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Tom 26 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (January 2022)

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Tom 24 (2020): Zeszyt 3 (September 2020)

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Tom 23 (2019): Zeszyt 4 (December 2019)

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Tom 23 (2019): Zeszyt 2 (June 2019)

Tom 23 (2019): Zeszyt 1 (March 2019)

Tom 22 (2018): Zeszyt 4 (December 2018)

Tom 22 (2018): Zeszyt 3 (September 2018)

Tom 22 (2018): Zeszyt 2 (July 2018)

Tom 22 (2018): Zeszyt 1 (March 2018)

Tom 21 (2017): Zeszyt 4 (December 2017)

Tom 21 (2017): Zeszyt 3 (September 2017)

Tom 21 (2017): Zeszyt 2 (July 2017)

Tom 21 (2017): Zeszyt 1 (March 2017)

Tom 20 (2016): Zeszyt 4 (December 2016)

Tom 20 (2016): Zeszyt 3 (September 2016)

Tom 20 (2016): Zeszyt 2 (July 2016)

Tom 20 (2016): Zeszyt 1 (April 2016)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2449-5999
Pierwsze wydanie
12 Mar 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 26 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (January 2022)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2449-5999
Pierwsze wydanie
12 Mar 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

13 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of the Impact of Tractor Field Works on Changes in Selected Elements of Engine Oils

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2022
Zakres stron: 1 - 12

Abstrakt

Abstract

Tractors are used for various types of field work, as well as for transport on public roads, in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The main goal of the study was to analyze the changes of trace elements in engine oil during various field works. For this purpose, engine oils from two tractors were selected for the study. These tractors were coupled with: a cultivator, a reversible plow, a tillage-sowing unit, and a trailer. The samples were taken at the beginning and after the field work with a given unit was completed. The instrumental chemical analysis method HDXRF was used to determine changes in the content of the trace elements: Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Ca, P, Zn, and Mo in the engine oil. The comparison of oil from tractors coupled with various agricultural machines allowed the conclusion that the distribution of the consumption of tested metals, as well as the concentrations of individual elements, differed significantly depending on the coupled machine. The research showed that agricultural treatments with a cultivator caused the highest percentage of wear-induced changes in the content of metal elements such as Cr, Cu, and Pb. On the other hand, the operation of a tractor coupled with a tillage-sowing unit resulted in the vehicle’s accelerated wear.

Słowa kluczowe

  • engine oil
  • degradation
  • farm tractor
  • agricultural machine
  • operation wear
access type Otwarty dostęp

Practical Potential of Grain Impurities in the Processing of Sunflower Oil Raw Materials in the Oil and Fat Industry

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2022
Zakres stron: 13 - 23

Abstrakt

Abstract

The analysis of statistical data showed that a large amount of plant waste is generated annually in oil and fat production plants, which must be processed and reused. The paper analyzes the problems of reusing sunflower oil production waste, which is characterized by a relatively high energy value: 1 ton of plant waste is equivalent to 0.625 tons of conventional fuel. According to the mathematical estimation, the actual total amount of impurities is 7.29%, in which major impurities constitute 25.7%. Studies have shown a high probability of oil – containing impurities – 37.25%. Therefore, it is recommended to process such impurities into fuel briquettes and technical oil to increase the profitability of sunflower oil production. For example, at the annual load of technological equipment of the Melitopol Oil Extraction Plant, in 250 days, at a daily processing capacity of 550 t˙day-1, an annual profit of 560,000 EUR is obtainable from the sunflower grain impurities processed into fuel and technical oil.

Słowa kluczowe

  • practical potential
  • oil and fat industry
  • sunflower oil raw materials
  • grain impurities
  • fuels
access type Otwarty dostęp

Modelling Wheat Grain Flow During Sowing Based on the Model of Grain with Shifted Center of Gravity

Data publikacji: 07 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 25 - 37

Abstrakt

Abstract

Winter wheat is one of the widespread crops in Ukraine. The search for methods to increase the yield and consumer properties of wheat, without compromising environmental safety, is one of the important scientific problems. The principles of precision agriculture point to the proper positioning of the seeds, recommending the method of “upward germination” (positioning the wheat germ vertically). The main objective of this study was to develop a new geometric model of wheat grain with a displaced centre of mass, as well as to conduct the theoretical research and numerical experiments on the orientation of grains using their multiple impact interaction with inclined surfaces. A new model of germ consisting of two different end semispheres and amid-line truncated cone was proposed, with a displaced centre of mass. Taking into account the physical properties of the objects, the concept of arrangement of gravity orientation of seeds in a stream was applied. This concept was based on various ratios of kinetic parameters of bodies with a displaced centre of gravity following an impact. The results showed that the orientation process can be controlled by changing the inclination angles and the length of the walls of the tray orientator within the working velocity range. This must be done before impact interaction of 0.2-0.3 m s−1 when the inclination angles of the impact interaction planes are 24-32°C.

