Rivista e Edizione

Volume 31 (2022): Edizione 2 (July 2022)

Volume 31 (2022): Edizione 1 (March 2022)

Volume 30 (2021): Edizione 4 (November 2021)

Volume 30 (2021): Edizione 3 (July 2021)

Volume 30 (2021): Edizione 2 (May 2021)

Volume 30 (2021): Edizione 1 (March 2021)

Volume 29 (2020): Edizione 3 (December 2020)

Volume 29 (2020): Edizione 2 (August 2020)

Volume 29 (2020): Edizione 1 (April 2020)

Volume 28 (2019): Edizione 7 (December 2019)

Volume 28 (2019): Edizione 6 (August 2019)

Volume 28 (2019): Edizione 5 (May 2019)

Volume 28 (2018): Edizione 4 (December 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Edizione 3 (October 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Edizione 2 (August 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Edizione 1 (April 2018)

Volume 27 (2017): Edizione 8 (December 2017)

Volume 27 (2017): Edizione 7 (September 2017)

Volume 27 (2017): Edizione 6 (April 2017)

Volume 27 (2017): Edizione 5 (January 2017)

Volume 27 (2016): Edizione 4 (October 2016)

Volume 27 (2016): Edizione 3 (July 2016)

Volume 27 (2016): Edizione 2 (April 2016)

Volume 27 (2016): Edizione 1 (January 2016)

Volume 26 (2015): Edizione 7 (September 2015)

Volume 26 (2015): Edizione 6 (June 2015)

Volume 26 (2015): Edizione 5 (March 2015)

Volume 26 (2014): Edizione 4 (December 2014)

Volume 26 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Volume 26 (2014): Edizione 2 (July 2014)

Volume 26 (2014): Edizione 1 (April 2014)

Volume 25 (2013): Edizione 8 (December 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Edizione 7 (September 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Edizione 6 (June 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Edizione 5 (March 2013)

Volume 25 (2012): Edizione 4 (December 2012)

Volume 25 (2012): Edizione 3 (August 2012)

Volume 25 (2012): Edizione 2 (June 2012)

Volume 25 (2012): Edizione 1 (February 2012)

Volume 24 (2011): Edizione 6 (November 2011)

Volume 24 (2011): Edizione 5 (May 2011)

Volume 24 (2011): Edizione 4 (January 2011)

Volume 24 (2010): Edizione 3 (November 2010)

Volume 24 (2010): Edizione 2 (July 2010)

Volume 24 (2010): Edizione 1 (April 2010)

Volume 23 (2009): Edizione 6 (December 2009)

Volume 23 (2009): Edizione 5 (September 2009)

Volume 23 (2009): Edizione 4 (May 2009)

Volume 23 (2008): Edizione 3 (December 2008)

Volume 23 (2008): Edizione 2 (August 2008)

Volume 23 (2008): Edizione 1 (April 2008)

Volume 22 (2007): Edizione 5 (June 2007)

Volume 22 (2007): Edizione 4 (January 2007)

Volume 22 (2006): Edizione 3 (October 2006)

Volume 22 (2006): Edizione 2 (July 2006)

Volume 22 (2006): Edizione 1 (April 2006)

Volume 21 (2005): Edizione 8 (December 2005)

Volume 21 (2005): Edizione 7 (October 2005)

Volume 21 (2005): Edizione 6 (July 2005)

Volume 21 (2005): Edizione 5 (April 2005)

Volume 21 (2004): Edizione 4 (December 2004)

Volume 21 (2004): Edizione 3 (October 2004)

Volume 21 (2004): Edizione 2 (July 2004)

Volume 21 (2004): Edizione 1 (March 2004)

Volume 20 (2003): Edizione 8 (December 2003)

Volume 20 (2003): Edizione 7 (November 2003)

Volume 20 (2003): Edizione 6 (July 2003)

Volume 20 (2003): Edizione 5 (March 2003)

Volume 20 (2002): Edizione 4 (December 2002)

Volume 20 (2002): Edizione 3 (August 2002)

Volume 20 (2002): Edizione 2 (June 2002)

Volume 20 (2002): Edizione 1 (February 2002)

Volume 19 (2001): Edizione 7 (October 2001)

Volume 19 (2001): Edizione 6 (July 2001)

Volume 19 (2001): Edizione 5 (April 2001)

Volume 19 (2001): Edizione 4 (January 2001)

Volume 19 (2000): Edizione 3 (October 2000)

Volume 19 (2000): Edizione 2 (July 2000)

Volume 19 (2000): Edizione 1 (April 2000)

Volume 18 (1999): Edizione 6 (December 1999)

