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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2449-5999
Pierwsze wydanie
12 Mar 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 20 (2016): Zeszyt 2 (July 2016)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2449-5999
Pierwsze wydanie
12 Mar 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

18 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

The Impact of the Plate Diameter on the Determined Value of the Pre-Compaction Stress of Samples made of Silt Soil

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 5 - 14

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to investigate the impact of the plate diameter on the value of the measured pre-compaction stress of soil. The investigations were carried out on model samples with 100 mm diameter and 30 mm height made of the silt loam and the percentage moisture content of 13.7 and 21.9%. The following properties of the used material were measured: the granulation group, density of solid particles, humus content, reaction, plastic and liquid limit and the degree of saturation of samples. The samples were loaded with a testing machine using plates with varied diameters: 20, 30, 50, 70, 80, 90, 96, 98 and 99 mm. The pre-compaction stress value was measured with the method of searching for the crossing point of tangents with the secondary stress curve and original stress curve (a classic method). It was found out that for samples with saturation amounting to 13.7% of the moisture content the pre-compaction stress does not significantly depend on the plate diameter. For samples with saturation amounting to 21.9% of the moisture content the pre-compaction stress may significantly depend on the plate diameter. Based on the obtained results a conclusion was made that in the research on the pre-compaction stress with the method of uni-axial deformations, the relation of the plate diameter (d) to the diameter of the cylinder (D) should be within 0.3 ≤ d/D < 0.8.

Słowa kluczowe

  • soil
  • pre-compaction stress
  • methodology
  • conditions of deformation
Otwarty dostęp

The Rheological Properties of Redcurrant and Highbush Blueberry Berries

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 15 - 22

Abstrakt

Abstract

The load values corresponding to the compressive strength of high-bush blueberry and redcurrant fruits during the compression test between two rigid plates were measured. The changes of coefficient of elasticity and coefficient of viscosity values during the creep and the relaxation tests were studied in the selected interval of time, also direction of load application in relation to the longitudinal axis of fruit was considered. The creep and relaxation tests were carried out with the load of 40% of determined compressive strength of berries. To describe behavior of testing the material rheological standard, Maxwell and Kelvin models as well as experimental models were used. Comparatively small changes of parameter values of assumed empirical models were reported in the course of tests. It may be recognized as characteristic for the investigated material.

Słowa kluczowe

  • highbush blueberry
  • redcurrant
  • creep
  • relaxation
  • rheological models
Otwarty dostęp

The Use of Precise Agriculture Technology in a Farm in Podlasie Region

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 23 - 30

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article presents advantages resulting from implementation of the precise agriculture technology in a farm. The objective of the paper was to analyse devices used in precise agriculture on the example of the selected agricultural farm located in Podlaskie Voivodeship. Documentation of the farm and data included in the questionnaire of the survey carried out with the farm owner were the source of indispensable information. For determination of the costs of return of investments planned in the farm, the method of data analysis and TeeJeet calculation were used. Implementation of the precise agriculture technology in the investigated farm caused reduction of the costs related to running a farm. The introduced changes allowed saving approximately PLN 14 thousand annually on crop protection treatments and approximately PLN 19 thousand annually on the precise sowing of mineral fertilizers. Costs related to the purchase of devices which allow generation of such savings return after 3-4 years.

Słowa kluczowe

  • precise agriculture
  • production
  • farm
  • Podlasie region
Otwarty dostęp

The Average Coverage of Sprayed Objects Depending on the Coefficient of Spray Surface for the Selected Nozzles

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 31 - 41

Abstrakt

Abstract

The primary objective of the experiment was to determine the average coverage of the sprayed liquid on the plant surface according to the adopted coefficient of the spray surface of plants (Wpo). Examinations were performed under laboratory conditions, using a sprayer, which was moving with a constant operating speed, at various operating pressures. During the study four types of nozzles were used: standard and ejector. They sprayed objects, which were artificial plants, equipped with probes in the form of water-sensitive papers. Probes were placed on the horizontal and vertical surfaces of the plants. The degree of coverage was determined by computer image analysis. The analysis of obtained results showed that the coefficient of the surface spray has a significant impact on the size of the average surface coverage of sprayed objects. It was found that in case where the Wpo <1, standard nozzles are better for spraying, and when Wpo > 1, ejector nozzles and standard double may be used more successfully.

