Zeszyty

Zeszyty czasopisma

Tom 26 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (January 2022)

Tom 25 (2021): Zeszyt 1 (January 2021)

Tom 24 (2020): Zeszyt 4 (December 2020)

Tom 24 (2020): Zeszyt 3 (September 2020)

Tom 24 (2020): Zeszyt 2 (June 2020)

Tom 24 (2020): Zeszyt 1 (March 2020)

Tom 23 (2019): Zeszyt 4 (December 2019)

Tom 23 (2019): Zeszyt 3 (September 2019)

Tom 23 (2019): Zeszyt 2 (June 2019)

Tom 23 (2019): Zeszyt 1 (March 2019)

Tom 22 (2018): Zeszyt 4 (December 2018)

Tom 22 (2018): Zeszyt 3 (September 2018)

Tom 22 (2018): Zeszyt 2 (July 2018)

Tom 22 (2018): Zeszyt 1 (March 2018)

Tom 21 (2017): Zeszyt 4 (December 2017)

Tom 21 (2017): Zeszyt 3 (September 2017)

Tom 21 (2017): Zeszyt 2 (July 2017)

Tom 21 (2017): Zeszyt 1 (March 2017)

Tom 20 (2016): Zeszyt 4 (December 2016)

Tom 20 (2016): Zeszyt 3 (September 2016)

Tom 20 (2016): Zeszyt 2 (July 2016)

Tom 20 (2016): Zeszyt 1 (April 2016)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2449-5999
Pierwsze wydanie
12 Mar 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 20 (2016): Zeszyt 1 (April 2016)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2449-5999
Pierwsze wydanie
12 Mar 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

20 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Application of Precision Agriculture Technology in Podlaskie Voivodeship

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 5 - 11

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to evaluate the precision agriculture technology on the territory of Podlaskie Voivodeship. Research material consisted of data from the survey carried out in 100 randomly selected farms located in Podlaskie Voivodeship. The concept of “precision agriculture” is known among the surveyed farmers. Based on the research which was carried out, a relation between the surface area of the farm, education and age of respondents was reported. Precision agriculture technology is more popular among farmers who are less than 40 years old, who have higher education and big agricultural farms. Majority of farmers participating in the survey carries out regular research on the soil richness. Moreover, 46% uses in their farms modern technologies for plant production, only 10% uses the system of positioning and 8% of the investigated farms uses the system for guiding agricultural machines, 14% of the investigated farmers uses the system for parallel guiding of a tractor, less than 40% applies the system of variable dosing of fertilizers and plant protection substances. Majority of the investigated farmers claims that new technologies are necessary and they should be applied; however, they indicate too high costs and distribution of farms as the main reason for limitations.

Słowa kluczowe

  • precision agriculture
  • Podlaskie Voivodeship
  • modern technologies
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of Usefulness of the Designed Laboratory Photobioreactor for Microalgae Cultivation in Controlled Conditions

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 13 - 22

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to analyse the use of the designed photobioreactor for freshwater microalgae cultivation in the controlled laboratory conditions. The work covered the design and construction of photobioreactors (PBR) and setting up comparative cultivations of freshwater microalgae chlorelli vulgaris along with determination of the biomass growth intensity for a varied amount of supplied culture medium. It was found out that the constructed PBR may be used for microalgae cultivation in the controlled conditions. The impact of the culture medium amount on the growth of chlorelli vulgaris was proved. As a result of the increase of culture medium concentration to 30.1-120.4 ml·l−1 of water, dry mass in photobioreactorsincreased respectively from 1.33 g·dm−3 to 4.68 g·dm−3.

Słowa kluczowe

  • microalgae
  • algae
  • photobioreactors
  • chlorella vulgaris
  • culture medium
Otwarty dostęp

Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste based on Moving Grate Technology

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 23 - 33

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to analyse possibilities and advantages of energy recovery from municipal solid waste during the thermal treatment in boilers with a moving grate system. The state of the art of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) boilers was investigated mainly by reviewing papers published in scientific journals and at conferences but also by taking into consideration reports from research institutes. The article shows the main aspects that determine the popularity of this type of boilers as well as new solutions which greatly improve the process of thermal treatment of waste. It proves that waste incineration boilers based on the moving grate technology prevail mainly because of its simplicity, reliability and effective energy generation to which special attention was paid. Additionally, the article mentions how WtE boilers are designed and operated to incinerate municipal waste with a great variation in composition with simultaneous notable energy recovery and low environmental impacts. Contemporary development of the Polish WtE infrastructure can be a very important factor influencing the national municipal waste management together with renewable energy and energy efficiency policies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • municipal waste
  • incineration plant
  • Waste-to-Energy
  • thermal treatment
  • energy recovery
  • boiler
  • moving grate
Otwarty dostęp

Changes of Organoleptic Quality in Potato Tubers after Application of Natural Sprout Inhibitors

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 35 - 43

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the sensory properties of the table potato in relation to the use of natural sprout inhibitors during long-term storage. The material for the study consisted in four varieties of potato of the medium early group. The research was carried out in the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute Branch in Jadwisin in 2014-2015. After harvest potatoes were stored from the end of October to April at 5°C, at the relative humidity of 90-95%, without application of natural sprout inhibitors (control) and using the natural sprout inhibitors (essential oils). After storage, the potatoes were boiled and sensory evaluation was carried out, which includes qualities such as: over-cooking of the surface, texture, mealiness, flesh texture, taste and smell. Study results showed that long-term storage of potatoes treated with natural sprout inhibitors – peppermint, caraway and clove essential oils is significant for the changes in overcooking the surface, structure of potatoes and mealiness of tubers after cooking. The taste and smell of potato tubers depended only on the variety.

