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Heavy-mineral analysis as a tool in earth-scientific research

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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2080-6574
Pierwsze wydanie
24 Dec 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 24 (2018): Zeszyt 2 (August 2018)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2080-6574
Pierwsze wydanie
24 Dec 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

9 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Application of geostatistical analyst methods in discovering concealed gold and pathfinder elements as geochemical anomalies related to ore mineralisation

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 95 - 109

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study area in the West Junggar Basin is known to be rich in hydrothermal gold deposits and occurrences, even though there has been minimum exploration in the area. It is here hypothesised that this area could host more gold deposits if mineral exploration methods were to be reinforced. This research is aimed at identifying geochemical anomalies of Au, and determining possible factors and conditions which facilitate the formation of anomalies by referring to As and Hg as gold pathfinders. Geostatistical analyst techniques have been applied to 9,852 stream sediments and bedrock data collected on a total surface of 1,280 km2 of West Junggar, Xinjiang (northwest China). The kriging interpolation and quantile-quantile plot methods, combined with statistical methods, successfully identified both Au and its pathfinders’ anomalies. In the present study, median was considered as background values (10.2 ppm for As, 9.13 ppb for Hg and 2.5 ppb for Au), whereas the 95th percentile were threshold values (28.03 ppm for As, 16.71 ppb for Hg and 8.2 ppb for Au) and values greater than thresholds are geochemical anomalies. Moreover, the high concentrations of these three discovered elements are caused primarily by hydrothermal ore mineralisation and are found to be controlled mainly by the Hatu and Sartohay faults of a northeast-southwesterly direction as well as their related secondary faults of variable orientation, which facilitate the easy flow of hydrothermal fluids towards the surface resulting in the formation of geochemical anomalies. Most of anomalies concentration of Au are found near the mining sites, which indicates that the formation of new Au anomalies is influenced by current or previous mining sites through geological or weathering processes. In addition, the low concentration of gold and its pathfinders found far from active gold mine or faults indicates that those anomalies are formed due to primary dispersion of hosting rock.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Geochemical anomalies
  • geostatistical analyst
  • kriging interpolation
  • quantile-quantile plot
Otwarty dostęp

Characteristic trace fossils from Miocene brackish-water deposits in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 111 - 125

Abstrakt

Abstract

Miocene deposits in the eastern portion of the Greater Ughelli, Central Swamp and Coastal Swamp depobelts contain well-developed brackish-water trace fossil assemblages. Twelve ichnogenera have been identified, namely: Asterosoma, Bergaueria, Chondrites, Gyrolithes, Thalassinoides, Lockeia, Palaeophycus, ?Conichnus, Planolites, Siphonichnus, Skolithos and Diplocraterion. In addition, common non-descript, passively filled burrows and fugichnia (escape structures) have also been observed. The above-mentioned ichnogenera and associated non-descript structures can be arranged into six distinct and recurring ichnoassociations within the Greater Ughelli, Central Swamp and Coastal Swamp depobelts. Each ichnoassociation is comprised of a group of trace fossils which collectively reflect specific environmental conditions during deposition of these Miocene strata. All trace fossil assemblages illustrate deposition in nearshore, restricted settings. Ichnological and sedimentological criteria which may be utilized to recognise brackish-water deposits are discussed and illustrated in pictures of the cores studied.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Ichnoassociations
  • ichnology
  • salinity
  • Greater Ughelli
  • Central Swamp
  • Coastal Swamp
  • Neogene
Otwarty dostęp

New palynological data for Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) deep-marine sandstones of the Western Caucasus, southwestern Russia

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 127 - 136

Abstrakt

Abstract

Information on Jurassic palynomorphs from the Greater Caucasus is potentially of great importance, but its availability to the international research community is severely limited. New palynological data for Toarcian deposits of the Western Caucasus are recorded in the present paper. Particularly, dinoflagellate cysts are described for the first time from the Bagovskaja Formation; palynomorphs are found in sandstone levels within this unit. The most representative assemblage includes pollen (with predominant bisaccate pollen), spores (Cyathidites being commonest), and dinoflagellate cysts amongst which the predominant taxon is Nannoceratopsis spiculata. The dinocyst assemblage implies a late Toarcian age for the upper part of the Bagovskaja Formation. On the basis of these new palynostratigraphical results, the range of the formation is extended; previously, only the lower part had been dated on ammonite evidence.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dinoflagellate cysts
  • pollen and spores
  • sandstones
  • Jurassic
  • Greater Caucasus
Otwarty dostęp

