact of three different sampling units: fixed-area plots, fixed-different-area plots, and nested concentric plots, on the estimates of tree level production and diversity parameters. These sampling units were measured during the regional inventory at the University Forest Enterprise of Technical University Zvolen, Slovakia, which was repeated four times (1986, 1992, 1998, 2012). Within each inventory plot, all positions of trees were repeatedly and independently measured three times (1986, 1998, 2012) by different operators using different tools. From these data we quantified the error of tree position resulting from human and technological factors and analysed its impact on the estimates of tree level diversity and production parameters. The selected parameters were: number of trees, stand basal area, standing volume per hectare, number of tree species and number of vertical tree layers. The results indicate that the plot design primarily affects ecological characteristics of forests. Fixed-area plots seem to be the most suitable sampling unit from the point of multi-criteria evaluation of forest status and forest change.

Palabras clave

  • sample plot
  • forest inventory
  • monitoring
  • sampling simulation
  • sampling error
access type Acceso abierto

Reconstructing past forest status using inventory and tree ring data to support uneven-aged forest management

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 203 - 211

Resumen

Abstract

The decision to change forest management system from the traditional even-aged to the selection one based on statistical inventory is often limited by a missing previous inventory. To avoid this issue, we used available forest inventory data from ca 2 000 ha of mixed uneven-aged beech-fir-spruce-pine forest and tree ring data from 831 trees to reconstruct forest status from one decade ago. For this purpose, we have created three sets of species-specific models: 1) diameter-stump models to reconstruct the diameter of missing trees, 2) diameter-increment models based on tree ring data to estimate past diameters, and 3) height-diameter models to estimate past tree heights. This approach has allowed us to completely reconstruct the state of the forest as it was ten years ago and use the results as a substitution for a previously missing inventory.

Palabras clave

  • stump-diameter models
  • height-diameter models
  • diameter increment models
  • forest inventory
  • selection forest management
access type Acceso abierto

Long-term transformation of submontane spruce-beech forests in the Jizerské hory Mts.: dynamics of natural regeneration

Publicado en línea: 31 Oct 2017
Páginas: 213 - 225

Resumen

Abstract

The paper deals with development of the natural regeneration of even-aged spruce-beech forests during their transformation to uneven-aged stands with diversified structure at the Jedlový důl area in the Protected Landscape Area Jizerské hory Mts., Czech Republic. Shelterwood management system and free felling policy based on selection principles has been applied there since 1979 with the support of admixed tree species of the natural species composition, especially silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). The research was focuses on structure and development of natural regeneration with the emphasis on ungulate damage and interaction with tree layer from 1979 to 2015. In the course of 36 years, the regeneration structure was diversified towards the close-to-nature tree species composition, spatial and age structure. The number of regeneration recruits increased in average from 941 to 41,669 ind ha-1. During this period share of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) significantly (p < 0.01) increased (by 53.6%), while the share of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) decreased (by 51.5%), such as damage caused by ungulate (by 61.4%) with the highest loses on sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) and silver fir. Moreover, the parent trees had a significant negative influence on natural regeneration at smaller spacing (within a 1 - 5 m radius from the stem). Both, regeneration potential and effective role of the tree layer during the forest transformation has been confirmed as important prerequisites for ongoing forest transformation.

Palabras clave

  • regeneration development
  • forest transformation
  • shelterwood system
  • stand structure
  • browsing damage

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