Słowa kluczowe

  • organoleptic quality
  • inhibitor sprouting
  • potato
  • storage
Otwarty dostęp

Possibilities of Using Waste after Pressing Oil from Oilseeds for Energy Purposes

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 45 - 54

Abstrakt

Abstract

Currently, many countries are establishing goals for substituting fossil fuels with biomass. This global trade in solid biofuels, which is to some extent already taking place, will have a major impact not only on other commodity markets like vegetable oils or animal fodder but also on the global land use change and on environmental impacts. It demonstrates the strong but complex link between biofuels production and the global food market, it unveils policy measures as the main drivers for production and use of biofuels and it analyzes various sustainability indicators and certification schemes for biofuels with respect to minimizing the adverse effects of biofuels. Biomass is seen as a very promising option for fulfilling the environmental goals defined by the European Commission as well as various national governments. We have measured selected physicochemical properties of several the most common oilseeds and the residue materials in the form of cakes, moisture, fat, heat of combustion, the calorific value and ash content. The results showed that the considered plants and waste derived therefrom can be a good energy source. Examples include sunflower oilcake, sesame, pumpkin and rapeseed cake, for which the calorific value amounted to respectively: 28.17; 27.77; 26.42 and 21.69 MJ·kg−1.

Słowa kluczowe

  • oilcake
  • heat of combustion
  • calorific value
  • oilseeds
Otwarty dostęp

Trends in Improving the Structure of a Rotary Dryer

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 55 - 68

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article presents rational principles for improving the structure of a flax heap drier. As a result of tests which were carried out, we established that the counter-flow rotary dryer SKM-1 is the most perspective for drying flax heap. For effective drying of the flax heap fine fraction the second rotating screen above the loaded layer of flax heap is suggested in the SKM-1 dryer. Consequently, the drying agent processed on the bottom screen is used for preliminary drying and removal of surface moisture of the material loaded on the top screen. For the purpose of maintaining the uniform drying of the material it is recommended to carry out loosening and hashing during the drying process with the help of the loosening device, established as the V-shaped device on the discharge unit on the way to a mill. The preliminary heating of the flax heap on the top screen essentially accelerates drying and allows the increase of the dryer performance and can minimize energy requirement for drying. The correctly selected modes of the drying process provide favorable conditions for ripening flax seed, avoid damage of drying material and improve its sowing quality.

Słowa kluczowe

  • flax drying
  • rotary drier
  • drying quality
Otwarty dostęp

Physical Properties of Seeds of the Selected Oil Plants

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 69 - 77

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper examines the selected physical properties of seeds of 8 plants used in agri-food processing industry. These are: winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Adriana cultivar, sesame (Sesamumindicum L.), common flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Luna cultivar, husked sunflower (Helianthus L.) (country of origin – Bulgaria), hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Benikocultivar, blue poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) Major cultivar, garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.), black caraway (Nigella Sativa L.). In the research material we determined the following: mass of thousand seeds (MTS), piling angle and angle of repose, tap and bulk density and compressive resistance of single seeds. Some seeds from the selected plant species differed with shape and size. Thus, the results determining the physical properties were varied.

Słowa kluczowe

  • oil plants
  • seeds
  • MTS
  • angle of slide
  • angle of repose
  • tap density
  • bulk density
  • compressive resistance
Otwarty dostęp

Determination of Optimal Geometric Parameters of the Windshield Device Limiting the Spray Drift by Wind in Herbicides Spraying

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 79 - 89

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to determine the optimal geometric parameters of the windshield device limiting the spray drift by wind in herbicides spraying. Tests were carried out with the use of the planning methods of experiments and statistical methods of processing of the obtained results. The result of the research consisted in obtaining structural parameters of the windshield made in the shape of gratings with rectangular boards. It was found out that this device may be used at the wind speed exceeding agrotechnological sizes. The research results will be used in the work on devices protecting against wind at a precise herbicides spraying.

Słowa kluczowe

  • drop
  • flow
  • speed
  • movement
  • trajectory
  • drift
  • windshield device
Otwarty dostęp

Production Capacity and Workstations Load in the Animal Feed Production Process

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 91 - 100

Abstrakt

Abstract

Production capacity is the amount of production with the determined assortment structure possible to achieve by a particular production unit in a determined time at the optimal use of production factors and at maintaining the products quality corresponding to standards. The objective of the paper was to determine the production power and output of particular workstations which constitute an assembly line of dry animal feed. The scope of research covered an assembly line in the establishment which produces dry feed for pet animals. Based on information and documentation obtained from the company manager and on the work schedule determined for particular workstations, the operation time of a machine, human work time (operation of a machine) and operation time of the entire station with its working surface was determined. Research showed that workstations which constituted the assembly line of dry animal feed were loaded within 76 to 86%. The lowest loading was reported in the mill and LP02 assembly line and it was respectively 76 and 78%. Whereas loading of the remaining devices was comparable and was at the level within 84 to 86%.