Słowa kluczowe

  • coverage degree
  • coefficient of sprayed surface of plants
  • sprayer type
  • spraying plants
Otwarty dostęp

Exploitation Assessment of New Holland CX780 Combine Harvester

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 43 - 51

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article presents an exploitation assessment of New Holland CX780 combine operation. Significant technical and technological progress is visible in modern harvesters. Inter alia, performance increased and elements improving the quality of work of harvesters appeared. The objective of the paper was to determine efficiency of the New Holland CX780 harvester operation including factors which affect its operation. Time structures of particular activities of combine operation and ratios of these times use were determined during tests. Yield value and moisture of collected seeds was determined. Studies proved that effective time of combine operation in the process of rapeseed and wheat grain harvesting was less than 50% and was caused by long preparation of a machine for operation. Preparation for operation of a combine influences its performance in the total time. It was 22% of the total operation time in case of wheat harvesting and 20% in case of rapeseed harvesting.

Słowa kluczowe

  • combine harvester
  • exploitation
  • harvesting
  • wheat
  • rapeseed
Otwarty dostęp

The Influence of Steam Cold Trap in the Vacuum Chamber Installation on the Ice Sublimation Speed

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 53 - 61

Abstrakt

Abstract

This work is a continuation of research on the differences in the sublimation speed of free ice and ice contained in the porous material. The results of previous research were published in Technica Agraria 12(1-2)/2013 (Diakun, Dolik, Kopec “The sublimation speed of free ice and ice in the sprat carcass”). A test stand used in studies was supplemented by a cold trap to prevent the steam flow into the vacuum pump and for the intensification of the ice sublimation process. The comparative tests: with the cold trap and without were performed. The research material (samples) was in the form of ice nugget, frozen sprat carcasses and ice frozen within the sponge (porous material model). The aim of the study was to examine the cold trap impact on the conditions within the vacuum chamber during sublimation and the speed of the process. The differences in the sublimation speed for the free ice, the ice from the frozen sprat and from the model were rated. The results showed a significant increase in the sublimation speed during the process with the active cold trap.

Słowa kluczowe

  • steam cold trap
  • sublimation
  • ice
  • sprat freeze-drying
Otwarty dostęp

Comparison of Economic Efficiency of Rapeseed Production in Farms with Varied Fertilization Variants

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 63 - 70

Abstrakt

Abstract

Intensive breeding is related to formation of considerable amount of manure which may be used as a natural fertilizer. Manure fertilization may cause reduction of the amount of applied mineral fertilizers and thus reduction of production costs. It may particularly relate to the species with great fertilization requirements such as winter rapeseed. The objective of the research was to compare economic efficiency of rapeseed production in two farms which use different fertilization variants. In one, only mineral fertilizers were used and in the second one – mineral fertilization was supplemented with manure organic fertilization. The use of manure caused reduction of expenditures on materials and raw materials used in production, in particular of fertilizers. At comparable yields obtained by two farms, technology based on manure fertilization proved to be more efficient.

Słowa kluczowe

  • winter rapeseed
  • fertilization
  • manure
  • economic efficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of the Mathematical Model of the Spray Dose Applied by the Field Sprayer Nozzles

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 71 - 79

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article presents analysis of the mathematical model for determination of a momentary dose of spray applied by the field sprayer nozzles which move on the curve with the forward speed the value of which may differ from the speed accepted for regulation. Regulation speed and regulation dose, real forward speed of a sprayer, angular velocity during the curve movement, and the coefficient of the nozzle location towards the axis of the sprayer turn are independent variables in the suggested model. Based on the mathematical model, plots were drawn and analyses of relation of the spray dose to particular variables were carried out including inter alia, a repeated field spray, application of a dose which considerably differs from the regulation dose and diversity of the dose on the working width of the sprayer.

Słowa kluczowe

  • model
  • sprayer
  • dose
  • forward speed
  • angle speed
Otwarty dostęp

Adsorption-Desorption Processes in Adsorption Chillers

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 81 - 89

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present the adsorption chillers technology. The operating principle of these systems, the adsorbent-adsorbate pairs that are frequently applied and the enhancement techniques that allow improvement of their efficiency are presented. Analysis of the mass transfer and principles of mathematical modeling of such systems are also discussed. In the further part of the text, the results of experimental studies and comparison of these results with calculations based on the mathematical model of adsorption were presented.