Facies characterisation of a shallow-water deltaic succession: the Upper Jurassic Wagad Sandstone Formation of Kachchh, western India

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 137 - 150

Abstrakt

Abstract

Ancient deltaic facies are difficult to differentiate from tidally influenced shallow-marine facies. The Wagad Sandstone Formation of the Wagad Highland (eastern Kachchh Basin) is typified by offshore and deltaic facies with sedimentary characteristics that represent different conditions of hydrodynamics and related depositional processes. The study area, the Adhoi Anticline, constitutes a ~154-m-thick, shale-dominated sequence with progressive upward intercalations of bioturbated micritic sandstone and quartz arenite. Two thick Astarte beds (sandy allochemic limestone), with an erosional base and gravel blanketing, illustrate tidal amplification and high-energy stochastic events such as storms. Sedimentological characteristics document three depositional facies: an offshore, shale-dominated sequence prograding to proximal prodeltaic micritic sandstone and quartz arenite with sandy allochemic limestones, further prograding to mouth bars and abandoned channel deposits. The Wagad Sandstone Formation displays depositional environmental conditions that are dissimilar from those of coeval deposits in Kachchh sub-basins as well as on regional and global scales. This is attributed to a reactivation of the Kachchh Mainland and South Wagad faults which resulted in detachment and uplift of the Wagad block which then experienced prograding deltaic conditions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Lithofacies
  • Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian
  • offshore
  • shallow-water delta
  • South Wagad Fault
Otwarty dostęp

Prospects and limitations of heavy mineral analyses to discriminate preglacial/glacial transitions in Pleistocene sedimentary successions

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 151 - 162

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study revolves around the identification of the stratigraphical boundary between Pleistocene formations that formed prior to the first advance of the Scandinavian ice sheet (Early Pleistocene, i.e., the so-called preglacial) and the overlying, glacially derived deposits (Middle Pleistocene). In particular, it focuses on variation in heavy mineral assemblages, which are an important tool for stratigraphers. The Neogene basement, described here, was most often the source of material that was redeposited by Early Pleistocene rivers. The geological structure and Early Pleistocene palaeogeographical scenarios for various Polish regions are discussed. Moreover, comparisons with other European preglacial formations are carried out. The mineral spectrum of Lower Pleistocene deposits is largely dependent of rocks of the Neogene and Mesozoic basement. If the incision of ancient catchments was into terrigenous rocks, the stratigraphical boundary between preglacial and glacial formations is easily determined with the help of a heavy mineral analysis. As a rule, this coincides with a noticeable change from resistant to non-resistant mineral associations. Such cases are noted for successions in central Poland and eastern England. On the other hand, outcrops of igneous or metamorphic rocks exist within preglacial river catchments in most parts of Europe. They were the local sources of non-resistant heavy minerals long before their glacial supply from the Baltic Shield. In these cases, mineralogical analysis fails in the search for the Early/Middle Pleistocene transition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • river networks
  • fluvial deposits
  • stratigraphy
  • Early Pleistocene
  • Poland
Otwarty dostęp

The formation of loess ground by the process of loessification: a history of the concept

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 163 - 170

Abstrakt

Abstract

Loessification is a process by which a body of non-loess ground is transformed into a body of loess ground. The history of loessification is one of controversy and confrontation, largely because of mutual misunderstandings between geologists and pedologists. Lev S. Berg is the ‘only begetter’ of the theory, first proposed in 1916, and propagated throughout his life. R.J. Russell proposed the same approach to the loess in the Lower Mississippi valley in his famous 1944 paper, which contributed enormously to the study of loess in North America. As understanding of the various processes involved in the formation of loess deposits has developed, a compromise position on loess formation has become possible. The major intrinsic features of loess deposits are the open structure and the collapsibility. It appears that the open structure is caused by aeolian depositional processes and the collapsibility is caused by loessification processes. The compromise was initiated by Marton Pécsi in 1990, He endeavoured to retain a loessification aspect in the study of loess deposits, as the subject appeared to be overwhelmed by the aeolian idea system promoted by geologists; it has been mostly a Central European endeavour. The history of the concept of loessification largely involves (1) its development in Russia, (2) its dissemination and discussion – and attempts at refutation and modification – in the wider world.

