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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2719-9509
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1992
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 24 (2011): Edizione 6 (November 2011)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2719-9509
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1992
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

6 Articoli
Accesso libero

Editors’ Note

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 253 - 253

Astratto

Accesso libero

In Memoriam Dietrich Hoffmann

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 254 - 256

Astratto

Abstract

Dietrich Hoffmann passed away on April 20, 2011, at his home in Larchmont, New York. He had suffered from Parkinson's disease for more than 20 years. With Dietrich Hoffmann's death the tobacco community lost one of its most prominent scientists, who was familiar with all areas of tobacco research. His work guided and influenced a whole generation of scientists working in the tobacco industry, universities, regulatory agencies, national governments or international organizations, such as the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It is an obligation of honor for the authors M. Kunze, H. Klus, and the editors of BeiträgezurTabakforschung International publish a short tribute in memory of Dietrich Hoffmann.

Accesso libero

Problems with the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee (TPSAC) List of Harmful or Potentially Harmful Tobacco and/or Tobacco Smoke Components

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 258 - 276

Astratto

Abstract

The draft initial list of harmful or potentially harmful tobacco and/or smoke components prepared by the Constituent Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee (TPSAC) differs significantly from the similar lists prepared by Hoffmann and colleagues who had over four decades of experience and knowledge in tobacco and/or tobacco smoke components and their chemical and biological properties. The draft list comprises 106 components, 60 of which were included in the recent Hoffmann et al. lists but does not include nine of the Hoffmann-listed components. All of the 106 components appear in a list by Rodgman and Green of 162 tobacco and/or tobacco smoke components, each of which was defined as biologically adverse at one time or another over the previous years by one or more investigators. As with the Hoffmann et al. lists, the list by the TPSAC Constituent Subcommittee contains numerous anomalies.

· Three harmful components (dibenz[a, j]acridine, dibenz[a, h]acridine, 7H-dibenzo[c, g]carbazole) first reported in tobacco smoke in the 1960s that were not confirmed over the next forty years by many talented investigators in Japan, Germany, and the USA, including several at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

· Two harmful components (arsenic, N-nitrosodiethanolamine) the levels of which have decreased significantly because their precursors have not been used in tobacco agronomy for over three decades.

· The many water-soluble components that reach the lung at a much reduced level to exert their ciliastasis.

· A component (chrysene) that the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has removed from its tumorigenicity listing, a decision accepted by Hoffmann et al. who removed chrysene from their more recent tobacco/tobacco smoke listings of adverse components.

TPSAC gives no indication of the following:

· The relationship between the per cigarette delivery of some of the harmful components and their level of permissibility by Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA).

· The components on its list that significantly offset the adverse biological activity of several others of its listed components.

· Many components in tobacco and/or tobacco smoke not listed by TPSAC have been reported to significantly reduce the adverse biological effect of several components on the TPSAC list plus several others.

Accesso libero

Comparison of Mouth Level Exposure to ‘Tar’ and Nicotine in Smokers of Normal and Superslim King Size Cigarettes in Romania

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 277 - 288

Astratto

Abstract

Filter analysis methodology can be used to estimate smokers’ mouth level exposure (MLE) to ‘tar’ and nicotine from spent cigarette filters. Variation in smoking behaviour and cigarette design are known to have an impact on the range of ‘tar’ and nicotine MLE. Most ‘King Size’ (KS) cigarettes have a circumference of about 25 mm and are 83-84 mm long, with filters 20-27 mm in length. Recently, a slimmer format, described as a ‘King Size Superslim’ (KSSS), with a circumference of 17 mm, has become popular in several countries. Although several studies have estimated the MLE to ‘tar’ and nicotine of smokers of KS cigarettes, there have been no studies of KSSS smokers reported to date. KSSS cigarettes from Romania were chosen for this study with a single product to represent each 1, 4 and 7 mg machine-smoked ISO ‘tar’ yields. Since these products have filters containing activated carbon, comparisons were made with a single product at each ISO ‘tar’ level of KS cigarettes with both activated carbon filters (King Size Carbon - KSC), to assess the effect of format on MLE, and cellulose acetate filters (King Size Non-carbon - KSNC) to assess the effect of filter carbon on MLE. A target population of 50 to 70 male and female smokers (subjects) aged 21 to 50 years of each product were recruited in Romania, with self-reported consumption of 15-25 cigarettes per day. The subjects gave written informed consent before commencing the study. Mean MLE to ‘tar’ and nicotine obtained by the smokers of all products were greater than ISO pack ‘tar’ and nicotine as reported in numerous studies. Regarding MLE to ‘tar’, there were no significant differences between the KSC, KSNC and KSSS smokers within each of the 1, 4 and 7 mg machine-smoked ISO ‘tar’ yield groups, but there were significant differences between the ISO pack ‘tar’ groups: 1 mg < 4 mg < 7 mg. Regarding MLE to nicotine, KSC and KSSS smokers obtained similar yields within an ISO pack ‘tar’ group. KSNC smokers obtained lower MLE nicotine yields than the KSC and KSSS smokers at both 4 mg and 7 mg ISO pack ‘tar’, corresponding to lower blend nicotine levels. No gender differences were observed.