Słowa kluczowe

  • adsorption chillers
  • heat and mass transfer enhancement
  • mathematical modeling
Otwarty dostęp

Computer System for Temperature Diagnostics of Cows

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 91 - 99

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to draw out a functional profile of a new computer system for temperature diagnostics of cows. This device enables oestrus detection including the silent one, early pregnancy (from the 5th day of insemination), acute inflammatory conditions and subclinical mastitis in a non-invasive manner during machine milking of cows. For diagnostic purposes one type of the measurement sensor was used, which is a unique feature in comparison to diagnostic devices mass produced and available on the market. A microprocessor module of the new milking system has intelligent devices features. It is construed of modern analogue and digital subassemblies and specialised measurement interfaces. The program structure of the system enables processing of automatically registered milk temperature values during cow milking on account of requirements of cow temperature diagnostics.

Słowa kluczowe

  • machine milking
  • cow diagnostics
  • milk temperature
  • intelligent system
Otwarty dostęp

The Change in Spectrum of Drops in the Exploitation Process of Agricultural Nozzles

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 101 - 108

Abstrakt

Abstract

Agricultural nozzles usually produce a different drops size depending on the pressure and the physical condition (work life) of the nozzle besides producing a wide range of the drops spectrum in the spray cloud. In this paper the standard flat fan nozzles were investigated regarding the effect of the working pressure and the nozzle physical condition (new and worn nozzles). The size of drops and the spectrum of drops across the long axis of the spray pattern were examined by using Sympatec GmbH Laser Diffraction. Reducing the working pressure from 3 to 2 and then to 1 caused production of larger drops, also using worn nozzles (especially with lower pressure) changed the drops size which is expected to be produced from the new nozzles. The standard flat fan nozzles produced a wide range of the drops spectrum inside the spray cloud, generally small drops (less than 150 µm) concentrated in the middle of the spray pattern while the big drops (250-350µm) were situated on the edge positions (70 cm from the centerline) of the spray pattern.

Słowa kluczowe

  • agricultural nozzles spectrum of drops volume median diameter
  • nozzles wear spray pressure
Otwarty dostęp

Wear of Farm Buildings in Selected Farms

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 109 - 116

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the article was to compare the level and structure of wear and tear of various types of the most popular agricultural buildings in the selected agricultural farms. A comparative analysis of physical and functional wear as well as investment expenditures of the selected objects in 2010-2014 was carried out. The scope of the article covered agricultural buildings with which 90 farms in the southern Poland are equipped. These farms were varied on account of the surface area and the production nature. The detailed analysis covered: cowsheds, piggeries, garages, fruit and vegetable storages, greenhouses and barns. The average age of the majority of farm buildings as well as a considerable degree of physical wear in comparison to a lower functional wear was determined.

Słowa kluczowe

  • physical wear
  • functional wear
  • investment expenditures
  • farm buildings
Otwarty dostęp

Chemical Composition and Selected Energy Properties of Black Locust Bark (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 117 - 124

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to assess the usefulness of bark of black locust trunks as an energy source based on chemical and energy properties. Material for research was collected from five forest stands of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). After determination of the bark mass, its participation in the mass of trees, the content of moisture in bark, density, calorific value, ash, content of C, H, N, S, K and P were established. In comparison to wood, bark has worse chemical properties on account of a high content of sulphur and nitrogen. In the conditions of research, black locust bark had an average density of approx. 400 kg·m−3 which is comparable to the willow and poplar wood. Average calorific value of black locust bark was by 10% higher than the average value of this parameter for bark wood.

Słowa kluczowe

  • solid biofuel
  • bark
  • black locust
Otwarty dostęp

Energy Consumption during Produciton of Corn Extrudates in Relation to the Process Parameters

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 125 - 131

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to determine the impact of the rotational screw speed and the level of moisture of raw material on the efficiency and energy consumption of the extrusion-cooking process. Measurement of the extrusion-cooking process efficiency (Q) was carried out through determination of the extrudates mass and energy consumption was determined with the use of a specific mechanical energy (SME). Based on the research results it was found out that the factor which significantly decides on the measured values was a rotational screw speed. Along with the increase of this parameter the energy consumption and extrusion-cooking process efficiency increased during processing of corn grits. Extrusion-cooking process efficiency depended also on the level of moisture of raw material. At lower moisture of raw material the efficiency decreased along with the increase of the screw speed and above 18% of the moisture level it increased. Reverse relation was reported during testing the energy consumption of the extrusion-cooking process.