Słowa kluczowe

  • loess origin
  • soil processes
  • L.S. Berg
  • R.J. Russell
  • M. Pécsi
Otwarty dostęp

Book reviews

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 171 - 172

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Geoheritage and geotourism. A European perspective

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 173 - 174

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Past glacial environments (Second edition)

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 175 - 176

Abstrakt

9 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Application of geostatistical analyst methods in discovering concealed gold and pathfinder elements as geochemical anomalies related to ore mineralisation

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 95 - 109

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study area in the West Junggar Basin is known to be rich in hydrothermal gold deposits and occurrences, even though there has been minimum exploration in the area. It is here hypothesised that this area could host more gold deposits if mineral exploration methods were to be reinforced. This research is aimed at identifying geochemical anomalies of Au, and determining possible factors and conditions which facilitate the formation of anomalies by referring to As and Hg as gold pathfinders. Geostatistical analyst techniques have been applied to 9,852 stream sediments and bedrock data collected on a total surface of 1,280 km2 of West Junggar, Xinjiang (northwest China). The kriging interpolation and quantile-quantile plot methods, combined with statistical methods, successfully identified both Au and its pathfinders’ anomalies. In the present study, median was considered as background values (10.2 ppm for As, 9.13 ppb for Hg and 2.5 ppb for Au), whereas the 95th percentile were threshold values (28.03 ppm for As, 16.71 ppb for Hg and 8.2 ppb for Au) and values greater than thresholds are geochemical anomalies. Moreover, the high concentrations of these three discovered elements are caused primarily by hydrothermal ore mineralisation and are found to be controlled mainly by the Hatu and Sartohay faults of a northeast-southwesterly direction as well as their related secondary faults of variable orientation, which facilitate the easy flow of hydrothermal fluids towards the surface resulting in the formation of geochemical anomalies. Most of anomalies concentration of Au are found near the mining sites, which indicates that the formation of new Au anomalies is influenced by current or previous mining sites through geological or weathering processes. In addition, the low concentration of gold and its pathfinders found far from active gold mine or faults indicates that those anomalies are formed due to primary dispersion of hosting rock.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Geochemical anomalies
  • geostatistical analyst
  • kriging interpolation
  • quantile-quantile plot
Otwarty dostęp

Characteristic trace fossils from Miocene brackish-water deposits in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 111 - 125

Abstrakt

Abstract

Miocene deposits in the eastern portion of the Greater Ughelli, Central Swamp and Coastal Swamp depobelts contain well-developed brackish-water trace fossil assemblages. Twelve ichnogenera have been identified, namely: Asterosoma, Bergaueria, Chondrites, Gyrolithes, Thalassinoides, Lockeia, Palaeophycus, ?Conichnus, Planolites, Siphonichnus, Skolithos and Diplocraterion. In addition, common non-descript, passively filled burrows and fugichnia (escape structures) have also been observed. The above-mentioned ichnogenera and associated non-descript structures can be arranged into six distinct and recurring ichnoassociations within the Greater Ughelli, Central Swamp and Coastal Swamp depobelts. Each ichnoassociation is comprised of a group of trace fossils which collectively reflect specific environmental conditions during deposition of these Miocene strata. All trace fossil assemblages illustrate deposition in nearshore, restricted settings. Ichnological and sedimentological criteria which may be utilized to recognise brackish-water deposits are discussed and illustrated in pictures of the cores studied.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Ichnoassociations
  • ichnology
  • salinity
  • Greater Ughelli
  • Central Swamp
  • Coastal Swamp
  • Neogene
Otwarty dostęp

New palynological data for Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) deep-marine sandstones of the Western Caucasus, southwestern Russia

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 127 - 136

Abstrakt

Abstract

Information on Jurassic palynomorphs from the Greater Caucasus is potentially of great importance, but its availability to the international research community is severely limited. New palynological data for Toarcian deposits of the Western Caucasus are recorded in the present paper. Particularly, dinoflagellate cysts are described for the first time from the Bagovskaja Formation; palynomorphs are found in sandstone levels within this unit. The most representative assemblage includes pollen (with predominant bisaccate pollen), spores (Cyathidites being commonest), and dinoflagellate cysts amongst which the predominant taxon is Nannoceratopsis spiculata. The dinocyst assemblage implies a late Toarcian age for the upper part of the Bagovskaja Formation. On the basis of these new palynostratigraphical results, the range of the formation is extended; previously, only the lower part had been dated on ammonite evidence.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dinoflagellate cysts
  • pollen and spores
  • sandstones
  • Jurassic
  • Greater Caucasus
Otwarty dostęp

Facies characterisation of a shallow-water deltaic succession: the Upper Jurassic Wagad Sandstone Formation of Kachchh, western India