Volume 18 (1999): Edizione 5 (July 1999)

Volume 18 (1999): Edizione 4 (April 1999)

Volume 18 (1998): Edizione 3 (December 1998)

Volume 18 (1998): Edizione 2 (August 1998)

Volume 18 (1998): Edizione 1 (April 1998)

Volume 17 (1997): Edizione 3 (December 1997)

Volume 17 (1997): Edizione 2 (September 1997)

Volume 17 (1996): Edizione 1 (December 1996)

Volume 16 (1995): Edizione 4 (November 1995)

Volume 16 (1995): Edizione 3 (July 1995)

Volume 16 (1994): Edizione 2 (June 1994)

Volume 16 (1994): Edizione 1 (May 1994)

Volume 15 (1992): Edizione 3 (November 1992)

Volume 15 (1992): Edizione 2 (April 1992)

Volume 15 (1991): Edizione 1 (August 1991)

Volume 14 (1990): Edizione 6 (June 1990)

Volume 14 (1989): Edizione 5 (October 1989)

Volume 14 (1989): Edizione 4 (February 1989)

Volume 14 (1989): Edizione 3 (January 1989)

Volume 14 (1988): Edizione 2 (October 1988)

Volume 14 (1987): Edizione 1 (December 1987)

Volume 13 (1986): Edizione 5 (December 1986)

Volume 13 (1986): Edizione 4 (August 1986)

Volume 13 (1986): Edizione 3 (July 1986)

Volume 13 (1985): Edizione 2 (December 1985)

Volume 13 (1985): Edizione 1 (January 1985)

Volume 12 (1984): Edizione 5 (November 1984)

Volume 12 (1984): Edizione 4 (July 1984)

Volume 12 (1984): Edizione 3 (February 1984)

Volume 12 (1983): Edizione 2 (June 1983)

Volume 12 (1983): Edizione 1 (February 1983)

Volume 11 (1982): Edizione 5 (November 1982)

Volume 11 (1982): Edizione 4 (August 1982)

Volume 11 (1982): Edizione 3 (January 1982)

Volume 11 (1981): Edizione 2 (September 1981)

Volume 11 (1981): Edizione 1 (March 1981)

Volume 10 (1980): Edizione 3 (October 1980)

Volume 10 (1980): Edizione 2 (July 1980)

Volume 10 (1979): Edizione 1 (December 1979)

Volume 9 (1978): Edizione 5 (December 1978)

Volume 9 (1978): Edizione 4 (July 1978)

Volume 9 (1977): Edizione 3 (October 1977)

Volume 9 (1977): Edizione 2 (June 1977)

Volume 9 (1977): Edizione 1 (April 1977)

Volume 8 (1976): Edizione 7 (October 1976)

Volume 8 (1976): Edizione 6 (June 1976)

Volume 8 (1976): Edizione 5 (March 1976)

Volume 8 (1975): Edizione 4 (December 1975)

Volume 8 (1975): Edizione 3 (August 1975)

Volume 8 (1975): Edizione 2 (May 1975)

Volume 8 (1975): Edizione 1 (January 1975)

Volume 7 (1974): Edizione 5 (September 1974)

Volume 7 (1974): Edizione 4 (April 1974)

Volume 7 (1973): Edizione 3 (November 1973)

Volume 7 (1973): Edizione 2 (June 1973)

Volume 7 (1973): Edizione 1 (January 1973)

Volume 6 (1972): Edizione 5 (October 1972)

Volume 6 (1972): Edizione 4 (August 1972)

Volume 6 (1972): Edizione 3 (March 1972)

Volume 6 (1971): Edizione 2 (September 1971)

Volume 6 (1971): Edizione 1 (July 1971)

Volume 5 (1970): Edizione 6 (December 1970)

Volume 5 (1970): Edizione 5 (November 1970)

Volume 5 (1970): Edizione 4 (August 1970)

Volume 5 (1969): Edizione 3 (December 1969)

Volume 5 (1969): Edizione 2 (August 1969)

Volume 5 (1969): Edizione 1 (June 1969)

Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 7 (December 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 6 (November 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 5 (July 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 4 (May 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 3 (February 1968)

Volume 4 (1967): Edizione 2 (October 1967)

Volume 4 (1967): Edizione 1 (August 1967)

Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 9 (December 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 8 (December 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 7 (November 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 6 (September 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 5 (May 1966)

Volume 3 (1965): Edizione 4 (October 1965)

Volume 3 (1965): Edizione 3 (August 1965)

Volume 3 (1965): Edizione 2 (May 1965)

Volume 3 (1965): Edizione 1 (April 1965)

Volume 2 (1964): Edizione 7 (November 1964)