Słowa kluczowe

  • extrusion-cooking
  • corn gruels
  • SME
  • process efficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Determination of Power Output and Impact on the Rheological Parameters of Raw Materials during Rolling

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 135 - 142

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents mathematical modelling of determining the power output over the rolling materials in the gap rotating rollers taking into account the rheological parameters of the final product. Determination of these parameters will reduce energy consumption, increase efficiency and reduce loss of material during production. This solution, suggested in the article, allows determination of the overall quality of the rolled product layer. Analysis of experimental results revealed that the main features of the machine provide the necessary stable shape products and provide good rheological parameters of these products. Rheological testing indicators allow for a rational approach to a decision to operate a rolling process. At the same time they improve quality control methods and will have an impact on the design parameters of rollers and modes of chambers. The proposed method not only allows obtaining a predetermined pressure, but also allows defining the optimal shape of the gap, wherein the pressure gradient is constant.

Słowa kluczowe

  • raw materials
  • hydrodynamics
  • rolling
  • energetic parameters
  • rheological parameters
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of Spouted-Microwave Drying on the Selected Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Zucchini

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 143 - 150

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mechanical and rheological properties of zucchini dried with spouted microwave - assisted heating was analysed. During spouted drying two levels of microwave power were applied: 100W and 250W. Tests were carried out for the raw material blanched in the temperature of 60ºC for 10 minutes and not subjected to a pretreatment. Compression resistance, cutting resistance and stresses relaxation ratios a and b were determined. A significant impact of drying conditions on the product quality within the scope of mechanical and rheological properties was reported. Raw zucchini has 5 to 7 times higher compression resistance, several times lowered cutting resistance and almost two times higher elasticity in comparison to dried material. Low-temperature blanching significantly affected the values of all investigated properties of dried zucchini. Change in microwave powers during spouted drying significantly influenced the increase of the compression work value.

Słowa kluczowe

  • drying
  • blanching
  • zucchini
  • resistance properties
  • rheology
Otwarty dostęp

The Impact of Dr Green Foliar Fertilization on Plant Health During the Growing Period as well as on the Potato Yield and Quality (Jelly Variety)

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 151 - 158

Abstrakt

Abstract

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the four major crops in Poland. In 2013 the area used for potato cultivation in Poland reached 270 thousand hectares. Among the important factors influencing the potato yield and quality are: soil cultivation and protection of plants. One of the most essential factors affecting the potato yield and quality is fertilization. The aim of the field trials carried out in 2014 on experimental potato plots was to determine the effect of dr Green foliar feed nutrients on plant health and on potato quality and yield (Jelly variety). The results of the studies and observations revealed that the application of Dr Green Ziemniak, Dr Green Start and Dr Green Energy foliar feeds favourably affected the quality, yield and structure of Jelly potato tuber crop.

Słowa kluczowe

  • potato
  • foliar fertilization
  • Dr Green technology
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Steering Gear Parameters of Crawler Tractor Cornering Ability

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 159 - 169

Abstrakt

Abstract

Crawler tractor with specific loads on the hitch loses traction abilities during cornering and causes intensive destruction of the surface layer of soil. This phenomenon may be limited if relevantly selected parameters of the cornering mechanisms were applied. The objective of the paper was to determine the impact of the cornering mechanism parameters on the crawler tractor maneuver ability. The object of the research was a planetary cornering mechanism which enables fluent change of the cornering radius through the change of the rotational speed of planetary gears drive by pneumatic engines. Relations of the turning radius to the slip of the spinning and overleaping crawler at the speed of 7 km·h-1 without the load on the hitch and with the load of 40 kN were defined. The average values of drift and the turning radius as a function of drive speed from 0 to 2.5 m·s−1 on the moist soil μ=0.4 and dry soil μ=0.8 were determined. Relations of the turning radius to the pressure of oil pump oil, to the drive speed and to the load on the hitch were set forth. The research proved that when using the hydraulic pump with the regulated expense the working pressure of oil may be maximally reduced to 30 MPa, the power of the pump may be reduced by twofold, the possibility of turning in difficult field conditions within the scope of the required speed may be enabled. To ensure the required turning radius of the crawler tractor it is recommended to install the pump with the efficiency of 33 cm3·rot−1 and a regulated hydraulic motor with the capacity of 56 сm3·rot−1 with a power regulation within 2.0-2.5, at the same time maximum pressure of liquid will not exceed 35 MPa and the determined power of the hydraulic gear will amount to 52.6 kW.

