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Heavy-mineral analysis as a tool in earth-scientific research

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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2080-6574
Pierwsze wydanie
24 Dec 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 23 (2017): Zeszyt 2 (June 2017)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2080-6574
Pierwsze wydanie
24 Dec 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

9 Artykułów

Research Papers

Otwarty dostęp

Ornamentation of dermal bones of Placodermi from the Lower Devonian of Morocco as a measure of biodiversity

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 65 - 73

Abstrakt

Abstract

Dermal bones are formed early during growth and thus constitute an important tool in studies of ontogenetic and evolutionary changes amongst early vertebrates. Ornamentation of dermal bones of terrestrial vertebrates is often used as a taxonomic tool, for instance in Aetosauria, extant lungfishes (Dipnoi) and ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), for which it have been proved to be of use in differentiating specimens to species level. However, it has not been utilised to the same extent in placoderms. Several features of the ornamentation of Early Devonian placoderms from Hamar Laghdad (Morocco) were examined using both optical and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether it is possible to distinguish armoured Palaeozoic fishes. Four distinct morphotypes, based on ornamentation of dermal bones, are differentiated. These distinct types of ornamentation may be the result of either different location of dermal plates on the body or of ontogenetic (intraspecific) and/or interspecific variation.

Keywords

  • Arthrodira
  • interspecific variation
  • ontogeny
  • fishes
  • North Africa
Otwarty dostęp

Middle Jurassic–Early Cretaceous foraminiferal biozonation of the Amran Group, eastern Sana’a Basin, Yemen

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 75 - 87

Abstrakt

Abstract

Two sections of strata assigned to the Amran Group at Jabal Salab and Jabal Yam in the eastern Sana’a governorate were sampled and correlated. These sections are part of a carbonate platform that extends from the city of Marib in the east to Naqil Ibn Ghailan, 20 km east of the city of Sana’a to the west. Palaeontological analysis of samples recovered has resulted in identification of 123 foraminiferal species, which are used to subdivide the sequence of the Amran Group into five biostratigraphic zones, aged between Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) and Berriasian (Early Cretaceous). The proposed biozones are those of Riyadhella rotundata, Kurnubia jurassica, Ammomarginulina sinaica, Alveosepta jaccardi and Pseudocyclammina sulaiyana/Furitilla caspianseis. These biozones were constructed and correlated with the equivalent zones reported from several localities.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Biostratigraphy
  • Bathonian
  • Berriasian
  • Jabal Salab
  • Jabal Yam
Otwarty dostęp

Evolution of Early Pleistocene fluvial systems in central Poland prior to the first ice sheet advance – a case study from the Bełchatów lignite mine

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 89 - 107

Abstrakt

Abstract

Deposits formed between the Neogene/Pleistocene transition and into the Early Pleistocene have been studied, mainly on the basis of drillings and at rare, small outcrops in the lowland part of Polish territory. At the Bełchatów lignite mine (Kleszczów Graben, central Poland), one of the largest opencast pits in Europe, strata of this age have long been exposed in extensive outcrops. The present paper is based on our field studies and laboratory analyses, as well as on research data presented by other authors. For that reason, it can be seen as an overview of current knowledge of lowermost Pleistocene deposits at Bełchatów, where exploitation of the Quaternary overburden has just been completed. The results of cartographic work, sedimentological, mineralogical and palynological analyses as well as assessment of sand grain morphology have been considered. All of these studies have allowed the distinction of three Lower Pleistocene series, i.e., the Łękińsko, Faustynów and Krzaki series. These were laid down in fluvial environments between the end of the Pliocene up to the advance of the first Scandinavian ice sheet on central Poland. The following environmental features have been interpreted: phases of river incision and aggradation, changes of river channel patterns, source sediments for alluvia, rates of aeolian supply to rivers and roles of fluvial systems in morphological and geological development of the area. The two older series studied, i.e., Łękińsko and Faustynów, share common characteristics. They were formed by sinuous rivers in boreal forest and open forest environments. The Neogene substratum was the source of the alluvium. The younger series (Krzaki) formed mainly in a braided river setting, under conditions of progressive climatic cooling. Over time, a gradual increase of aeolian supply to the fluvial system can be noted; initially, silt and sand were laid down, followed by sand only during cold desert conditions. These fluvio-periglacial conditions are identified in the foreground of the advance of the oldest ice sheet into this part of central Poland. The series studied have been compared with other fluvial successions which accumulated in the Kleszczów Graben during subsequent glaciations so as to document general changes in fluvial systems as reactions to climatic evolution. Thus, a palaeoenvironmental scenario has emerged which could be considered to be characteristic of central Poland during the Early Pleistocene.