Accesso libero

Optimal Spacing of Pheromone Traps for Monitoring the Tobacco Moth, Ephestiaelutella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Phyralidae), in Tobacco Warehouses

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 289 - 292

Astratto

Abstract

Pheromone traps have been widely used for monitoring insect pests in tobacco factories and warehouses. Generally, these traps are placed 10-20 m apart, although a precise scientific rationale for this practice is not available. We examined the effect of trap density on the recovery and localization of tobacco moths released in a 42.3 × 36.5 × 4.0 m tobacco warehouse compartment (1540 m2). In single-trap experiments (0.06 traps/100m2), 15-51% (33% on average) of the released male moths were captured. The capture ratio was not correlated with the distance between the trap and the release point; the highest catch rate was attained when a trap was placed at the most distant position: 47 m from the release point. Capture data from experiments using groups of 4-23 traps revealed that the highest catch rates were always attained by the trap nearest the release point when more than eight traps (0.5 traps/100 m2) were set. These results indicate that the number of traps required for monitoring purposes should be changed - one trap is sufficient for detecting the presence or absence of infestation in a 1540 m2 warehouse compartment (0.06 traps/100 m2); more than eight traps (0.5 traps/100 m2) should be set for localization, allowing the location of the infestation to be inferred from the trap with the highest catch rate.

Accesso libero

The Full Bibliography of Dietrich Hoffmann

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 293 - 313

Astratto

Abstract

The chronology of lifetime publications authored or coauthored by Dr Dietrich Hoffmann covers a broad spectrum of different aspects of chemical carcinogenesis, the effects of air pollution and diet on cancer and - last but not least - all areas of tobacco research. In addition, Dr Dietrich Hoffmann has served as editor of several monographs concerned with research in the fields mentioned above. The important contributions of Dietrich Hoffmann to the science of carcinogenicity caused by lifestyle and environmental factors are impressively documented in the following list of his publications. It is based on entries in the scientific archive of Dr Hoffmann, which were kindly made available to the editors of this journal by MrsIlse Hoffmann. The material was reviewed and expanded by Dr Barbara Boenke of the Editorial Office of “BeiträgezurTabakforschung International”.

6 Articoli
Accesso libero

Editors’ Note

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 253 - 253

Astratto

Accesso libero

In Memoriam Dietrich Hoffmann

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 254 - 256

Astratto

Abstract

Dietrich Hoffmann passed away on April 20, 2011, at his home in Larchmont, New York. He had suffered from Parkinson's disease for more than 20 years. With Dietrich Hoffmann's death the tobacco community lost one of its most prominent scientists, who was familiar with all areas of tobacco research. His work guided and influenced a whole generation of scientists working in the tobacco industry, universities, regulatory agencies, national governments or international organizations, such as the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). It is an obligation of honor for the authors M. Kunze, H. Klus, and the editors of BeiträgezurTabakforschung International publish a short tribute in memory of Dietrich Hoffmann.

Accesso libero

Problems with the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee (TPSAC) List of Harmful or Potentially Harmful Tobacco and/or Tobacco Smoke Components

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 258 - 276

Astratto

Abstract

The draft initial list of harmful or potentially harmful tobacco and/or smoke components prepared by the Constituent Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee (TPSAC) differs significantly from the similar lists prepared by Hoffmann and colleagues who had over four decades of experience and knowledge in tobacco and/or tobacco smoke components and their chemical and biological properties. The draft list comprises 106 components, 60 of which were included in the recent Hoffmann et al. lists but does not include nine of the Hoffmann-listed components. All of the 106 components appear in a list by Rodgman and Green of 162 tobacco and/or tobacco smoke components, each of which was defined as biologically adverse at one time or another over the previous years by one or more investigators. As with the Hoffmann et al. lists, the list by the TPSAC Constituent Subcommittee contains numerous anomalies.

· Three harmful components (dibenz[a, j]acridine, dibenz[a, h]acridine, 7H-dibenzo[c, g]carbazole) first reported in tobacco smoke in the 1960s that were not confirmed over the next forty years by many talented investigators in Japan, Germany, and the USA, including several at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

· Two harmful components (arsenic, N-nitrosodiethanolamine) the levels of which have decreased significantly because their precursors have not been used in tobacco agronomy for over three decades.

· The many water-soluble components that reach the lung at a much reduced level to exert their ciliastasis.

· A component (chrysene) that the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has removed from its tumorigenicity listing, a decision accepted by Hoffmann et al. who removed chrysene from their more recent tobacco/tobacco smoke listings of adverse components.