Słowa kluczowe

  • workstation
  • production capacity
  • working load
  • technical performance
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of Physical Properties of Briquettes Made of Mixtures of Selected Plant Raw Materials and Post-Fermentation Waste

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 101 - 110

Abstrakt

Abstract

Searching for renewable energy sources causes the increase in the interest in obtaining and processing of plant biomass for energy purposes. One of the methods of using biomass is to converse it into solid biofuels in the form of briquettes. The research covered briquette production with the use of the following plant raw materials: straw of spring crop mixture (wheat with barley – 50/50%) and oat straw and post-fermentation waste. Samples of fragmented straw with addition of post-fermentation waste were prepared in three various weight participation i.e.: 90/10%, 80/20% i 50/50%. The paper presents an assessment of physical properties of briquettes manufactured from the investigated mixtures of plant raw materials with an addition of post-fermentation waste in the hydraulic piston briquetting machine. We determined the moisture of raw materials and waste, length, diameter and mass of manufactured briquettes as well as their specific density and mechanical strength. We found out that along with the increase of the mass participation of post-fermentation waste in the accepted mixtures of plant materials from 10 to 50% their length increased from 5 to 25% and the mass from 1 to 12%. On the other hand, specific density of briquettes increased from 18 to 24% for grain mixtures and from 3 to 7% for oat straw. Mechanical strength of briquettes was within 88.3-90.6% for grain mixture and 83.6-87.1% for oat straw.

Słowa kluczowe

  • biomass
  • post-fermentation waste
  • briquettes
  • density
  • mechanical strength
Otwarty dostęp

Geometrical Features of Seeds of New Pumpkin Forms

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 111 - 118

Abstrakt

Abstract

Plant growers are looking for new crops which would make farms and processing plants more profitable. Currently, in Poland, waste-free pumpkin processing is mainly associated with pumpkin seed production, oil extraction, pulverization of pumpkin oil cake to obtain pumpkin meal, the small-scale use of flesh in food production, but mainly the utilisation of flesh as a feed additive. During technological processes applied for the processing of pumpkin seeds it is important to be familiar with their physical characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyse the geometric characteristics of the seeds of new nine forms of the pumpkin variety Olga, which were bred by researchers from the Department of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Geometrical features were measured using the Digital Image Analysis (DIA) set, consisting of a digital camera (Nikon DXM 1200), computer and lighting (KAISER RB HF). The following geometrical features were measured: length, width, diameter, perimeter, area, circularity and elongation. Additionally, thickness of the seeds was measured by a calliper. Seeds of the studied forms of hull-less pumpkins differed from the standards in the dimensions and shape, whereas significant differences were demonstrated for the Olga variety standard. The most variable geometric characteristic of the seeds under study was area, while the least variable geometric characteristics of the pumpkin seeds turned out to be the circularity and width.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pumpkin seeds
  • pumpkin forms
  • geometrical features
  • Digital Image Analysis
Otwarty dostęp

Clients' Preferences and Development of Organic Food Distribution Channels

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 119 - 125

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to know preferences of consumers from Małopolskie Voivodeship as a fundamental factor of growth and functioning of distribution channels of organic products. A fast development of the organic products market as well as growing requirements of the society with regard to the quality of sale and form are observed. More and more often consumers pay attention to the source of goods and the form in which the product is offered to them. Research and analyses are a precious source of information for agricultural producers on account of production orientation and the form of sale. It will also facilitate development of existing distribution channels and formation of new ones. Research results indicate that consumers are interested in the purchase of products in small packaging or loose. Sums which they spend on organic food do not exceed PLN 400 per a month.

Słowa kluczowe

  • preferences
  • client
  • channel
  • distribution
  • ecology
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Cutting Speed and Depth on the Course of Resultant Force Acting on a Cultivator Tine

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 127 - 136

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents research results on the effect of cutting depth and speed on the resultant force tilt angle and location of its application point on a flexible tine ended with a cultivator point. The studies were carried out in field conditions in sandy clay with the gravimetric moisture of 11.2% and volumetric density of 1470 kg·m−3. Tines whose flexibility coefficient was 0.0061; 0.0711; 0.0953 and 0.1406 m·kN−1 were used. It was found out that that the resultant force tilt angle raises at the increase of the cutting speed and drops at the increase of depth but this angle and its gradient at the increase of the cutting depth grow along with the decrease of the flexibility coefficient of tines. The increase of the cutting speed and depth causes the decrease of both the distance of the resultant force application point on the tool from the bottom of a furrow and a proportion of this parameter to the cutting depth. The courses of the distance of the resultant force application point on the tool from the bottom of a furrow and courses of proportion of this parameter to the cutting depth as the function of cutting do not differ significantly for tines with higher flexibility coefficients while for the most rigid tine values of these parameters and their gradients are higher. All obtained courses of the analysed values as a function of depth and cutting speed were described with regression equations.

Słowa kluczowe

  • soil
  • spring tine of a cultivator
  • resultant force
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Traction Properties of Massey Ferguson 7475 Tractor on Selected Deformable Surfaces

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 137 - 145

Abstrakt

Abstract

The research concern selected traction properties of Massey Ferguson 7475 wheeled tractor, which were carried out on various deformable surfaces i.e. soil: after ploughing, sodded and with rye fore crop. The impact of driving speed on tractive power and force with 2WD and 4WD drive was investigated. Physical and chemical properties of soil during testing were characterised by moisture, compactness and maximum shearing stresses. Studies on traction properties were carried out with the use of two tractors: Massey Ferguson 7475 and New Holland 5040. During measurements, tractors were connected with a tow rod, where a strain force transducer was mounted. The stand enabled also measurement of theoretical speed. As a result of analyses of the obtained results, characteristics of tractive force and towing power as a function of slip were made. The tests confirmed that the use of four-wheel drive is unjustified because it improves these tractive parameters of a tractor. It was reported that the maximum force and towing power are generated for the lowest values of slip which is equal to 0.1 on the sodded surface. However, value of this power is the lowest in comparison to other surfaces. The highest value of the adhesion coefficient was reported on soil with rye fore crop.