Słowa kluczowe

  • germ
  • grain model
  • impact of orientation
  • seed orientation
  • winter wheat
access type Otwarty dostęp

Methodical Aspects of Soil Ecosystem Services Valuation

Data publikacji: 07 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 39 - 49

Abstrakt

Abstract

Ecosystem Services Valuation is an important tool for dialogue in the decision-making process and to highlight the society’s dependence on the biosphere for well-being. Soil is the primary source of ecosystem services such as the production of food and regulating the climate, however the methodological alternatives for valuing soil ecosystem services remain poorly studied. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate methodical aspects of ecosystem services valuation, with the special attention to soil services within agricultural context. We introduce frameworks specific for soil ecosystem services. Then, we present a case study where soil ecosystem services were evaluated within agricultural context. We conclude that such valuation represents the newest trend in soil science wherein soil resources are treated in the wider context of impacts on human well-being.

Słowa kluczowe

  • agricultural systems
  • biochar
  • methods
  • frameworks
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Grain Cleaning Production Lines’ Energysaving Operation Modes of Electromechanical Systems

Data publikacji: 05 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 51 - 63

Abstrakt

Abstract

The research was aimed at reducing the power consumption for grain cleaning by using energy-saving modes in the electromechanical systems of grain cleaning units. Specific consumption of active energy per production unit was adopted as a criterion for assessing energy-saving operation modes. The applied method of mathematical experiment planning (MEP) reduced the number of experiments to a minimum to obtain a reliable mathematical model of the research object. To determine the optimal specific power consumption, a theoretical method was developed to rebuild the mathematical model. Thus, the minimum specific power consumption of grain cleaning production lines was obtained, which allowed developing science-based rates of power usage that allow energy savings up to 8-10%.

Słowa kluczowe

  • energy saving
  • energy intensity
  • energy rationing
  • optimization
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Analysis of the New Farm Tractors Market in Poland in 2010-2020 in the Context of Income Generated by Farmers’ Households

Data publikacji: 06 May 2022
Zakres stron: 65 - 79

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to analyse changes in the new farm tractor market in Poland and the annual income of farmers’ households generated in the same period. The studies covered the period from 2010 to 2020. The new farm tractors market was analysed with reference to the number of sold tractors, which was measured by the number of registrations. The paper considers quarterly seasonality of sale along with demand for selected producers and engine-power categories of new farm tractors sold in Poland. By “new tractors” the authors mean those registered for the first time in Poland and manufactured in the same or the preceding year. In 2010-2020, there were over 148,000 new farm tractors registered in Poland. The highest number of tractors sold was recorded in 2012, the lowest in 2016. Tractors from Western Europe, USA, and Japan predominate on the Polish market. Among new vehicles, the highest number registered in the investigated period constituted New Holland (23,780) tractors, followed by John Deere (19,453), Zetor (16,398), Deutz-Fahr (10,508), and Kubota (7,674). The total share of these producers in 2010-2020 amounted to approx. 58%. With regard to the engine-power categories in the analysed period, tractors with power of 37-73 kW and 74-132 kW (33.85%) constituted the largest proportion (49.07%). An increased interest in tractors with power below 36 kW was also observed from 2016 to 2020. Such vehicles accounted for 10% of all registrations. The general trend related to the volume of average annual income is not consistent with the trend of purchasing new farm tractors, while the highest number of registrations was recorded during the period in which inflation rates reached their highest values.