Słowa kluczowe

  • crawler tractor
  • planetary steering gear
  • steering radius
  • cornering ability
  • hydrostatic transmission
  • pump
  • hydraulic motor
18 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

The Impact of the Plate Diameter on the Determined Value of the Pre-Compaction Stress of Samples made of Silt Soil

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 5 - 14

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to investigate the impact of the plate diameter on the value of the measured pre-compaction stress of soil. The investigations were carried out on model samples with 100 mm diameter and 30 mm height made of the silt loam and the percentage moisture content of 13.7 and 21.9%. The following properties of the used material were measured: the granulation group, density of solid particles, humus content, reaction, plastic and liquid limit and the degree of saturation of samples. The samples were loaded with a testing machine using plates with varied diameters: 20, 30, 50, 70, 80, 90, 96, 98 and 99 mm. The pre-compaction stress value was measured with the method of searching for the crossing point of tangents with the secondary stress curve and original stress curve (a classic method). It was found out that for samples with saturation amounting to 13.7% of the moisture content the pre-compaction stress does not significantly depend on the plate diameter. For samples with saturation amounting to 21.9% of the moisture content the pre-compaction stress may significantly depend on the plate diameter. Based on the obtained results a conclusion was made that in the research on the pre-compaction stress with the method of uni-axial deformations, the relation of the plate diameter (d) to the diameter of the cylinder (D) should be within 0.3 ≤ d/D < 0.8.

Słowa kluczowe

  • soil
  • pre-compaction stress
  • methodology
  • conditions of deformation
Otwarty dostęp

The Rheological Properties of Redcurrant and Highbush Blueberry Berries

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 15 - 22

Abstrakt

Abstract

The load values corresponding to the compressive strength of high-bush blueberry and redcurrant fruits during the compression test between two rigid plates were measured. The changes of coefficient of elasticity and coefficient of viscosity values during the creep and the relaxation tests were studied in the selected interval of time, also direction of load application in relation to the longitudinal axis of fruit was considered. The creep and relaxation tests were carried out with the load of 40% of determined compressive strength of berries. To describe behavior of testing the material rheological standard, Maxwell and Kelvin models as well as experimental models were used. Comparatively small changes of parameter values of assumed empirical models were reported in the course of tests. It may be recognized as characteristic for the investigated material.

Słowa kluczowe

  • highbush blueberry
  • redcurrant
  • creep
  • relaxation
  • rheological models
Otwarty dostęp

The Use of Precise Agriculture Technology in a Farm in Podlasie Region

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 23 - 30

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article presents advantages resulting from implementation of the precise agriculture technology in a farm. The objective of the paper was to analyse devices used in precise agriculture on the example of the selected agricultural farm located in Podlaskie Voivodeship. Documentation of the farm and data included in the questionnaire of the survey carried out with the farm owner were the source of indispensable information. For determination of the costs of return of investments planned in the farm, the method of data analysis and TeeJeet calculation were used. Implementation of the precise agriculture technology in the investigated farm caused reduction of the costs related to running a farm. The introduced changes allowed saving approximately PLN 14 thousand annually on crop protection treatments and approximately PLN 19 thousand annually on the precise sowing of mineral fertilizers. Costs related to the purchase of devices which allow generation of such savings return after 3-4 years.

Słowa kluczowe

  • precise agriculture
  • production
  • farm
  • Podlasie region
Otwarty dostęp

The Average Coverage of Sprayed Objects Depending on the Coefficient of Spray Surface for the Selected Nozzles

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 31 - 41

Abstrakt

Abstract

The primary objective of the experiment was to determine the average coverage of the sprayed liquid on the plant surface according to the adopted coefficient of the spray surface of plants (Wpo). Examinations were performed under laboratory conditions, using a sprayer, which was moving with a constant operating speed, at various operating pressures. During the study four types of nozzles were used: standard and ejector. They sprayed objects, which were artificial plants, equipped with probes in the form of water-sensitive papers. Probes were placed on the horizontal and vertical surfaces of the plants. The degree of coverage was determined by computer image analysis. The analysis of obtained results showed that the coefficient of the surface spray has a significant impact on the size of the average surface coverage of sprayed objects. It was found that in case where the Wpo <1, standard nozzles are better for spraying, and when Wpo > 1, ejector nozzles and standard double may be used more successfully.