Keywords

  • Quaternary
  • preglacial
  • fluvial-aeolian interaction
  • heavy minerals
  • quartz grain morphology
  • sedimentology
  • palaeoclimate
Otwarty dostęp

A hitherto unknown river type from the Archaean at Bhurkuli (Jharkhand, E India)

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 109 - 122

Abstrakt

Abstract

The Archaean granitoid pluton of the Singhbhum craton in E India is overlain by Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic metasediments. These sediments are still poorly known and their stratigraphy is under debate. Several scattered, most probably Meso- to Neoarchaean, conglomerates are present in the state of Jharkhand that differ so much in characteristics that they are probably not related to each other. The sedimentology of a series of conglomerate patches and layers near Bhurkuli has been investigated, including the characteristics of the clasts. It is deduced on the basis of these characteristics and the sedimentological context that the Bhurkuli conglomerates represent the channel facies of a river system that differed from the types of fluvial systems that exist nowadays.

Słowa kluczowe

  • conglomerates
  • fluvial system
  • pebble characteristics
  • Precambrian
  • Singhbhum Craton
Otwarty dostęp

Hydraulic conductivity changes in river valley sediments caused by river bank filtration – an analysis of specific well capacity

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 123 - 129

Abstrakt

Abstract

Parameters from archive data of the Kalisz-Lis waterworks, located in the Prosna River valley south of Kalisz, have been analysed. Well barrier discharges groundwater from Quaternary sediments which is mixed with riverbank filtration water. The analysis focused on specific well capacity, a parameter that represents the technical and natural aspects of well life. To exclude any aging factor, an examination of specific well capacity acquired only in the first pumping tests of a new well was performed. The results show that wells drilled between 1961 and 2004 have similar values of specific well capacity and prove that > 40 years discharge has had little influence on hydrodynamic conditions of the aquifer, i.e., clogging has either not occurred or is of low intensity. This implies that, in the total water balance of the Kalisz- Lis well barrier, riverbank filtration water made little contribution. In comparison, a similar analysis of archive data on the Mosina-Krajkowo wells of two generations of well barriers located in the Warta flood plains was performed; this has revealed a different trend. There was a significant drop in specific well capacity from the first pumping test of substitute wells. Thus, long-term groundwater discharge in the Warta valley has had a great impact on the reduction of the hydraulic conductivity of sediments and has worsened hydrodynamic conditions due to clogging of river bed and aquifer, which implies a large contribution of riverbank filtration water in the total water well balance. For both well fields conclusions were corroborated by mathematical modeling; in Kalisz-Lis 16.2% of water comes from riverbank filtration, whereas the percentage for Mosina-Krajkowo is 78.9%.

Keywords

  • hydrology
  • well fields
  • river valleys
  • water well balance
  • clogging
  • Poland
Otwarty dostęp

Six days in July: Charles Lyell in the Eifel in 1831 (possibly looking at loess)

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 131 - 136

Abstrakt

Abstract

Charles Lyell made a geological excursion to the Eifel region in Germany in July 1831. He went to examine volcanic rocks and volcanic landscapes. He discussed this outing with Mary Somerville and Samuel & Charlotte Hibbert. It is possible that he observed loess in the Eifel. It is hoped that his Eifel notebook is with the Lyell papers at Kinnordy and that it may be transcribed and published. Lyell spread the word on loess; Von Leonard invented it and Horner enthused about it but Lyell disseminated the essential idea of loess. There is (so far) no clear evidence that Lyell saw and appreciated loess in the Eifel region in 1831. This suggests that his first real encounter with the loess (ground or concept) was in the discussions with the Hibberts in September 1831. He certainly had substantial (reported) encounters in 1832, and was definitely interested by the time of the publication of the Principles of Geology vol. 3 in 1833.