Słowa kluczowe

  • traction force
  • adhesion ratio
  • towing power
  • driving tyre
Otwarty dostęp

X-ray Analysis of Biomass Wood Briquette Structure

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 147 - 154

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study aims to measure the wood chips flow during the briquetting process by the X-ray image analysis. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) constituted the used feedstock that has been previously divided, according to the standard, into four (>1.0; 1.1-4.0; 4.1-8.0; 8.1-16.0 mm) groups of fraction. Examination of the X-ray image allows description of the movement of the wood fractions flow after the briquetting process. The correlations between the vertical axis and scattering plane factors were estimated. The correlation coefficient was 0.973 and was almost complete. The calculations were made for the areas of deviations (SD) and the area of scattering planes (DPS). Particular flow irregularities were determined for deviations ranges of individual groups of fractions and were (>1.0)=3.04; (1.1-4.0)=4.08; (4.1-8.0)=6.33 and (8.1-16.0)=7.33 cm2, and for scattering planes they were accordingly e (>1.0)=0.32; (1.1-4.0)=0.72; (4.1-8.0)=0.97 and (8.1-16.0)=1.29 cm2.

Słowa kluczowe

  • briquetting
  • wood chips
  • biomass flow
  • X-ray radiation
Otwarty dostęp

The Impact of Infrasounds Generated by Wind Power Stations on a Human Being

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 155 - 166

Abstrakt

Abstract

In some opinion-forming environments the problem of noise emitted by wind power stations is very controversial. It is even suggested that they negatively affect the quality and length of human life. Based on the review of domestic and foreign publications an analysis of the impact of the low-frequency noise on a human being was carried out. Wind power stations operating in groups (farms) constituted the source of noise. It was proved that the level of acoustic pressure with G weighting does not exceed the value of 85 dB. The value of the admissible burdensome noise (102 dB) was exceeded in the bus cabins which were driving with the speed exceeding 30 km·h−1. The opinion of the Ministry of Health confirms the findings. It proves that the present knowledge does not allow a clear indication of the relation between the wind farms and their negative impact on the human health.

Słowa kluczowe

  • wind power stations
  • noise
  • infrasounds
Otwarty dostęp

Limiting Odour Emission from Piggery through Application of Heat Recovery System

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 167 - 176

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of manure cooling by the use of the heat recovery system on odour emission from a deep litter piggery. Annual comparative research was carried out in a twin-room deep litter piggery located in Wielkopolska Voivodeship. The recovered heat was transferred to central heating and domestic hot water systems of a residential building. The study showed that the average odour emission rate from the room, where heat was recovered (0.192±0.083 ouE·s−1·kg m.c.−1) was lower than in the room without heat recovering (0.273±0.138 ouE·s−1·kg m.c. −1) (p<0.05). The difference was 27%. It was also found that there was statistically significant strong correlation (r =0.86) between the amount of the recovered heat and the percentage odour emission reduction (p <0.05). This relationship was described by the logarithmic regression line y=12.5ln(x)-21.5 (r2=0.74)

Słowa kluczowe

  • odour emission
  • deep litter
  • heat pump
  • cooling manure
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of Coffee Grounds Addition on the Calorific Value of the Selected Biological Materials

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 177 - 183

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was, inter alia, to determine the impact of coffee grounds on the heat of combustion of their combination with other biological materials. Research on the heat of combustion and calculations of the calorific value were carried out with the use of a KL-12 Mn calorimeter according to the technical specifications and standards PN-81/G–04513 i PN-ISO 1928:2002. Coffee grounds, tea grounds, pine wood and yellow wheat straw were used in the research. The heat of combustion of particular substrates was determined and then their mixtures with coffee grounds in the following proportion were prepared: 75% substrate – 25% coffee grounds, 50% substrate – 50% coffee grounds, 25% substrate – 75% coffee grounds. Calorific value of particular substrates was increasing with the amount of added coffee grounds. Their biggest flow was reported in the mixture of 50%/50% of coffee grounds and wheat straw and the smallest in case of coffee grounds and wood on account of a similar calorific value of both substrates.

Słowa kluczowe

  • coffee grounds
  • heat of combustion
  • calorific value
  • mixture
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Osmotic Dehydration on Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Pumpkin Dried with Microwave Method in Reduced Pressure Conditions

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 185 - 194

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the research was to indicate the impact of sirup type used for osmotic dehydration and the microwaves power for microwave and vacuum drying on the selected mechanical and rheological properties of dried pumpkin. Pumpkin cultivar Rugosa was osmotically dehydrated in three concentrates: apple, aronia and cherry. Initially prepared material was dried with microwave method in the reduced pressure conditions which was within 6-4 kPa at the microwave power which was 240 and 480 W. Dried material was subjected to compression tests and stresses relaxation tests. Compression work values (Pś), cutting work (Pp) and indicators describing material elasticity (a and b) were computed. An initial treatment in the form of osmotic dehydration carried out before microwave drying in the reduced pressure conditions allows obtaining dried pumpkin with a raised resistance to compression and cutting and the decreased elasticity in comparison to dried material obtained from a pumpkin which was not subjected to the initial treatment. Microwaves power influences the values of compression and cutting of dried pumpkin.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pumpkin
  • drying
  • osmotic dehydration
  • resistance properties
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of Utilization Possibilities of Heat Conducted by Waste Gases Exhaust Pipe of SB 1.5 Drum Drier for Drying Wood Chips

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 195 - 203

Abstrakt

Abstract

Based on the exploitation research, the authors evaluated the possibilities of using the heat conducted through the side surface of the waste gases exhaust pipe of SB 1.5 drum drier for drying wood chips. According to the estimated calculations within one hour approximately 173 thousand of kJ of heat may be obtained from the external surface of the waste gases exhaust pipe with the height of 7 m and temperature of approximately 78°C which constitutes an equivalent of approximately 4 kilo of heating oil. In case the above mentioned heat source for drying wood chips in SPA 20 silo with a volume of 6800 kilo within 50% to 20% humidity is used, one may expect that the drying time will be approximately 100 hours.