Słowa kluczowe

  • farm tractor
  • tractor market
  • sales of farm tractors in Poland
  • registration
  • income
access type Otwarty dostęp

Verification of the Measurement System in a Production Organization

Data publikacji: 06 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 81 - 90

Abstrakt

Abstract

Monitoring the accuracy of meters by qualified workers and managers is a preventive measure of every organization. The paper focuses on monitoring the accuracy of measuring devices and proposes preventive and corrective actions. The discussed measurement device was tested for accuracy using accuracy indexes Cg and Cgk. The identified deviations in measurements showed that the meter was not fully efficient. Consequently, actions were taken to ensuring that the measurement device is accurate.

Słowa kluczowe

  • accuracy of measurement device
  • repeatability
  • reproducibility
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Influence of Wave Processes of Hydraulic Oils on the Operation of a Hydraulic Drive

Data publikacji: 20 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 91 - 104

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper reviews the state of research of wave processes in hydraulic systems of machines, and their impact on the quality and stability of hydraulic drives. As noted in the works of previous researchers, these phenomena occur in hydraulic systems and adversely affect the quality and stability of their work, significantly reducing reliability. The method of construction of mathematical models is offered. A mathematical model of the hydraulic system with two series-connected hydraulic motors is built, taking into account transients. The Runge-Kutta-Feldberg method with automatic change of the integration step was used to solve this model. The application of this method makes it possible to estimate the amplitude and frequency of the pressure wave in real time for each part of the pipeline. As a result of the analysis of the obtained transients it was concluded that at the length of the pressure line in a group hydraulic drive with 2 series-connected hydraulic motors up to 1.5 m, wave processes do not significantly affect the system and in the mathematical model they can be ignored. With the length of the pressure line from 1.5 m to 9 m, the wave processes in the cavity do not affect the stability of the system, although significantly impair the quality of its work. Hydraulic systems with a pressure line length of more than 9 m are not recommended for implementation, because the wave processes in the cavity lead to vibrations and noise in the hydraulic system and require additional measures to eliminate the impact of this phenomenon.

Słowa kluczowe

  • hydraulic drives
  • mathematical modeling
  • Runge-Kutta-Feldberg method
  • wave processes
access type Otwarty dostęp

Reverse Engineering in Modeling Agricultural Products

Data publikacji: 20 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 105 - 117

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to use reverse engineering to model biological products, especially sugar beet root. In the process of creating the solid model, the appropriate tools available in the 3D design environment were applied. The 3D scan of the beet, in the form of a spatial point cloud, was used to project the root geometry. This was, in turn, used to construct a triangulation grid that includes nodal points of triangles. The subsequent steps presented the process of creating a solid model using the Interpolation Spline tool. Attention has been paid to the possibility of modifying the geometry by inserting additional points into the existing interpolation spline and changing angular position as well as the distance of the structural planes. Geometry mapping error values were determined with regard to the reference model depending on the spread value of the Structural Planes. Error courses are non-linear with a logarithmic line trend (surface field error) and a linear line trend (volume error). The effects demonstrated the usefulness of geometry projection and its applicability to support the strength testing of biological materials, with particular emphasis on dynamic tests using whole roots.

Słowa kluczowe

  • reverse engineering
  • 3D scan
  • interpolation spline
  • projection of sugar beet root geometry
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Adjuvant Concentration on Changes of Spray Characteristics and Spraying Parameters for Selected Types of Nozzles

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 119 - 132

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the research on the influence of the adjuvant concentration on the size of the drops produced by the spray nozzles of agricultural sprayers. For the tests, adjuvant Normaton with the composition of total nitrogen, amide nitrogen (N-NH2) and phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) was used. The adjuvant was added to the water taken from the municipal water supply system of the city of Lublin. The tests were carried out for three concentrations, i.e. 75%, 100%, and 125% of the adjuvant concentration recommended by the manufacturer, and water without the adjuvant. The surface tension of water with adjuvant was examined for each nozzle. Then, the size of the obtained droplets was measured for each adjuvant concentration. Two types of nozzles were used for spraying, standard nozzle AP 120-03 and 6MSC injector nozzle, both with the same nozzle flow rate, but with a different design. The size of the droplets produced was measured on a HELOSVARIO laser diffractometer by Sympatec. The droplet measurement was performed at a pressure of 3 bar. The nozzle was placed 50 cm above the diffractometer laser light line. The droplet size was measured in three places of the sprayed liquid, i.e. in the position of the nozzle axis, 30 and 60 cm from the nozzle axis. It was shown that the addition of the adjuvant influenced the number of droplets produced in the indicated droplet size classes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • volume median diameter
  • sauter mean diameter
  • relative span
  • adjuvant concentration
  • surface tension
  • droplet size
access type Otwarty dostęp

