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Heavy-mineral analysis as a tool in earth-scientific research

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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2080-6574
Pierwsze wydanie
24 Dec 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 27 (2021): Zeszyt 3 (December 2021)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2080-6574
Pierwsze wydanie
24 Dec 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

9 Artykułów

RESEARCH PAPER

Otwarty dostęp

Enigmatic clusters of sandstone boulders on plateaus of the Stołowe Mountains (Sudetes, south-west Poland) – their geoheritage and geotouristic value

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 141 - 155

Abstrakt

Abstract

Among sites of geomorphological interest in the tableland of the Stołowe Mountains, consisting of clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Cretaceous age, are enigmatic occurrences and clusters of sandstone boulders within plateau levels that are underlain by mudstones and marls. These boulders are allochthonous, having been derived from the quartz sandstone beds that support the upper plateau level and stratigraphically are in excess of 50 m above the altitudinal position of the boulders. Topographic conditions preclude long-distance transport from the escarpment slopes; boulders are hypothesised to be the last remnants of completely degraded outliers (mesas) of the upper plateau. Their present-day altitudinal position is explained by passive ‘settling’ following disintegration of caprock and denudation of the underlying weaker rocks. Two localities are here presented in detail, Łężyckie Skałki and Pustelnik, along with adjacent boulder trains in the valleys incised into the plateau. It is argued that both localities have considerable geoheritage value and both play the role of geosites, although on-site facilities are so far limited. However, the complex history of boulders sets a series of challenges for successful geo-interpretation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sandstone landforms
  • tablelands
  • escarpment retreat
  • geo-interpretation
Otwarty dostęp

Assessing the representative elementary volume of rock types by X-ray computed tomography (CT) – a simple approach to demonstrate the heterogeneity of the Boda Claystone Formation in Hungary

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 157 - 172

Abstrakt

Abstract

X-ray computed tomography (CT) can reveal internal, three-dimensional details of objects in a non-destructive way and provide high-resolution, quantitative data in the form of CT numbers. The sensitivity of the CT number to changes in material density means that it may be used to identify lithology changes within cores of sedimentary rocks. The present pilot study confirms the use of Representative Elementary Volume (REV) to quantify inhomogeneity of CT densities of rock constituents of the Boda Claystone Formation. Thirty-two layers, 2 m core length, of this formation were studied. Based on the dominant rock-forming constituent, two rock types could be defined, i.e., clayey siltstone (20 layers) and fine siltstone (12 layers). Eleven of these layers (clayey siltstone and fine siltstone) showed sedimentary features such as, convolute laminations, desiccation cracks, cross-laminations and cracks. The application of the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages, Statistical Process Control (ARIMA SPC) method to define Representative Elementary Volume (REV) of CT densities (Hounsfield unit values) affirmed the following results: i) the highest REV values corresponded to the presence of sedimentary structures or high ratios of siltstone constituents (> 60%). ii) the REV average of the clayey siltstone was (5.86 cm3) and (6.54 cm3) of the fine siltstone. iii) normalised REV percentages of the clayey siltstone and fine siltstone, on the scale of the core volume studied were 19.88% and 22.84%; respectively. iv) whenever the corresponding layer did not reveal any sedimentary structure, the normalised REV values would be below 10%. The internal void space in layers with sedimentary features might explain the marked textural heterogeneity and elevated REV values. The drying process of the core sample might also have played a significant role in increasing erroneous pore proportions by volume reducation of clay minerals, particularly within sedimentary structures, where authigenic clay and carbonate cement were presumed to be dominant.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Hounsfield Unit (HU)
  • Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA)
  • Statistical Process Control (SPC) technique
Otwarty dostęp

Suspended sediment in lowland rivers – towards identifying the ratios of mineral and organic components and their variation during the year