Słowa kluczowe

  • exhaust heat
  • drum drier
  • wood chips
  • drying
20 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Application of Precision Agriculture Technology in Podlaskie Voivodeship

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 5 - 11

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to evaluate the precision agriculture technology on the territory of Podlaskie Voivodeship. Research material consisted of data from the survey carried out in 100 randomly selected farms located in Podlaskie Voivodeship. The concept of “precision agriculture” is known among the surveyed farmers. Based on the research which was carried out, a relation between the surface area of the farm, education and age of respondents was reported. Precision agriculture technology is more popular among farmers who are less than 40 years old, who have higher education and big agricultural farms. Majority of farmers participating in the survey carries out regular research on the soil richness. Moreover, 46% uses in their farms modern technologies for plant production, only 10% uses the system of positioning and 8% of the investigated farms uses the system for guiding agricultural machines, 14% of the investigated farmers uses the system for parallel guiding of a tractor, less than 40% applies the system of variable dosing of fertilizers and plant protection substances. Majority of the investigated farmers claims that new technologies are necessary and they should be applied; however, they indicate too high costs and distribution of farms as the main reason for limitations.

Słowa kluczowe

  • precision agriculture
  • Podlaskie Voivodeship
  • modern technologies
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of Usefulness of the Designed Laboratory Photobioreactor for Microalgae Cultivation in Controlled Conditions

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 13 - 22

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to analyse the use of the designed photobioreactor for freshwater microalgae cultivation in the controlled laboratory conditions. The work covered the design and construction of photobioreactors (PBR) and setting up comparative cultivations of freshwater microalgae chlorelli vulgaris along with determination of the biomass growth intensity for a varied amount of supplied culture medium. It was found out that the constructed PBR may be used for microalgae cultivation in the controlled conditions. The impact of the culture medium amount on the growth of chlorelli vulgaris was proved. As a result of the increase of culture medium concentration to 30.1-120.4 ml·l−1 of water, dry mass in photobioreactorsincreased respectively from 1.33 g·dm−3 to 4.68 g·dm−3.

Słowa kluczowe

  • microalgae
  • algae
  • photobioreactors
  • chlorella vulgaris
  • culture medium
Otwarty dostęp

Energy Recovery from Municipal Waste based on Moving Grate Technology

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 23 - 33

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to analyse possibilities and advantages of energy recovery from municipal solid waste during the thermal treatment in boilers with a moving grate system. The state of the art of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) boilers was investigated mainly by reviewing papers published in scientific journals and at conferences but also by taking into consideration reports from research institutes. The article shows the main aspects that determine the popularity of this type of boilers as well as new solutions which greatly improve the process of thermal treatment of waste. It proves that waste incineration boilers based on the moving grate technology prevail mainly because of its simplicity, reliability and effective energy generation to which special attention was paid. Additionally, the article mentions how WtE boilers are designed and operated to incinerate municipal waste with a great variation in composition with simultaneous notable energy recovery and low environmental impacts. Contemporary development of the Polish WtE infrastructure can be a very important factor influencing the national municipal waste management together with renewable energy and energy efficiency policies.

Słowa kluczowe

  • municipal waste
  • incineration plant
  • Waste-to-Energy
  • thermal treatment
  • energy recovery
  • boiler
  • moving grate
Otwarty dostęp

Changes of Organoleptic Quality in Potato Tubers after Application of Natural Sprout Inhibitors

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 35 - 43

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the sensory properties of the table potato in relation to the use of natural sprout inhibitors during long-term storage. The material for the study consisted in four varieties of potato of the medium early group. The research was carried out in the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute Branch in Jadwisin in 2014-2015. After harvest potatoes were stored from the end of October to April at 5°C, at the relative humidity of 90-95%, without application of natural sprout inhibitors (control) and using the natural sprout inhibitors (essential oils). After storage, the potatoes were boiled and sensory evaluation was carried out, which includes qualities such as: over-cooking of the surface, texture, mealiness, flesh texture, taste and smell. Study results showed that long-term storage of potatoes treated with natural sprout inhibitors – peppermint, caraway and clove essential oils is significant for the changes in overcooking the surface, structure of potatoes and mealiness of tubers after cooking. The taste and smell of potato tubers depended only on the variety.

Słowa kluczowe

  • organoleptic quality
  • inhibitor sprouting
  • potato
  • storage
Otwarty dostęp

Possibilities of Using Waste after Pressing Oil from Oilseeds for Energy Purposes

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 45 - 54

Abstrakt

Abstract

Currently, many countries are establishing goals for substituting fossil fuels with biomass. This global trade in solid biofuels, which is to some extent already taking place, will have a major impact not only on other commodity markets like vegetable oils or animal fodder but also on the global land use change and on environmental impacts. It demonstrates the strong but complex link between biofuels production and the global food market, it unveils policy measures as the main drivers for production and use of biofuels and it analyzes various sustainability indicators and certification schemes for biofuels with respect to minimizing the adverse effects of biofuels. Biomass is seen as a very promising option for fulfilling the environmental goals defined by the European Commission as well as various national governments. We have measured selected physicochemical properties of several the most common oilseeds and the residue materials in the form of cakes, moisture, fat, heat of combustion, the calorific value and ash content. The results showed that the considered plants and waste derived therefrom can be a good energy source. Examples include sunflower oilcake, sesame, pumpkin and rapeseed cake, for which the calorific value amounted to respectively: 28.17; 27.77; 26.42 and 21.69 MJ·kg−1.