Innovative Technology of Accelerated Composting of Chicken Manure to Obtain an Organic Fertilizer with a High Content of Humic Acids

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 133 - 144

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of the most important fractions of soil organic matter which has significant environmental and agricultural importance is humus. The specific humus compounds of soil include the complex of amorphous organic humic substances which include humic acids, fulvic acids and humins. The effectiveness of the natural formation of active humic substances during composting processes depends on the chemical composition of organic residues and the environmental conditions influencing the development and activity of native microorganisms. The aim of the project was to build innovative composting boxes for chicken manure that allow to effectively obtain a fertilizer with the highest possible content of humic acids, by creating perfect and controlled conditions for the rapid development of indigenous thermophilic microorganisms and by combining it with the owned bio-acceleration technology. For perfect conditions (temperature, humidity, oxygen, pH) for the controlled growth of microorganisms, an algorithm of the dependence of the box operation parameters on the course of the biological process, was built. The product obtained after composting is an easily digestible complex organic fertilizer of brown-black colour, pH 7.5-8.0 and NPK 5:3:4 and a high content of native humic acids. Its use increases the growth of green mass of plants and improves soil fertility, which has been proved by the conducted pot research.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chicken manure
  • composting
  • aerobic bacteria
  • intelligent boxes
  • thermophilic and transformation phases
  • humic acids
  • fulvic acids
  • fertilizer
access type Otwarty dostęp

Leaching of Elements from Soil in Grassland Field Crops Treated with Raw and Acidified Slurry

Data publikacji: 13 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 145 - 156

Abstrakt

Abstract

The state of soils was presented in the aspect of environmental protection when using acidified slurry was used as fertilizer to protect ammonia from escaping into the atmosphere. The use of concentrated sulfuric acid to lower the pH of the slurry and thus retain nitrogen in the soil and then use it by crops gives a double benefit, reduces nitrogen losses, and reduces the cost of mineral fertilizers that should be purchased. Injecting raw slurry below the surface of the soil has some benefits in the form of reducing ammonia emissions, but it does not affect the use of fertilizers with the addition of sulfur, which is ensured in the case of acidification of the slurry. Additional benefit is to obtain environment protection. Leaching of elements from grassland and corn crop soil treated with raw cattle slurry and acidified cattle slurry (m3·ha−1) was presented. The K content was highest in the leachate collected after the application of the last batch of acidified slurry. Yield tests were conducted on similar soils as presented in the tables for grass, using six 500 m2 plots with corn, cultivar ES Cirrus, with acidified slurry and one test plot with non-acidified slurry. Analysis of variance and significant difference among the treatment means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at a probability level of 0.05. Based on statistical analysis, it was demonstrated that crop yields of corn grain increased when fertilized with acidified slurry, at an average of 4 t·ha−1. During field tests corn crop yield varied from 14 t·ha−1 to 18 t·ha−1 when non-acidified and acidified slurry were used. The yield on the grassland was approx. 30 t·ha−1. The soil sorption complex, in combination with its buffer properties and acidification, did not affected the pH value. This makes the acidification process safe for plants and for the soil environment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • leaching of elements
  • slurry
  • soils
  • slurry acidification
  • fertilizer
  • crops
access type Otwarty dostęp

Optimization of Parameters of a Vibroconveyor System for Infrared Drying of Soy

Data publikacji: 13 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 157 - 166

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper proposes a method to determine the optimal parameters for the drying of soybean using a kinematic vibration dryer. Among the main parameters of the investigated vibroconveyor are heat and mass transfer, physical and mechanical. The paper presents a mathematical model of the dependence of parameters of the soybean drying process of soybean built based on experimental data obtained by organizing an effective experiment plan with a sufficiently large number of factor levels. To determine the rational parameters for drying soybean, it is important to build the most accurate and adequate mathematical model, which will determine the most accurate values of the required parameters. For this purpose, it is recommended to conduct an experiment with as many levels of factors as possible. The article proposes an experiment established on a dedicated balanced orthogonal plan, which is optimal according to the D-efficiency criterion. Based on the experimental data, an adequate mathematical model of the dependence of the drying characteristics of soybean (moisture of the processed material (%), temperature inside the product layer (°С) on the parameters – vibration amplitude (mm), distance from the conveyor surface (mm), radiation power (Wt), weight (g·min−1). Following the analysis of the constructed mathematical model, optimal parameters of the developed vibroconveyor infrared dryer were substantiated. The main characteristics of the vibroconveryor mechanism of interoperational transportation of bulk products in the working area were also determined, and a technical and economic analysis of the developed oscillatory system was conducted.