Volume 2 (1964): Edizione 6 (October 1964)

Volume 2 (1964): Edizione 5 (May 1964)

Volume 2 (1964): Edizione 4 (February 1964)

Volume 2 (1963): Edizione 3 (October 1963)

Volume 2 (1963): Edizione 2 (June 1963)

Volume 2 (1963): Edizione 1 (March 1963)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 10 (December 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 9 (December 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 8 (November 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 7 (November 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 6 (July 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 5 (February 1962)

Volume 1 (1961): Edizione 4 (November 1961)

Volume 1 (1961): Edizione 3 (August 1961)

Volume 1 (1961): Edizione 2 (May 1961)

Volume 1 (1961): Edizione 1 (January 1961)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2719-9509
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1992
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 10 (1980): Edizione 2 (July 1980)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2719-9509
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1992
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

10 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Effect of Filter Ventilation on the Yield and Composition of Mainstream and Sidestream Smokes

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 81 - 90

Astratto

Abstract

Apparatus and procedures were developed to measure condensate, nicotine, water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in mainstream and sidestream smoke. These were used to determine the effect of air dilution through filter ventilation on mainstream and sidestream smoke composition. It was found that there is a gradual transition from 'puffing combustion to smoldering combustion as the amount of diluting air entering the system increases. This is directly related to the decreased puff volume at the cone and decreased amount of tobacco consumed per puff. On a per· gram of tobacco consumed basis, sidestream combustion product formation is not changed but the amounts of carbon monoxide and water in the mainstream are decreased, as ventilation increases.

Accesso libero

The Determination of Nitric Oxide in Gas Phase Cigarette Smoke by Non-dispersive Infrared Analysis

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 91 - 99

Astratto

Abstract

Nitric oxide in cigarette smoke was conveniently determined by non-dispersive infrared analysis (NDIR). Recoveries of 95 % were obtained with standard gas-air mixtures but recoveries from smoke increased from 87% for high-yield to 91 % for low-yield cigarettes. Relative error was about 4 %. A reduction in the dead volume of Cambridge filter cassettes, to reduce the amount of NO reacted between puffs, increased NO deliveries of cigarettes by 4%. Deliveries of NO were estimated to average 4 % lower due to oxidation, but reaction with other smoke components reduced them further depending upon concentrations. The NO deliveries of cigarettes increased as blend nitrate increased and as the flow of air around cigarettes decreased. Nitric oxide in smoke and in standard gas-air mixtures, determined by non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy, was substantiated by an automated colorimetric analysis. Interfering smoke species were determined and circumvented in both methods.

Accesso libero

Quantitative Determination of Naphthalenes in Tobacco Smoke by Gas Chromatography

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 100 - 105

Astratto

Abstract

Our previously developed method for the determination of three-ring and larger polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (P AH) of cigarette smoke was modified to allow quantitative determination of the more volatile P AH. Recovery tests with 14C-naphthalene showed that this smoke P AH was being lost to a large extent during the usual solvent evaporation steps. Special solvent removal techniques, using very efficient distillation equipment, were developed and tested to quantitatively recover the naphthalenes. The gas chromatographic profile for the volatile P AH, including naphthalenes, fluorenes, and related compounds, is discussed in relation to the modified procedure. Quantitative values for some of the PAH of cigarette smoke are given. The developed solvent removal and concentration techniques should be most applicable to the analysis of environmental samples containing volatile compounds.

Accesso libero

Coulometric Determination of Hydrogen Cyanide in Cigarette Smoke

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 106 - 110

Astratto

Abstract

We have described a method for determining the HCN delivered in whole cigarette smoke and in smoke condensate extracted from filters. The method is simple, rapid and precise. It eliminates many manual operations and is semi-automatic.

Accesso libero

A Convenient Method for the Determination of Ambient Nicotine

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 111 - 113

Astratto

Abstract

The impinger tube/gas chromatograph sampling technique has distinct advantages in specificity, simplicity and accuracy over the older literature methods for airborne nicotine sampling and analysis. The impinger/GC method was found to be useful in determining nicotine concentrations in both low and high nicotine environments.

Accesso libero

Pesticide-treated vs. “Pesticide-free” Tobacco

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 114 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

A special study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effects of pesticide treatment on tobacco in comparison with tobacco not treated with any pesticide. For the purpose of growing these tobaccos, experimental plots were selected on Prince Edward Island, Canada, where contamination of air, soil and water was at a minimum. The tobacco leaf was analyzed for 35 components and 28 pesticide residues. These samples are to be used for smoke analysis and bioassay. The results will be reported in a later publication.