TPSAC gives no indication of the following:

· The relationship between the per cigarette delivery of some of the harmful components and their level of permissibility by Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA).

· The components on its list that significantly offset the adverse biological activity of several others of its listed components.

· Many components in tobacco and/or tobacco smoke not listed by TPSAC have been reported to significantly reduce the adverse biological effect of several components on the TPSAC list plus several others.

Accesso libero

Comparison of Mouth Level Exposure to ‘Tar’ and Nicotine in Smokers of Normal and Superslim King Size Cigarettes in Romania

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 277 - 288

Astratto

Abstract

Filter analysis methodology can be used to estimate smokers’ mouth level exposure (MLE) to ‘tar’ and nicotine from spent cigarette filters. Variation in smoking behaviour and cigarette design are known to have an impact on the range of ‘tar’ and nicotine MLE. Most ‘King Size’ (KS) cigarettes have a circumference of about 25 mm and are 83-84 mm long, with filters 20-27 mm in length. Recently, a slimmer format, described as a ‘King Size Superslim’ (KSSS), with a circumference of 17 mm, has become popular in several countries. Although several studies have estimated the MLE to ‘tar’ and nicotine of smokers of KS cigarettes, there have been no studies of KSSS smokers reported to date. KSSS cigarettes from Romania were chosen for this study with a single product to represent each 1, 4 and 7 mg machine-smoked ISO ‘tar’ yields. Since these products have filters containing activated carbon, comparisons were made with a single product at each ISO ‘tar’ level of KS cigarettes with both activated carbon filters (King Size Carbon - KSC), to assess the effect of format on MLE, and cellulose acetate filters (King Size Non-carbon - KSNC) to assess the effect of filter carbon on MLE. A target population of 50 to 70 male and female smokers (subjects) aged 21 to 50 years of each product were recruited in Romania, with self-reported consumption of 15-25 cigarettes per day. The subjects gave written informed consent before commencing the study. Mean MLE to ‘tar’ and nicotine obtained by the smokers of all products were greater than ISO pack ‘tar’ and nicotine as reported in numerous studies. Regarding MLE to ‘tar’, there were no significant differences between the KSC, KSNC and KSSS smokers within each of the 1, 4 and 7 mg machine-smoked ISO ‘tar’ yield groups, but there were significant differences between the ISO pack ‘tar’ groups: 1 mg < 4 mg < 7 mg. Regarding MLE to nicotine, KSC and KSSS smokers obtained similar yields within an ISO pack ‘tar’ group. KSNC smokers obtained lower MLE nicotine yields than the KSC and KSSS smokers at both 4 mg and 7 mg ISO pack ‘tar’, corresponding to lower blend nicotine levels. No gender differences were observed.

Accesso libero

Optimal Spacing of Pheromone Traps for Monitoring the Tobacco Moth, Ephestiaelutella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Phyralidae), in Tobacco Warehouses

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 289 - 292

Astratto

Abstract

Pheromone traps have been widely used for monitoring insect pests in tobacco factories and warehouses. Generally, these traps are placed 10-20 m apart, although a precise scientific rationale for this practice is not available. We examined the effect of trap density on the recovery and localization of tobacco moths released in a 42.3 × 36.5 × 4.0 m tobacco warehouse compartment (1540 m2). In single-trap experiments (0.06 traps/100m2), 15-51% (33% on average) of the released male moths were captured. The capture ratio was not correlated with the distance between the trap and the release point; the highest catch rate was attained when a trap was placed at the most distant position: 47 m from the release point. Capture data from experiments using groups of 4-23 traps revealed that the highest catch rates were always attained by the trap nearest the release point when more than eight traps (0.5 traps/100 m2) were set. These results indicate that the number of traps required for monitoring purposes should be changed - one trap is sufficient for detecting the presence or absence of infestation in a 1540 m2 warehouse compartment (0.06 traps/100 m2); more than eight traps (0.5 traps/100 m2) should be set for localization, allowing the location of the infestation to be inferred from the trap with the highest catch rate.

Accesso libero

The Full Bibliography of Dietrich Hoffmann

Pubblicato online: 30 Dec 2014
Pagine: 293 - 313

Astratto

Abstract

The chronology of lifetime publications authored or coauthored by Dr Dietrich Hoffmann covers a broad spectrum of different aspects of chemical carcinogenesis, the effects of air pollution and diet on cancer and - last but not least - all areas of tobacco research. In addition, Dr Dietrich Hoffmann has served as editor of several monographs concerned with research in the fields mentioned above. The important contributions of Dietrich Hoffmann to the science of carcinogenicity caused by lifestyle and environmental factors are impressively documented in the following list of his publications. It is based on entries in the scientific archive of Dr Hoffmann, which were kindly made available to the editors of this journal by MrsIlse Hoffmann. The material was reviewed and expanded by Dr Barbara Boenke of the Editorial Office of “BeiträgezurTabakforschung International”.

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