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 137 - 150

Abstrakt

Abstract

Ancient deltaic facies are difficult to differentiate from tidally influenced shallow-marine facies. The Wagad Sandstone Formation of the Wagad Highland (eastern Kachchh Basin) is typified by offshore and deltaic facies with sedimentary characteristics that represent different conditions of hydrodynamics and related depositional processes. The study area, the Adhoi Anticline, constitutes a ~154-m-thick, shale-dominated sequence with progressive upward intercalations of bioturbated micritic sandstone and quartz arenite. Two thick Astarte beds (sandy allochemic limestone), with an erosional base and gravel blanketing, illustrate tidal amplification and high-energy stochastic events such as storms. Sedimentological characteristics document three depositional facies: an offshore, shale-dominated sequence prograding to proximal prodeltaic micritic sandstone and quartz arenite with sandy allochemic limestones, further prograding to mouth bars and abandoned channel deposits. The Wagad Sandstone Formation displays depositional environmental conditions that are dissimilar from those of coeval deposits in Kachchh sub-basins as well as on regional and global scales. This is attributed to a reactivation of the Kachchh Mainland and South Wagad faults which resulted in detachment and uplift of the Wagad block which then experienced prograding deltaic conditions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Lithofacies
  • Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian
  • offshore
  • shallow-water delta
  • South Wagad Fault
Otwarty dostęp

Prospects and limitations of heavy mineral analyses to discriminate preglacial/glacial transitions in Pleistocene sedimentary successions

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 151 - 162

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present study revolves around the identification of the stratigraphical boundary between Pleistocene formations that formed prior to the first advance of the Scandinavian ice sheet (Early Pleistocene, i.e., the so-called preglacial) and the overlying, glacially derived deposits (Middle Pleistocene). In particular, it focuses on variation in heavy mineral assemblages, which are an important tool for stratigraphers. The Neogene basement, described here, was most often the source of material that was redeposited by Early Pleistocene rivers. The geological structure and Early Pleistocene palaeogeographical scenarios for various Polish regions are discussed. Moreover, comparisons with other European preglacial formations are carried out. The mineral spectrum of Lower Pleistocene deposits is largely dependent of rocks of the Neogene and Mesozoic basement. If the incision of ancient catchments was into terrigenous rocks, the stratigraphical boundary between preglacial and glacial formations is easily determined with the help of a heavy mineral analysis. As a rule, this coincides with a noticeable change from resistant to non-resistant mineral associations. Such cases are noted for successions in central Poland and eastern England. On the other hand, outcrops of igneous or metamorphic rocks exist within preglacial river catchments in most parts of Europe. They were the local sources of non-resistant heavy minerals long before their glacial supply from the Baltic Shield. In these cases, mineralogical analysis fails in the search for the Early/Middle Pleistocene transition.

Słowa kluczowe

  • river networks
  • fluvial deposits
  • stratigraphy
  • Early Pleistocene
  • Poland
Otwarty dostęp

The formation of loess ground by the process of loessification: a history of the concept

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 163 - 170

Abstrakt

Abstract

Loessification is a process by which a body of non-loess ground is transformed into a body of loess ground. The history of loessification is one of controversy and confrontation, largely because of mutual misunderstandings between geologists and pedologists. Lev S. Berg is the ‘only begetter’ of the theory, first proposed in 1916, and propagated throughout his life. R.J. Russell proposed the same approach to the loess in the Lower Mississippi valley in his famous 1944 paper, which contributed enormously to the study of loess in North America. As understanding of the various processes involved in the formation of loess deposits has developed, a compromise position on loess formation has become possible. The major intrinsic features of loess deposits are the open structure and the collapsibility. It appears that the open structure is caused by aeolian depositional processes and the collapsibility is caused by loessification processes. The compromise was initiated by Marton Pécsi in 1990, He endeavoured to retain a loessification aspect in the study of loess deposits, as the subject appeared to be overwhelmed by the aeolian idea system promoted by geologists; it has been mostly a Central European endeavour. The history of the concept of loessification largely involves (1) its development in Russia, (2) its dissemination and discussion – and attempts at refutation and modification – in the wider world.

Słowa kluczowe

  • loess origin
  • soil processes
  • L.S. Berg
  • R.J. Russell
  • M. Pécsi
Otwarty dostęp

Book reviews

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 171 - 172

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Geoheritage and geotourism. A European perspective

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 173 - 174

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Past glacial environments (Second edition)

Data publikacji: 04 Oct 2018
Zakres stron: 175 - 176

Abstrakt

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