Słowa kluczowe

  • oilcake
  • heat of combustion
  • calorific value
  • oilseeds
Otwarty dostęp

Trends in Improving the Structure of a Rotary Dryer

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 55 - 68

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article presents rational principles for improving the structure of a flax heap drier. As a result of tests which were carried out, we established that the counter-flow rotary dryer SKM-1 is the most perspective for drying flax heap. For effective drying of the flax heap fine fraction the second rotating screen above the loaded layer of flax heap is suggested in the SKM-1 dryer. Consequently, the drying agent processed on the bottom screen is used for preliminary drying and removal of surface moisture of the material loaded on the top screen. For the purpose of maintaining the uniform drying of the material it is recommended to carry out loosening and hashing during the drying process with the help of the loosening device, established as the V-shaped device on the discharge unit on the way to a mill. The preliminary heating of the flax heap on the top screen essentially accelerates drying and allows the increase of the dryer performance and can minimize energy requirement for drying. The correctly selected modes of the drying process provide favorable conditions for ripening flax seed, avoid damage of drying material and improve its sowing quality.

Słowa kluczowe

  • flax drying
  • rotary drier
  • drying quality
Otwarty dostęp

Physical Properties of Seeds of the Selected Oil Plants

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 69 - 77

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper examines the selected physical properties of seeds of 8 plants used in agri-food processing industry. These are: winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Adriana cultivar, sesame (Sesamumindicum L.), common flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Luna cultivar, husked sunflower (Helianthus L.) (country of origin – Bulgaria), hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Benikocultivar, blue poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) Major cultivar, garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.), black caraway (Nigella Sativa L.). In the research material we determined the following: mass of thousand seeds (MTS), piling angle and angle of repose, tap and bulk density and compressive resistance of single seeds. Some seeds from the selected plant species differed with shape and size. Thus, the results determining the physical properties were varied.

Słowa kluczowe

  • oil plants
  • seeds
  • MTS
  • angle of slide
  • angle of repose
  • tap density
  • bulk density
  • compressive resistance
Otwarty dostęp

Determination of Optimal Geometric Parameters of the Windshield Device Limiting the Spray Drift by Wind in Herbicides Spraying

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 79 - 89

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to determine the optimal geometric parameters of the windshield device limiting the spray drift by wind in herbicides spraying. Tests were carried out with the use of the planning methods of experiments and statistical methods of processing of the obtained results. The result of the research consisted in obtaining structural parameters of the windshield made in the shape of gratings with rectangular boards. It was found out that this device may be used at the wind speed exceeding agrotechnological sizes. The research results will be used in the work on devices protecting against wind at a precise herbicides spraying.

Słowa kluczowe

  • drop
  • flow
  • speed
  • movement
  • trajectory
  • drift
  • windshield device
Otwarty dostęp

Production Capacity and Workstations Load in the Animal Feed Production Process

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 91 - 100

Abstrakt

Abstract

Production capacity is the amount of production with the determined assortment structure possible to achieve by a particular production unit in a determined time at the optimal use of production factors and at maintaining the products quality corresponding to standards. The objective of the paper was to determine the production power and output of particular workstations which constitute an assembly line of dry animal feed. The scope of research covered an assembly line in the establishment which produces dry feed for pet animals. Based on information and documentation obtained from the company manager and on the work schedule determined for particular workstations, the operation time of a machine, human work time (operation of a machine) and operation time of the entire station with its working surface was determined. Research showed that workstations which constituted the assembly line of dry animal feed were loaded within 76 to 86%. The lowest loading was reported in the mill and LP02 assembly line and it was respectively 76 and 78%. Whereas loading of the remaining devices was comparable and was at the level within 84 to 86%.

Słowa kluczowe

  • workstation
  • production capacity
  • working load
  • technical performance
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of Physical Properties of Briquettes Made of Mixtures of Selected Plant Raw Materials and Post-Fermentation Waste

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 101 - 110

Abstrakt

Abstract

Searching for renewable energy sources causes the increase in the interest in obtaining and processing of plant biomass for energy purposes. One of the methods of using biomass is to converse it into solid biofuels in the form of briquettes. The research covered briquette production with the use of the following plant raw materials: straw of spring crop mixture (wheat with barley – 50/50%) and oat straw and post-fermentation waste. Samples of fragmented straw with addition of post-fermentation waste were prepared in three various weight participation i.e.: 90/10%, 80/20% i 50/50%. The paper presents an assessment of physical properties of briquettes manufactured from the investigated mixtures of plant raw materials with an addition of post-fermentation waste in the hydraulic piston briquetting machine. We determined the moisture of raw materials and waste, length, diameter and mass of manufactured briquettes as well as their specific density and mechanical strength. We found out that along with the increase of the mass participation of post-fermentation waste in the accepted mixtures of plant materials from 10 to 50% their length increased from 5 to 25% and the mass from 1 to 12%. On the other hand, specific density of briquettes increased from 18 to 24% for grain mixtures and from 3 to 7% for oat straw. Mechanical strength of briquettes was within 88.3-90.6% for grain mixture and 83.6-87.1% for oat straw.