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 173 - 180

Abstrakt

Abstract

Concentrations of suspended sediment transported by rivers are influenced by interactions between multiple drivers that act on a range of spatial and temporal scales. Such levels vary over the year, as well as across multi-year periods. Most conventional approaches to determining suspended load are based upon analyses of total suspended sediment concentration (SSC), i.e., the sum of mineral and organic matter. This approach makes it difficult, if not impossible, to determine the impact of multiple environmental factors on changes in suspension concentration precisely. The present paper focuses on the mineral and organic components of suspended sediment with the aim of determining how our knowledge of the share of each individual component can improve interpretations of SSC fluctuations during a hydro-logical year. The analysis conducted (personal and other researchers’ results) has shown that mineral and organic suspensions demonstrate mutually incompatible opposite trends under influence of environmental factors. This analysis of organic components identifies clear seasonal trends, which indicates that organic suspensions of autogenous origin have a strong influence on the dynamics of changes in suspension concentration; such analyses are rarely included in assessments of SSC dynamics.

Słowa kluczowe

  • suspended sediment concentration
  • mineral suspension
  • organic suspension
  • seasonal variability
Otwarty dostęp

Teaching scientific method to primary school pupils by using the example of adaptation of secondarily aquatic animals to the marine environment

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 181 - 188

Abstrakt

Abstract

Science classes in public schools are usually strictly linked to several subjects and taught by reference to the reading-listening model. Non-formal educational institutions and events such as ‘children universities’ and science fairs (and to some degree also some private schools) implement elements of interdisciplinary teaching of science and learning through experiments and the use of scientific methods. Workshops conducted within non-formal educational structures prove that only is this method engaging and understandable to primary school pupils, it also is possibly much more effective than the traditional learning style for coding information and explaining common misconceptions in teaching evolution, palaeontology and biodiversity. The example of a scenario for science classes presented here (the so-called ‘aquatic problem’, i.e., adaptations of primarily terrestrial animals – amniotes – to the aquatic environment) uses simple props, such as everyday items, to address the problems that teachers in public school face. Thus, it can be implemented independently of school budgets and availability of school equipment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Interdisciplinary
  • experiment-based learning
  • evolution
  • non-formal education

BOOK REVIEW

AUTHORS OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN GEOLOGOS IN 2021

Otwarty dostęp

Authors of articles published in Geologos in 2021 – brief information

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 195 - 200

Abstrakt

THANKS TO THE JOURNAL'S REVIEWERS

Otwarty dostęp

Thanks to the journal’s reviewers

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 201 - 201

Abstrakt

9 Artykułów

RESEARCH PAPER

Otwarty dostęp

Enigmatic clusters of sandstone boulders on plateaus of the Stołowe Mountains (Sudetes, south-west Poland) – their geoheritage and geotouristic value

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 141 - 155

Abstrakt

Abstract

Among sites of geomorphological interest in the tableland of the Stołowe Mountains, consisting of clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Cretaceous age, are enigmatic occurrences and clusters of sandstone boulders within plateau levels that are underlain by mudstones and marls. These boulders are allochthonous, having been derived from the quartz sandstone beds that support the upper plateau level and stratigraphically are in excess of 50 m above the altitudinal position of the boulders. Topographic conditions preclude long-distance transport from the escarpment slopes; boulders are hypothesised to be the last remnants of completely degraded outliers (mesas) of the upper plateau. Their present-day altitudinal position is explained by passive ‘settling’ following disintegration of caprock and denudation of the underlying weaker rocks. Two localities are here presented in detail, Łężyckie Skałki and Pustelnik, along with adjacent boulder trains in the valleys incised into the plateau. It is argued that both localities have considerable geoheritage value and both play the role of geosites, although on-site facilities are so far limited. However, the complex history of boulders sets a series of challenges for successful geo-interpretation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sandstone landforms
  • tablelands
  • escarpment retreat
  • geo-interpretation
Otwarty dostęp

Assessing the representative elementary volume of rock types by X-ray computed tomography (CT) – a simple approach to demonstrate the heterogeneity of the Boda Claystone Formation in Hungary