Słowa kluczowe

  • coverage degree
  • coefficient of sprayed surface of plants
  • sprayer type
  • spraying plants
Otwarty dostęp

Exploitation Assessment of New Holland CX780 Combine Harvester

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 43 - 51

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article presents an exploitation assessment of New Holland CX780 combine operation. Significant technical and technological progress is visible in modern harvesters. Inter alia, performance increased and elements improving the quality of work of harvesters appeared. The objective of the paper was to determine efficiency of the New Holland CX780 harvester operation including factors which affect its operation. Time structures of particular activities of combine operation and ratios of these times use were determined during tests. Yield value and moisture of collected seeds was determined. Studies proved that effective time of combine operation in the process of rapeseed and wheat grain harvesting was less than 50% and was caused by long preparation of a machine for operation. Preparation for operation of a combine influences its performance in the total time. It was 22% of the total operation time in case of wheat harvesting and 20% in case of rapeseed harvesting.

Słowa kluczowe

  • combine harvester
  • exploitation
  • harvesting
  • wheat
  • rapeseed
Otwarty dostęp

The Influence of Steam Cold Trap in the Vacuum Chamber Installation on the Ice Sublimation Speed

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 53 - 61

Abstrakt

Abstract

This work is a continuation of research on the differences in the sublimation speed of free ice and ice contained in the porous material. The results of previous research were published in Technica Agraria 12(1-2)/2013 (Diakun, Dolik, Kopec “The sublimation speed of free ice and ice in the sprat carcass”). A test stand used in studies was supplemented by a cold trap to prevent the steam flow into the vacuum pump and for the intensification of the ice sublimation process. The comparative tests: with the cold trap and without were performed. The research material (samples) was in the form of ice nugget, frozen sprat carcasses and ice frozen within the sponge (porous material model). The aim of the study was to examine the cold trap impact on the conditions within the vacuum chamber during sublimation and the speed of the process. The differences in the sublimation speed for the free ice, the ice from the frozen sprat and from the model were rated. The results showed a significant increase in the sublimation speed during the process with the active cold trap.

Słowa kluczowe

  • steam cold trap
  • sublimation
  • ice
  • sprat freeze-drying
Otwarty dostęp

Comparison of Economic Efficiency of Rapeseed Production in Farms with Varied Fertilization Variants

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 63 - 70

Abstrakt

Abstract

Intensive breeding is related to formation of considerable amount of manure which may be used as a natural fertilizer. Manure fertilization may cause reduction of the amount of applied mineral fertilizers and thus reduction of production costs. It may particularly relate to the species with great fertilization requirements such as winter rapeseed. The objective of the research was to compare economic efficiency of rapeseed production in two farms which use different fertilization variants. In one, only mineral fertilizers were used and in the second one – mineral fertilization was supplemented with manure organic fertilization. The use of manure caused reduction of expenditures on materials and raw materials used in production, in particular of fertilizers. At comparable yields obtained by two farms, technology based on manure fertilization proved to be more efficient.

Słowa kluczowe

  • winter rapeseed
  • fertilization
  • manure
  • economic efficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of the Mathematical Model of the Spray Dose Applied by the Field Sprayer Nozzles

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 71 - 79

Abstrakt

Abstract

The article presents analysis of the mathematical model for determination of a momentary dose of spray applied by the field sprayer nozzles which move on the curve with the forward speed the value of which may differ from the speed accepted for regulation. Regulation speed and regulation dose, real forward speed of a sprayer, angular velocity during the curve movement, and the coefficient of the nozzle location towards the axis of the sprayer turn are independent variables in the suggested model. Based on the mathematical model, plots were drawn and analyses of relation of the spray dose to particular variables were carried out including inter alia, a repeated field spray, application of a dose which considerably differs from the regulation dose and diversity of the dose on the working width of the sprayer.

Słowa kluczowe

  • model
  • sprayer
  • dose
  • forward speed
  • angle speed
Otwarty dostęp

Adsorption-Desorption Processes in Adsorption Chillers

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 81 - 89

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present the adsorption chillers technology. The operating principle of these systems, the adsorbent-adsorbate pairs that are frequently applied and the enhancement techniques that allow improvement of their efficiency are presented. Analysis of the mass transfer and principles of mathematical modeling of such systems are also discussed. In the further part of the text, the results of experimental studies and comparison of these results with calculations based on the mathematical model of adsorption were presented.