Słowa kluczowe

  • biomass
  • post-fermentation waste
  • briquettes
  • density
  • mechanical strength
Otwarty dostęp

Geometrical Features of Seeds of New Pumpkin Forms

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 111 - 118

Abstrakt

Abstract

Plant growers are looking for new crops which would make farms and processing plants more profitable. Currently, in Poland, waste-free pumpkin processing is mainly associated with pumpkin seed production, oil extraction, pulverization of pumpkin oil cake to obtain pumpkin meal, the small-scale use of flesh in food production, but mainly the utilisation of flesh as a feed additive. During technological processes applied for the processing of pumpkin seeds it is important to be familiar with their physical characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyse the geometric characteristics of the seeds of new nine forms of the pumpkin variety Olga, which were bred by researchers from the Department of Plant Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Geometrical features were measured using the Digital Image Analysis (DIA) set, consisting of a digital camera (Nikon DXM 1200), computer and lighting (KAISER RB HF). The following geometrical features were measured: length, width, diameter, perimeter, area, circularity and elongation. Additionally, thickness of the seeds was measured by a calliper. Seeds of the studied forms of hull-less pumpkins differed from the standards in the dimensions and shape, whereas significant differences were demonstrated for the Olga variety standard. The most variable geometric characteristic of the seeds under study was area, while the least variable geometric characteristics of the pumpkin seeds turned out to be the circularity and width.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pumpkin seeds
  • pumpkin forms
  • geometrical features
  • Digital Image Analysis
Otwarty dostęp

Clients' Preferences and Development of Organic Food Distribution Channels

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 119 - 125

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to know preferences of consumers from Małopolskie Voivodeship as a fundamental factor of growth and functioning of distribution channels of organic products. A fast development of the organic products market as well as growing requirements of the society with regard to the quality of sale and form are observed. More and more often consumers pay attention to the source of goods and the form in which the product is offered to them. Research and analyses are a precious source of information for agricultural producers on account of production orientation and the form of sale. It will also facilitate development of existing distribution channels and formation of new ones. Research results indicate that consumers are interested in the purchase of products in small packaging or loose. Sums which they spend on organic food do not exceed PLN 400 per a month.

Słowa kluczowe

  • preferences
  • client
  • channel
  • distribution
  • ecology
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Cutting Speed and Depth on the Course of Resultant Force Acting on a Cultivator Tine

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 127 - 136

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents research results on the effect of cutting depth and speed on the resultant force tilt angle and location of its application point on a flexible tine ended with a cultivator point. The studies were carried out in field conditions in sandy clay with the gravimetric moisture of 11.2% and volumetric density of 1470 kg·m−3. Tines whose flexibility coefficient was 0.0061; 0.0711; 0.0953 and 0.1406 m·kN−1 were used. It was found out that that the resultant force tilt angle raises at the increase of the cutting speed and drops at the increase of depth but this angle and its gradient at the increase of the cutting depth grow along with the decrease of the flexibility coefficient of tines. The increase of the cutting speed and depth causes the decrease of both the distance of the resultant force application point on the tool from the bottom of a furrow and a proportion of this parameter to the cutting depth. The courses of the distance of the resultant force application point on the tool from the bottom of a furrow and courses of proportion of this parameter to the cutting depth as the function of cutting do not differ significantly for tines with higher flexibility coefficients while for the most rigid tine values of these parameters and their gradients are higher. All obtained courses of the analysed values as a function of depth and cutting speed were described with regression equations.

Słowa kluczowe

  • soil
  • spring tine of a cultivator
  • resultant force
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Traction Properties of Massey Ferguson 7475 Tractor on Selected Deformable Surfaces

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 137 - 145

Abstrakt

Abstract

The research concern selected traction properties of Massey Ferguson 7475 wheeled tractor, which were carried out on various deformable surfaces i.e. soil: after ploughing, sodded and with rye fore crop. The impact of driving speed on tractive power and force with 2WD and 4WD drive was investigated. Physical and chemical properties of soil during testing were characterised by moisture, compactness and maximum shearing stresses. Studies on traction properties were carried out with the use of two tractors: Massey Ferguson 7475 and New Holland 5040. During measurements, tractors were connected with a tow rod, where a strain force transducer was mounted. The stand enabled also measurement of theoretical speed. As a result of analyses of the obtained results, characteristics of tractive force and towing power as a function of slip were made. The tests confirmed that the use of four-wheel drive is unjustified because it improves these tractive parameters of a tractor. It was reported that the maximum force and towing power are generated for the lowest values of slip which is equal to 0.1 on the sodded surface. However, value of this power is the lowest in comparison to other surfaces. The highest value of the adhesion coefficient was reported on soil with rye fore crop.

Słowa kluczowe

  • traction force
  • adhesion ratio
  • towing power
  • driving tyre
Otwarty dostęp

X-ray Analysis of Biomass Wood Briquette Structure

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 147 - 154

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study aims to measure the wood chips flow during the briquetting process by the X-ray image analysis. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) constituted the used feedstock that has been previously divided, according to the standard, into four (>1.0; 1.1-4.0; 4.1-8.0; 8.1-16.0 mm) groups of fraction. Examination of the X-ray image allows description of the movement of the wood fractions flow after the briquetting process. The correlations between the vertical axis and scattering plane factors were estimated. The correlation coefficient was 0.973 and was almost complete. The calculations were made for the areas of deviations (SD) and the area of scattering planes (DPS). Particular flow irregularities were determined for deviations ranges of individual groups of fractions and were (>1.0)=3.04; (1.1-4.0)=4.08; (4.1-8.0)=6.33 and (8.1-16.0)=7.33 cm2, and for scattering planes they were accordingly e (>1.0)=0.32; (1.1-4.0)=0.72; (4.1-8.0)=0.97 and (8.1-16.0)=1.29 cm2.