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 157 - 172

Abstrakt

Abstract

X-ray computed tomography (CT) can reveal internal, three-dimensional details of objects in a non-destructive way and provide high-resolution, quantitative data in the form of CT numbers. The sensitivity of the CT number to changes in material density means that it may be used to identify lithology changes within cores of sedimentary rocks. The present pilot study confirms the use of Representative Elementary Volume (REV) to quantify inhomogeneity of CT densities of rock constituents of the Boda Claystone Formation. Thirty-two layers, 2 m core length, of this formation were studied. Based on the dominant rock-forming constituent, two rock types could be defined, i.e., clayey siltstone (20 layers) and fine siltstone (12 layers). Eleven of these layers (clayey siltstone and fine siltstone) showed sedimentary features such as, convolute laminations, desiccation cracks, cross-laminations and cracks. The application of the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages, Statistical Process Control (ARIMA SPC) method to define Representative Elementary Volume (REV) of CT densities (Hounsfield unit values) affirmed the following results: i) the highest REV values corresponded to the presence of sedimentary structures or high ratios of siltstone constituents (> 60%). ii) the REV average of the clayey siltstone was (5.86 cm3) and (6.54 cm3) of the fine siltstone. iii) normalised REV percentages of the clayey siltstone and fine siltstone, on the scale of the core volume studied were 19.88% and 22.84%; respectively. iv) whenever the corresponding layer did not reveal any sedimentary structure, the normalised REV values would be below 10%. The internal void space in layers with sedimentary features might explain the marked textural heterogeneity and elevated REV values. The drying process of the core sample might also have played a significant role in increasing erroneous pore proportions by volume reducation of clay minerals, particularly within sedimentary structures, where authigenic clay and carbonate cement were presumed to be dominant.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Hounsfield Unit (HU)
  • Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA)
  • Statistical Process Control (SPC) technique
Otwarty dostęp

Suspended sediment in lowland rivers – towards identifying the ratios of mineral and organic components and their variation during the year

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 173 - 180

Abstrakt

Abstract

Concentrations of suspended sediment transported by rivers are influenced by interactions between multiple drivers that act on a range of spatial and temporal scales. Such levels vary over the year, as well as across multi-year periods. Most conventional approaches to determining suspended load are based upon analyses of total suspended sediment concentration (SSC), i.e., the sum of mineral and organic matter. This approach makes it difficult, if not impossible, to determine the impact of multiple environmental factors on changes in suspension concentration precisely. The present paper focuses on the mineral and organic components of suspended sediment with the aim of determining how our knowledge of the share of each individual component can improve interpretations of SSC fluctuations during a hydro-logical year. The analysis conducted (personal and other researchers’ results) has shown that mineral and organic suspensions demonstrate mutually incompatible opposite trends under influence of environmental factors. This analysis of organic components identifies clear seasonal trends, which indicates that organic suspensions of autogenous origin have a strong influence on the dynamics of changes in suspension concentration; such analyses are rarely included in assessments of SSC dynamics.

Słowa kluczowe

  • suspended sediment concentration
  • mineral suspension
  • organic suspension
  • seasonal variability
Otwarty dostęp

Teaching scientific method to primary school pupils by using the example of adaptation of secondarily aquatic animals to the marine environment

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 181 - 188

Abstrakt

Abstract

Science classes in public schools are usually strictly linked to several subjects and taught by reference to the reading-listening model. Non-formal educational institutions and events such as ‘children universities’ and science fairs (and to some degree also some private schools) implement elements of interdisciplinary teaching of science and learning through experiments and the use of scientific methods. Workshops conducted within non-formal educational structures prove that only is this method engaging and understandable to primary school pupils, it also is possibly much more effective than the traditional learning style for coding information and explaining common misconceptions in teaching evolution, palaeontology and biodiversity. The example of a scenario for science classes presented here (the so-called ‘aquatic problem’, i.e., adaptations of primarily terrestrial animals – amniotes – to the aquatic environment) uses simple props, such as everyday items, to address the problems that teachers in public school face. Thus, it can be implemented independently of school budgets and availability of school equipment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Interdisciplinary
  • experiment-based learning
  • evolution
  • non-formal education

BOOK REVIEW

AUTHORS OF ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN GEOLOGOS IN 2021

Otwarty dostęp

Authors of articles published in Geologos in 2021 – brief information

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 195 - 200

Abstrakt

THANKS TO THE JOURNAL'S REVIEWERS

Otwarty dostęp

Thanks to the journal’s reviewers

Data publikacji: 30 Dec 2021
Zakres stron: 201 - 201

Abstrakt

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