Keywords

  • Charles Lyell
  • 1831 geological excursion to Eifel region
  • volcanic landscapes
  • loess occurrences
  • Leonard Horner
  • Samuel Hibbert

Book reviews

Otwarty dostęp

Geomorphology in the Anthropocene

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 137 - 138

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Structural Geology (2nd edition)

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 139 - 140

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Die fossilen Brachiopoden der Schweiz und der umliegenden Gebiete

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 2

Abstrakt

9 Artykułów

Research Papers

Otwarty dostęp

Ornamentation of dermal bones of Placodermi from the Lower Devonian of Morocco as a measure of biodiversity

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 65 - 73

Abstrakt

Abstract

Dermal bones are formed early during growth and thus constitute an important tool in studies of ontogenetic and evolutionary changes amongst early vertebrates. Ornamentation of dermal bones of terrestrial vertebrates is often used as a taxonomic tool, for instance in Aetosauria, extant lungfishes (Dipnoi) and ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), for which it have been proved to be of use in differentiating specimens to species level. However, it has not been utilised to the same extent in placoderms. Several features of the ornamentation of Early Devonian placoderms from Hamar Laghdad (Morocco) were examined using both optical and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether it is possible to distinguish armoured Palaeozoic fishes. Four distinct morphotypes, based on ornamentation of dermal bones, are differentiated. These distinct types of ornamentation may be the result of either different location of dermal plates on the body or of ontogenetic (intraspecific) and/or interspecific variation.

Keywords

  • Arthrodira
  • interspecific variation
  • ontogeny
  • fishes
  • North Africa
Otwarty dostęp

Middle Jurassic–Early Cretaceous foraminiferal biozonation of the Amran Group, eastern Sana’a Basin, Yemen

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 75 - 87

Abstrakt

Abstract

Two sections of strata assigned to the Amran Group at Jabal Salab and Jabal Yam in the eastern Sana’a governorate were sampled and correlated. These sections are part of a carbonate platform that extends from the city of Marib in the east to Naqil Ibn Ghailan, 20 km east of the city of Sana’a to the west. Palaeontological analysis of samples recovered has resulted in identification of 123 foraminiferal species, which are used to subdivide the sequence of the Amran Group into five biostratigraphic zones, aged between Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) and Berriasian (Early Cretaceous). The proposed biozones are those of Riyadhella rotundata, Kurnubia jurassica, Ammomarginulina sinaica, Alveosepta jaccardi and Pseudocyclammina sulaiyana/Furitilla caspianseis. These biozones were constructed and correlated with the equivalent zones reported from several localities.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Biostratigraphy
  • Bathonian
  • Berriasian
  • Jabal Salab
  • Jabal Yam
Otwarty dostęp

Evolution of Early Pleistocene fluvial systems in central Poland prior to the first ice sheet advance – a case study from the Bełchatów lignite mine

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 89 - 107

Abstrakt

Abstract

Deposits formed between the Neogene/Pleistocene transition and into the Early Pleistocene have been studied, mainly on the basis of drillings and at rare, small outcrops in the lowland part of Polish territory. At the Bełchatów lignite mine (Kleszczów Graben, central Poland), one of the largest opencast pits in Europe, strata of this age have long been exposed in extensive outcrops. The present paper is based on our field studies and laboratory analyses, as well as on research data presented by other authors. For that reason, it can be seen as an overview of current knowledge of lowermost Pleistocene deposits at Bełchatów, where exploitation of the Quaternary overburden has just been completed. The results of cartographic work, sedimentological, mineralogical and palynological analyses as well as assessment of sand grain morphology have been considered. All of these studies have allowed the distinction of three Lower Pleistocene series, i.e., the Łękińsko, Faustynów and Krzaki series. These were laid down in fluvial environments between the end of the Pliocene up to the advance of the first Scandinavian ice sheet on central Poland. The following environmental features have been interpreted: phases of river incision and aggradation, changes of river channel patterns, source sediments for alluvia, rates of aeolian supply to rivers and roles of fluvial systems in morphological and geological development of the area. The two older series studied, i.e., Łękińsko and Faustynów, share common characteristics. They were formed by sinuous rivers in boreal forest and open forest environments. The Neogene substratum was the source of the alluvium. The younger series (Krzaki) formed mainly in a braided river setting, under conditions of progressive climatic cooling. Over time, a gradual increase of aeolian supply to the fluvial system can be noted; initially, silt and sand were laid down, followed by sand only during cold desert conditions. These fluvio-periglacial conditions are identified in the foreground of the advance of the oldest ice sheet into this part of central Poland. The series studied have been compared with other fluvial successions which accumulated in the Kleszczów Graben during subsequent glaciations so as to document general changes in fluvial systems as reactions to climatic evolution. Thus, a palaeoenvironmental scenario has emerged which could be considered to be characteristic of central Poland during the Early Pleistocene.