Słowa kluczowe

  • briquetting
  • wood chips
  • biomass flow
  • X-ray radiation
Otwarty dostęp

The Impact of Infrasounds Generated by Wind Power Stations on a Human Being

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 155 - 166

Abstrakt

Abstract

In some opinion-forming environments the problem of noise emitted by wind power stations is very controversial. It is even suggested that they negatively affect the quality and length of human life. Based on the review of domestic and foreign publications an analysis of the impact of the low-frequency noise on a human being was carried out. Wind power stations operating in groups (farms) constituted the source of noise. It was proved that the level of acoustic pressure with G weighting does not exceed the value of 85 dB. The value of the admissible burdensome noise (102 dB) was exceeded in the bus cabins which were driving with the speed exceeding 30 km·h−1. The opinion of the Ministry of Health confirms the findings. It proves that the present knowledge does not allow a clear indication of the relation between the wind farms and their negative impact on the human health.

Słowa kluczowe

  • wind power stations
  • noise
  • infrasounds
Otwarty dostęp

Limiting Odour Emission from Piggery through Application of Heat Recovery System

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 167 - 176

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of manure cooling by the use of the heat recovery system on odour emission from a deep litter piggery. Annual comparative research was carried out in a twin-room deep litter piggery located in Wielkopolska Voivodeship. The recovered heat was transferred to central heating and domestic hot water systems of a residential building. The study showed that the average odour emission rate from the room, where heat was recovered (0.192±0.083 ouE·s−1·kg m.c.−1) was lower than in the room without heat recovering (0.273±0.138 ouE·s−1·kg m.c. −1) (p<0.05). The difference was 27%. It was also found that there was statistically significant strong correlation (r =0.86) between the amount of the recovered heat and the percentage odour emission reduction (p <0.05). This relationship was described by the logarithmic regression line y=12.5ln(x)-21.5 (r2=0.74)

Słowa kluczowe

  • odour emission
  • deep litter
  • heat pump
  • cooling manure
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of Coffee Grounds Addition on the Calorific Value of the Selected Biological Materials

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 177 - 183

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was, inter alia, to determine the impact of coffee grounds on the heat of combustion of their combination with other biological materials. Research on the heat of combustion and calculations of the calorific value were carried out with the use of a KL-12 Mn calorimeter according to the technical specifications and standards PN-81/G–04513 i PN-ISO 1928:2002. Coffee grounds, tea grounds, pine wood and yellow wheat straw were used in the research. The heat of combustion of particular substrates was determined and then their mixtures with coffee grounds in the following proportion were prepared: 75% substrate – 25% coffee grounds, 50% substrate – 50% coffee grounds, 25% substrate – 75% coffee grounds. Calorific value of particular substrates was increasing with the amount of added coffee grounds. Their biggest flow was reported in the mixture of 50%/50% of coffee grounds and wheat straw and the smallest in case of coffee grounds and wood on account of a similar calorific value of both substrates.

Słowa kluczowe

  • coffee grounds
  • heat of combustion
  • calorific value
  • mixture
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Osmotic Dehydration on Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Pumpkin Dried with Microwave Method in Reduced Pressure Conditions

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 185 - 194

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the research was to indicate the impact of sirup type used for osmotic dehydration and the microwaves power for microwave and vacuum drying on the selected mechanical and rheological properties of dried pumpkin. Pumpkin cultivar Rugosa was osmotically dehydrated in three concentrates: apple, aronia and cherry. Initially prepared material was dried with microwave method in the reduced pressure conditions which was within 6-4 kPa at the microwave power which was 240 and 480 W. Dried material was subjected to compression tests and stresses relaxation tests. Compression work values (Pś), cutting work (Pp) and indicators describing material elasticity (a and b) were computed. An initial treatment in the form of osmotic dehydration carried out before microwave drying in the reduced pressure conditions allows obtaining dried pumpkin with a raised resistance to compression and cutting and the decreased elasticity in comparison to dried material obtained from a pumpkin which was not subjected to the initial treatment. Microwaves power influences the values of compression and cutting of dried pumpkin.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pumpkin
  • drying
  • osmotic dehydration
  • resistance properties
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of Utilization Possibilities of Heat Conducted by Waste Gases Exhaust Pipe of SB 1.5 Drum Drier for Drying Wood Chips

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2016
Zakres stron: 195 - 203

Abstrakt

Abstract

Based on the exploitation research, the authors evaluated the possibilities of using the heat conducted through the side surface of the waste gases exhaust pipe of SB 1.5 drum drier for drying wood chips. According to the estimated calculations within one hour approximately 173 thousand of kJ of heat may be obtained from the external surface of the waste gases exhaust pipe with the height of 7 m and temperature of approximately 78°C which constitutes an equivalent of approximately 4 kilo of heating oil. In case the above mentioned heat source for drying wood chips in SPA 20 silo with a volume of 6800 kilo within 50% to 20% humidity is used, one may expect that the drying time will be approximately 100 hours.

Słowa kluczowe

  • exhaust heat
  • drum drier
  • wood chips
  • drying

Zaplanuj zdalną konferencję ze Sciendo