Słowa kluczowe

  • experiment designs
  • D-efficiency criterion
  • mathematical model
  • drying
13 Artykułów
access type Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of the Impact of Tractor Field Works on Changes in Selected Elements of Engine Oils

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2022
Zakres stron: 1 - 12

Abstrakt

Abstract

Tractors are used for various types of field work, as well as for transport on public roads, in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The main goal of the study was to analyze the changes of trace elements in engine oil during various field works. For this purpose, engine oils from two tractors were selected for the study. These tractors were coupled with: a cultivator, a reversible plow, a tillage-sowing unit, and a trailer. The samples were taken at the beginning and after the field work with a given unit was completed. The instrumental chemical analysis method HDXRF was used to determine changes in the content of the trace elements: Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Ca, P, Zn, and Mo in the engine oil. The comparison of oil from tractors coupled with various agricultural machines allowed the conclusion that the distribution of the consumption of tested metals, as well as the concentrations of individual elements, differed significantly depending on the coupled machine. The research showed that agricultural treatments with a cultivator caused the highest percentage of wear-induced changes in the content of metal elements such as Cr, Cu, and Pb. On the other hand, the operation of a tractor coupled with a tillage-sowing unit resulted in the vehicle’s accelerated wear.

Słowa kluczowe

  • engine oil
  • degradation
  • farm tractor
  • agricultural machine
  • operation wear
access type Otwarty dostęp

Practical Potential of Grain Impurities in the Processing of Sunflower Oil Raw Materials in the Oil and Fat Industry

Data publikacji: 31 Jan 2022
Zakres stron: 13 - 23

Abstrakt

Abstract

The analysis of statistical data showed that a large amount of plant waste is generated annually in oil and fat production plants, which must be processed and reused. The paper analyzes the problems of reusing sunflower oil production waste, which is characterized by a relatively high energy value: 1 ton of plant waste is equivalent to 0.625 tons of conventional fuel. According to the mathematical estimation, the actual total amount of impurities is 7.29%, in which major impurities constitute 25.7%. Studies have shown a high probability of oil – containing impurities – 37.25%. Therefore, it is recommended to process such impurities into fuel briquettes and technical oil to increase the profitability of sunflower oil production. For example, at the annual load of technological equipment of the Melitopol Oil Extraction Plant, in 250 days, at a daily processing capacity of 550 t˙day-1, an annual profit of 560,000 EUR is obtainable from the sunflower grain impurities processed into fuel and technical oil.

Słowa kluczowe

  • practical potential
  • oil and fat industry
  • sunflower oil raw materials
  • grain impurities
  • fuels
access type Otwarty dostęp

Modelling Wheat Grain Flow During Sowing Based on the Model of Grain with Shifted Center of Gravity

Data publikacji: 07 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 25 - 37

Abstrakt

Abstract

Winter wheat is one of the widespread crops in Ukraine. The search for methods to increase the yield and consumer properties of wheat, without compromising environmental safety, is one of the important scientific problems. The principles of precision agriculture point to the proper positioning of the seeds, recommending the method of “upward germination” (positioning the wheat germ vertically). The main objective of this study was to develop a new geometric model of wheat grain with a displaced centre of mass, as well as to conduct the theoretical research and numerical experiments on the orientation of grains using their multiple impact interaction with inclined surfaces. A new model of germ consisting of two different end semispheres and amid-line truncated cone was proposed, with a displaced centre of mass. Taking into account the physical properties of the objects, the concept of arrangement of gravity orientation of seeds in a stream was applied. This concept was based on various ratios of kinetic parameters of bodies with a displaced centre of gravity following an impact. The results showed that the orientation process can be controlled by changing the inclination angles and the length of the walls of the tray orientator within the working velocity range. This must be done before impact interaction of 0.2-0.3 m s−1 when the inclination angles of the impact interaction planes are 24-32°C.