Keywords

  • Quaternary
  • preglacial
  • fluvial-aeolian interaction
  • heavy minerals
  • quartz grain morphology
  • sedimentology
  • palaeoclimate
Otwarty dostęp

A hitherto unknown river type from the Archaean at Bhurkuli (Jharkhand, E India)

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 109 - 122

Abstrakt

Abstract

The Archaean granitoid pluton of the Singhbhum craton in E India is overlain by Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic metasediments. These sediments are still poorly known and their stratigraphy is under debate. Several scattered, most probably Meso- to Neoarchaean, conglomerates are present in the state of Jharkhand that differ so much in characteristics that they are probably not related to each other. The sedimentology of a series of conglomerate patches and layers near Bhurkuli has been investigated, including the characteristics of the clasts. It is deduced on the basis of these characteristics and the sedimentological context that the Bhurkuli conglomerates represent the channel facies of a river system that differed from the types of fluvial systems that exist nowadays.

Słowa kluczowe

  • conglomerates
  • fluvial system
  • pebble characteristics
  • Precambrian
  • Singhbhum Craton
Otwarty dostęp

Hydraulic conductivity changes in river valley sediments caused by river bank filtration – an analysis of specific well capacity

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 123 - 129

Abstrakt

Abstract

Parameters from archive data of the Kalisz-Lis waterworks, located in the Prosna River valley south of Kalisz, have been analysed. Well barrier discharges groundwater from Quaternary sediments which is mixed with riverbank filtration water. The analysis focused on specific well capacity, a parameter that represents the technical and natural aspects of well life. To exclude any aging factor, an examination of specific well capacity acquired only in the first pumping tests of a new well was performed. The results show that wells drilled between 1961 and 2004 have similar values of specific well capacity and prove that > 40 years discharge has had little influence on hydrodynamic conditions of the aquifer, i.e., clogging has either not occurred or is of low intensity. This implies that, in the total water balance of the Kalisz- Lis well barrier, riverbank filtration water made little contribution. In comparison, a similar analysis of archive data on the Mosina-Krajkowo wells of two generations of well barriers located in the Warta flood plains was performed; this has revealed a different trend. There was a significant drop in specific well capacity from the first pumping test of substitute wells. Thus, long-term groundwater discharge in the Warta valley has had a great impact on the reduction of the hydraulic conductivity of sediments and has worsened hydrodynamic conditions due to clogging of river bed and aquifer, which implies a large contribution of riverbank filtration water in the total water well balance. For both well fields conclusions were corroborated by mathematical modeling; in Kalisz-Lis 16.2% of water comes from riverbank filtration, whereas the percentage for Mosina-Krajkowo is 78.9%.

Keywords

  • hydrology
  • well fields
  • river valleys
  • water well balance
  • clogging
  • Poland
Otwarty dostęp

Six days in July: Charles Lyell in the Eifel in 1831 (possibly looking at loess)

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 131 - 136

Abstrakt

Abstract

Charles Lyell made a geological excursion to the Eifel region in Germany in July 1831. He went to examine volcanic rocks and volcanic landscapes. He discussed this outing with Mary Somerville and Samuel & Charlotte Hibbert. It is possible that he observed loess in the Eifel. It is hoped that his Eifel notebook is with the Lyell papers at Kinnordy and that it may be transcribed and published. Lyell spread the word on loess; Von Leonard invented it and Horner enthused about it but Lyell disseminated the essential idea of loess. There is (so far) no clear evidence that Lyell saw and appreciated loess in the Eifel region in 1831. This suggests that his first real encounter with the loess (ground or concept) was in the discussions with the Hibberts in September 1831. He certainly had substantial (reported) encounters in 1832, and was definitely interested by the time of the publication of the Principles of Geology vol. 3 in 1833.

Keywords

  • Charles Lyell
  • 1831 geological excursion to Eifel region
  • volcanic landscapes
  • loess occurrences
  • Leonard Horner
  • Samuel Hibbert

Book reviews

Otwarty dostęp

Geomorphology in the Anthropocene

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 137 - 138

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Structural Geology (2nd edition)

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 139 - 140

Abstrakt

Otwarty dostęp

Die fossilen Brachiopoden der Schweiz und der umliegenden Gebiete

Data publikacji: 23 Sep 2017
Zakres stron: 1 - 2

Abstrakt

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