Słowa kluczowe

  • adsorption chillers
  • heat and mass transfer enhancement
  • mathematical modeling
Otwarty dostęp

Computer System for Temperature Diagnostics of Cows

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 91 - 99

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to draw out a functional profile of a new computer system for temperature diagnostics of cows. This device enables oestrus detection including the silent one, early pregnancy (from the 5th day of insemination), acute inflammatory conditions and subclinical mastitis in a non-invasive manner during machine milking of cows. For diagnostic purposes one type of the measurement sensor was used, which is a unique feature in comparison to diagnostic devices mass produced and available on the market. A microprocessor module of the new milking system has intelligent devices features. It is construed of modern analogue and digital subassemblies and specialised measurement interfaces. The program structure of the system enables processing of automatically registered milk temperature values during cow milking on account of requirements of cow temperature diagnostics.

Słowa kluczowe

  • machine milking
  • cow diagnostics
  • milk temperature
  • intelligent system
Otwarty dostęp

The Change in Spectrum of Drops in the Exploitation Process of Agricultural Nozzles

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 101 - 108

Abstrakt

Abstract

Agricultural nozzles usually produce a different drops size depending on the pressure and the physical condition (work life) of the nozzle besides producing a wide range of the drops spectrum in the spray cloud. In this paper the standard flat fan nozzles were investigated regarding the effect of the working pressure and the nozzle physical condition (new and worn nozzles). The size of drops and the spectrum of drops across the long axis of the spray pattern were examined by using Sympatec GmbH Laser Diffraction. Reducing the working pressure from 3 to 2 and then to 1 caused production of larger drops, also using worn nozzles (especially with lower pressure) changed the drops size which is expected to be produced from the new nozzles. The standard flat fan nozzles produced a wide range of the drops spectrum inside the spray cloud, generally small drops (less than 150 µm) concentrated in the middle of the spray pattern while the big drops (250-350µm) were situated on the edge positions (70 cm from the centerline) of the spray pattern.

Słowa kluczowe

  • agricultural nozzles spectrum of drops volume median diameter
  • nozzles wear spray pressure
Otwarty dostęp

Wear of Farm Buildings in Selected Farms

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 109 - 116

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the article was to compare the level and structure of wear and tear of various types of the most popular agricultural buildings in the selected agricultural farms. A comparative analysis of physical and functional wear as well as investment expenditures of the selected objects in 2010-2014 was carried out. The scope of the article covered agricultural buildings with which 90 farms in the southern Poland are equipped. These farms were varied on account of the surface area and the production nature. The detailed analysis covered: cowsheds, piggeries, garages, fruit and vegetable storages, greenhouses and barns. The average age of the majority of farm buildings as well as a considerable degree of physical wear in comparison to a lower functional wear was determined.

Słowa kluczowe

  • physical wear
  • functional wear
  • investment expenditures
  • farm buildings
Otwarty dostęp

Chemical Composition and Selected Energy Properties of Black Locust Bark (Robinia pseudoacacia L.)

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 117 - 124

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to assess the usefulness of bark of black locust trunks as an energy source based on chemical and energy properties. Material for research was collected from five forest stands of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). After determination of the bark mass, its participation in the mass of trees, the content of moisture in bark, density, calorific value, ash, content of C, H, N, S, K and P were established. In comparison to wood, bark has worse chemical properties on account of a high content of sulphur and nitrogen. In the conditions of research, black locust bark had an average density of approx. 400 kg·m−3 which is comparable to the willow and poplar wood. Average calorific value of black locust bark was by 10% higher than the average value of this parameter for bark wood.

Słowa kluczowe

  • solid biofuel
  • bark
  • black locust
Otwarty dostęp

Energy Consumption during Produciton of Corn Extrudates in Relation to the Process Parameters

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 125 - 131

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to determine the impact of the rotational screw speed and the level of moisture of raw material on the efficiency and energy consumption of the extrusion-cooking process. Measurement of the extrusion-cooking process efficiency (Q) was carried out through determination of the extrudates mass and energy consumption was determined with the use of a specific mechanical energy (SME). Based on the research results it was found out that the factor which significantly decides on the measured values was a rotational screw speed. Along with the increase of this parameter the energy consumption and extrusion-cooking process efficiency increased during processing of corn grits. Extrusion-cooking process efficiency depended also on the level of moisture of raw material. At lower moisture of raw material the efficiency decreased along with the increase of the screw speed and above 18% of the moisture level it increased. Reverse relation was reported during testing the energy consumption of the extrusion-cooking process.