Słowa kluczowe

  • germ
  • grain model
  • impact of orientation
  • seed orientation
  • winter wheat
access type Otwarty dostęp

Methodical Aspects of Soil Ecosystem Services Valuation

Data publikacji: 07 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 39 - 49

Abstrakt

Abstract

Ecosystem Services Valuation is an important tool for dialogue in the decision-making process and to highlight the society’s dependence on the biosphere for well-being. Soil is the primary source of ecosystem services such as the production of food and regulating the climate, however the methodological alternatives for valuing soil ecosystem services remain poorly studied. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate methodical aspects of ecosystem services valuation, with the special attention to soil services within agricultural context. We introduce frameworks specific for soil ecosystem services. Then, we present a case study where soil ecosystem services were evaluated within agricultural context. We conclude that such valuation represents the newest trend in soil science wherein soil resources are treated in the wider context of impacts on human well-being.

Słowa kluczowe

  • agricultural systems
  • biochar
  • methods
  • frameworks
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Grain Cleaning Production Lines’ Energysaving Operation Modes of Electromechanical Systems

Data publikacji: 05 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 51 - 63

Abstrakt

Abstract

The research was aimed at reducing the power consumption for grain cleaning by using energy-saving modes in the electromechanical systems of grain cleaning units. Specific consumption of active energy per production unit was adopted as a criterion for assessing energy-saving operation modes. The applied method of mathematical experiment planning (MEP) reduced the number of experiments to a minimum to obtain a reliable mathematical model of the research object. To determine the optimal specific power consumption, a theoretical method was developed to rebuild the mathematical model. Thus, the minimum specific power consumption of grain cleaning production lines was obtained, which allowed developing science-based rates of power usage that allow energy savings up to 8-10%.

Słowa kluczowe

  • energy saving
  • energy intensity
  • energy rationing
  • optimization
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Analysis of the New Farm Tractors Market in Poland in 2010-2020 in the Context of Income Generated by Farmers’ Households

Data publikacji: 06 May 2022
Zakres stron: 65 - 79

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to analyse changes in the new farm tractor market in Poland and the annual income of farmers’ households generated in the same period. The studies covered the period from 2010 to 2020. The new farm tractors market was analysed with reference to the number of sold tractors, which was measured by the number of registrations. The paper considers quarterly seasonality of sale along with demand for selected producers and engine-power categories of new farm tractors sold in Poland. By “new tractors” the authors mean those registered for the first time in Poland and manufactured in the same or the preceding year. In 2010-2020, there were over 148,000 new farm tractors registered in Poland. The highest number of tractors sold was recorded in 2012, the lowest in 2016. Tractors from Western Europe, USA, and Japan predominate on the Polish market. Among new vehicles, the highest number registered in the investigated period constituted New Holland (23,780) tractors, followed by John Deere (19,453), Zetor (16,398), Deutz-Fahr (10,508), and Kubota (7,674). The total share of these producers in 2010-2020 amounted to approx. 58%. With regard to the engine-power categories in the analysed period, tractors with power of 37-73 kW and 74-132 kW (33.85%) constituted the largest proportion (49.07%). An increased interest in tractors with power below 36 kW was also observed from 2016 to 2020. Such vehicles accounted for 10% of all registrations. The general trend related to the volume of average annual income is not consistent with the trend of purchasing new farm tractors, while the highest number of registrations was recorded during the period in which inflation rates reached their highest values.

Słowa kluczowe

  • farm tractor
  • tractor market
  • sales of farm tractors in Poland
  • registration
  • income
access type Otwarty dostęp

Verification of the Measurement System in a Production Organization

Data publikacji: 06 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 81 - 90

Abstrakt

Abstract

Monitoring the accuracy of meters by qualified workers and managers is a preventive measure of every organization. The paper focuses on monitoring the accuracy of measuring devices and proposes preventive and corrective actions. The discussed measurement device was tested for accuracy using accuracy indexes Cg and Cgk. The identified deviations in measurements showed that the meter was not fully efficient. Consequently, actions were taken to ensuring that the measurement device is accurate.

Słowa kluczowe

  • accuracy of measurement device
  • repeatability
  • reproducibility
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Influence of Wave Processes of Hydraulic Oils on the Operation of a Hydraulic Drive

Data publikacji: 20 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 91 - 104

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper reviews the state of research of wave processes in hydraulic systems of machines, and their impact on the quality and stability of hydraulic drives. As noted in the works of previous researchers, these phenomena occur in hydraulic systems and adversely affect the quality and stability of their work, significantly reducing reliability. The method of construction of mathematical models is offered. A mathematical model of the hydraulic system with two series-connected hydraulic motors is built, taking into account transients. The Runge-Kutta-Feldberg method with automatic change of the integration step was used to solve this model. The application of this method makes it possible to estimate the amplitude and frequency of the pressure wave in real time for each part of the pipeline. As a result of the analysis of the obtained transients it was concluded that at the length of the pressure line in a group hydraulic drive with 2 series-connected hydraulic motors up to 1.5 m, wave processes do not significantly affect the system and in the mathematical model they can be ignored. With the length of the pressure line from 1.5 m to 9 m, the wave processes in the cavity do not affect the stability of the system, although significantly impair the quality of its work. Hydraulic systems with a pressure line length of more than 9 m are not recommended for implementation, because the wave processes in the cavity lead to vibrations and noise in the hydraulic system and require additional measures to eliminate the impact of this phenomenon.

Słowa kluczowe

  • hydraulic drives
  • mathematical modeling
  • Runge-Kutta-Feldberg method
  • wave processes
access type Otwarty dostęp

Reverse Engineering in Modeling Agricultural Products

Data publikacji: 20 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 105 - 117

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to use reverse engineering to model biological products, especially sugar beet root. In the process of creating the solid model, the appropriate tools available in the 3D design environment were applied. The 3D scan of the beet, in the form of a spatial point cloud, was used to project the root geometry. This was, in turn, used to construct a triangulation grid that includes nodal points of triangles. The subsequent steps presented the process of creating a solid model using the Interpolation Spline tool. Attention has been paid to the possibility of modifying the geometry by inserting additional points into the existing interpolation spline and changing angular position as well as the distance of the structural planes. Geometry mapping error values were determined with regard to the reference model depending on the spread value of the Structural Planes. Error courses are non-linear with a logarithmic line trend (surface field error) and a linear line trend (volume error). The effects demonstrated the usefulness of geometry projection and its applicability to support the strength testing of biological materials, with particular emphasis on dynamic tests using whole roots.

Słowa kluczowe

  • reverse engineering
  • 3D scan
  • interpolation spline
  • projection of sugar beet root geometry
access type Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Adjuvant Concentration on Changes of Spray Characteristics and Spraying Parameters for Selected Types of Nozzles

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 119 - 132

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the research on the influence of the adjuvant concentration on the size of the drops produced by the spray nozzles of agricultural sprayers. For the tests, adjuvant Normaton with the composition of total nitrogen, amide nitrogen (N-NH2) and phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) was used. The adjuvant was added to the water taken from the municipal water supply system of the city of Lublin. The tests were carried out for three concentrations, i.e. 75%, 100%, and 125% of the adjuvant concentration recommended by the manufacturer, and water without the adjuvant. The surface tension of water with adjuvant was examined for each nozzle. Then, the size of the obtained droplets was measured for each adjuvant concentration. Two types of nozzles were used for spraying, standard nozzle AP 120-03 and 6MSC injector nozzle, both with the same nozzle flow rate, but with a different design. The size of the droplets produced was measured on a HELOSVARIO laser diffractometer by Sympatec. The droplet measurement was performed at a pressure of 3 bar. The nozzle was placed 50 cm above the diffractometer laser light line. The droplet size was measured in three places of the sprayed liquid, i.e. in the position of the nozzle axis, 30 and 60 cm from the nozzle axis. It was shown that the addition of the adjuvant influenced the number of droplets produced in the indicated droplet size classes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • volume median diameter
  • sauter mean diameter
  • relative span
  • adjuvant concentration
  • surface tension
  • droplet size
access type Otwarty dostęp

Innovative Technology of Accelerated Composting of Chicken Manure to Obtain an Organic Fertilizer with a High Content of Humic Acids