Słowa kluczowe

  • extrusion-cooking
  • corn gruels
  • SME
  • process efficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Determination of Power Output and Impact on the Rheological Parameters of Raw Materials during Rolling

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 135 - 142

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper presents mathematical modelling of determining the power output over the rolling materials in the gap rotating rollers taking into account the rheological parameters of the final product. Determination of these parameters will reduce energy consumption, increase efficiency and reduce loss of material during production. This solution, suggested in the article, allows determination of the overall quality of the rolled product layer. Analysis of experimental results revealed that the main features of the machine provide the necessary stable shape products and provide good rheological parameters of these products. Rheological testing indicators allow for a rational approach to a decision to operate a rolling process. At the same time they improve quality control methods and will have an impact on the design parameters of rollers and modes of chambers. The proposed method not only allows obtaining a predetermined pressure, but also allows defining the optimal shape of the gap, wherein the pressure gradient is constant.

Słowa kluczowe

  • raw materials
  • hydrodynamics
  • rolling
  • energetic parameters
  • rheological parameters
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of Spouted-Microwave Drying on the Selected Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Zucchini

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 143 - 150

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mechanical and rheological properties of zucchini dried with spouted microwave - assisted heating was analysed. During spouted drying two levels of microwave power were applied: 100W and 250W. Tests were carried out for the raw material blanched in the temperature of 60ºC for 10 minutes and not subjected to a pretreatment. Compression resistance, cutting resistance and stresses relaxation ratios a and b were determined. A significant impact of drying conditions on the product quality within the scope of mechanical and rheological properties was reported. Raw zucchini has 5 to 7 times higher compression resistance, several times lowered cutting resistance and almost two times higher elasticity in comparison to dried material. Low-temperature blanching significantly affected the values of all investigated properties of dried zucchini. Change in microwave powers during spouted drying significantly influenced the increase of the compression work value.

Słowa kluczowe

  • drying
  • blanching
  • zucchini
  • resistance properties
  • rheology
Otwarty dostęp

The Impact of Dr Green Foliar Fertilization on Plant Health During the Growing Period as well as on the Potato Yield and Quality (Jelly Variety)

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 151 - 158

Abstrakt

Abstract

The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the four major crops in Poland. In 2013 the area used for potato cultivation in Poland reached 270 thousand hectares. Among the important factors influencing the potato yield and quality are: soil cultivation and protection of plants. One of the most essential factors affecting the potato yield and quality is fertilization. The aim of the field trials carried out in 2014 on experimental potato plots was to determine the effect of dr Green foliar feed nutrients on plant health and on potato quality and yield (Jelly variety). The results of the studies and observations revealed that the application of Dr Green Ziemniak, Dr Green Start and Dr Green Energy foliar feeds favourably affected the quality, yield and structure of Jelly potato tuber crop.

Słowa kluczowe

  • potato
  • foliar fertilization
  • Dr Green technology
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of Steering Gear Parameters of Crawler Tractor Cornering Ability

Data publikacji: 02 Aug 2016
Zakres stron: 159 - 169

Abstrakt

Abstract

Crawler tractor with specific loads on the hitch loses traction abilities during cornering and causes intensive destruction of the surface layer of soil. This phenomenon may be limited if relevantly selected parameters of the cornering mechanisms were applied. The objective of the paper was to determine the impact of the cornering mechanism parameters on the crawler tractor maneuver ability. The object of the research was a planetary cornering mechanism which enables fluent change of the cornering radius through the change of the rotational speed of planetary gears drive by pneumatic engines. Relations of the turning radius to the slip of the spinning and overleaping crawler at the speed of 7 km·h-1 without the load on the hitch and with the load of 40 kN were defined. The average values of drift and the turning radius as a function of drive speed from 0 to 2.5 m·s−1 on the moist soil μ=0.4 and dry soil μ=0.8 were determined. Relations of the turning radius to the pressure of oil pump oil, to the drive speed and to the load on the hitch were set forth. The research proved that when using the hydraulic pump with the regulated expense the working pressure of oil may be maximally reduced to 30 MPa, the power of the pump may be reduced by twofold, the possibility of turning in difficult field conditions within the scope of the required speed may be enabled. To ensure the required turning radius of the crawler tractor it is recommended to install the pump with the efficiency of 33 cm3·rot−1 and a regulated hydraulic motor with the capacity of 56 сm3·rot−1 with a power regulation within 2.0-2.5, at the same time maximum pressure of liquid will not exceed 35 MPa and the determined power of the hydraulic gear will amount to 52.6 kW.

Słowa kluczowe

  • crawler tractor
  • planetary steering gear
  • steering radius
  • cornering ability
  • hydrostatic transmission
  • pump
  • hydraulic motor

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