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 133 - 144

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of the most important fractions of soil organic matter which has significant environmental and agricultural importance is humus. The specific humus compounds of soil include the complex of amorphous organic humic substances which include humic acids, fulvic acids and humins. The effectiveness of the natural formation of active humic substances during composting processes depends on the chemical composition of organic residues and the environmental conditions influencing the development and activity of native microorganisms. The aim of the project was to build innovative composting boxes for chicken manure that allow to effectively obtain a fertilizer with the highest possible content of humic acids, by creating perfect and controlled conditions for the rapid development of indigenous thermophilic microorganisms and by combining it with the owned bio-acceleration technology. For perfect conditions (temperature, humidity, oxygen, pH) for the controlled growth of microorganisms, an algorithm of the dependence of the box operation parameters on the course of the biological process, was built. The product obtained after composting is an easily digestible complex organic fertilizer of brown-black colour, pH 7.5-8.0 and NPK 5:3:4 and a high content of native humic acids. Its use increases the growth of green mass of plants and improves soil fertility, which has been proved by the conducted pot research.

Słowa kluczowe

  • chicken manure
  • composting
  • aerobic bacteria
  • intelligent boxes
  • thermophilic and transformation phases
  • humic acids
  • fulvic acids
  • fertilizer
access type Otwarty dostęp

Leaching of Elements from Soil in Grassland Field Crops Treated with Raw and Acidified Slurry

Data publikacji: 13 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 145 - 156

Abstrakt

Abstract

The state of soils was presented in the aspect of environmental protection when using acidified slurry was used as fertilizer to protect ammonia from escaping into the atmosphere. The use of concentrated sulfuric acid to lower the pH of the slurry and thus retain nitrogen in the soil and then use it by crops gives a double benefit, reduces nitrogen losses, and reduces the cost of mineral fertilizers that should be purchased. Injecting raw slurry below the surface of the soil has some benefits in the form of reducing ammonia emissions, but it does not affect the use of fertilizers with the addition of sulfur, which is ensured in the case of acidification of the slurry. Additional benefit is to obtain environment protection. Leaching of elements from grassland and corn crop soil treated with raw cattle slurry and acidified cattle slurry (m3·ha−1) was presented. The K content was highest in the leachate collected after the application of the last batch of acidified slurry. Yield tests were conducted on similar soils as presented in the tables for grass, using six 500 m2 plots with corn, cultivar ES Cirrus, with acidified slurry and one test plot with non-acidified slurry. Analysis of variance and significant difference among the treatment means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at a probability level of 0.05. Based on statistical analysis, it was demonstrated that crop yields of corn grain increased when fertilized with acidified slurry, at an average of 4 t·ha−1. During field tests corn crop yield varied from 14 t·ha−1 to 18 t·ha−1 when non-acidified and acidified slurry were used. The yield on the grassland was approx. 30 t·ha−1. The soil sorption complex, in combination with its buffer properties and acidification, did not affected the pH value. This makes the acidification process safe for plants and for the soil environment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • leaching of elements
  • slurry
  • soils
  • slurry acidification
  • fertilizer
  • crops
access type Otwarty dostęp

Optimization of Parameters of a Vibroconveyor System for Infrared Drying of Soy

Data publikacji: 13 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 157 - 166

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper proposes a method to determine the optimal parameters for the drying of soybean using a kinematic vibration dryer. Among the main parameters of the investigated vibroconveyor are heat and mass transfer, physical and mechanical. The paper presents a mathematical model of the dependence of parameters of the soybean drying process of soybean built based on experimental data obtained by organizing an effective experiment plan with a sufficiently large number of factor levels. To determine the rational parameters for drying soybean, it is important to build the most accurate and adequate mathematical model, which will determine the most accurate values of the required parameters. For this purpose, it is recommended to conduct an experiment with as many levels of factors as possible. The article proposes an experiment established on a dedicated balanced orthogonal plan, which is optimal according to the D-efficiency criterion. Based on the experimental data, an adequate mathematical model of the dependence of the drying characteristics of soybean (moisture of the processed material (%), temperature inside the product layer (°С) on the parameters – vibration amplitude (mm), distance from the conveyor surface (mm), radiation power (Wt), weight (g·min−1). Following the analysis of the constructed mathematical model, optimal parameters of the developed vibroconveyor infrared dryer were substantiated. The main characteristics of the vibroconveryor mechanism of interoperational transportation of bulk products in the working area were also determined, and a technical and economic analysis of the developed oscillatory system was conducted.

Słowa kluczowe

  • experiment designs
  • D-efficiency criterion
  • mathematical model
  • drying

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