Accesso libero

Effects Attributed to Maleic Hydrazide when used for Chemical Sucker Control on Bright Tobacco

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 120 - 126

Astratto

Abstract

The effect of maleic hydrazide (MH) per se on bright tobacco was determined by comparing plants treated with MH to those without MH under conditions of good chemical sucker control. Sequential applications of each of five contact-type agents with MH one week later (Group I) were compared to dual applications of each of the same contact agents (Group II). In Group II suckers missed during applications were individually wetted to ensure excellent control. Sucker control was measured as 95 % for Group I and assumed to be 99 % for Group II. There were no agronomic differences between Groups I and II. In the visual warehouse appraisal, there was only a statistical difference for thin-bodied tobaccos between the two groups and a trend for slightly more heavy-bodied tobaccos in Group I. The chemical and physical analyses showed that filling value at 13 % moisture and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) measured at 60 % relative humidity were significantly lower in Group I than Group II. The result for EMC was questioned. Actual values for total alkaloids, total volatile bases minus nicotine, total ash, and alkalinity number of water-soluble ash were lower and reducing sugars were higher where MH was used. Except for EMC, the findings in this study reflected those established in studies where MH-treated and normally hand-suckered tobaccos were compared, but the differences here were generally not as great.

Accesso libero

Residues of Ethoprop and Disulfoton in Soils and Flue-cured Tobacco

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 127 - 133

Astratto

Abstract

Soil samples collected approximately 21 days after pretransplant applications of ethoprop to flue-cured tobacco land contained residues averaging 0.54 and 1.13 ppm, respectively, for the 6.7 and 13.4 kg/ha rates. In contrast total residues of disulfoton (disulfoton plus three metabolites) averaged 0.28 and 0.54 ppm at 3.4 and 6.7 kg/ha rates. Concentrations of both compounds decreased with time at each of two locations. Residue levels of ethoprop in the first harvest of flue-cured tobacco from the Central Crops Research Station (Clayton, North Carolina) were 0.04, 0.02, and 0.08 ppm; from the Upper Piedmont Research Station (Reidsville, North Carolina), residues were 0.20, 0.16, and 0.27 ppm, respectively, for rates of 6.7, 6.7 combination (with disulfoton), and 13.4 kg/ha. Residues declined in succeeding harvests. Total residues of disulfoton plus three metabolites in the first sample of tobacco harvested from Central Crops averaged 2.52 and 1.89 ppm; and from Upper Piedmont residues averaged 10.24 and 6.50 ppm, respectively, for rates of 3.4 and 6.7 kg/ha. The residues declined in succeeding harvest and were 0.14 ppm or less by the fourth harvest at Central Crops and 0.08 ppm or less by the fifth harvest at Upper Piedmont.

Accesso libero

Transfer of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues into Cigarette Smoke as a Function of Tobacco Blends and Filter Types

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 134 - 138

Astratto

Abstract

The transfer during smoking of pesticides contained in tobacco into the smoke and the filter of cigarettes was investigated. The overall transfer into the mainstream smoke was 17 %. It was found to be independent of the type of the tobacco blend (American, Maryland, Virginia and Oriental). The pesticide retention of the following four filters was investigated: cellulose filter, cellulose acetate filter with low and high pressure drop, and a charcoal filter, characterized by nicotine retentions of 38 %, 27 %, 48 % and 54 %, respectively. The corresponding pesticide retentions found were 40 %, 21 %, 39 % and 38 %, i.e. lower than the nicotine retention in the cellulose acetate, and significantly lower in the charcoal filter. A 3 % degradation of p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT contained in tobacco to p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE respectively, was also observed. The pesticides initially contained in the tobacco part of the cigarette butt decreased during smoking. This appears to be the result of some initial condensation of substances carried through by the smoke stream (as indicated by the presence of pesticide degradation products), followed by strong desorption during the very last puffs.

Accesso libero

Distillation Method for the Determination of Inorganic Bromide in Cured Tobacco

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 139 - 143

Astratto

Abstract

A rapid, reliable and inexpensive method for the determination of inorganic bromide in cured tobacco is presented. The method features a unique CrO3 selective oxidation with steam in Markham stills. The results by this method have been compared with five other methods. The reliability of the distillation method is shown by the recoveries of spiked samples at a mean of 97.8 %. The average standard error of ± 0.03 mg g-1 indicates an acceptable level of precision. No loss of bromide takes place in the ashing process.

10 Articoli
Accesso libero

The Effect of Filter Ventilation on the Yield and Composition of Mainstream and Sidestream Smokes

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 81 - 90

Astratto

Abstract

Apparatus and procedures were developed to measure condensate, nicotine, water, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in mainstream and sidestream smoke. These were used to determine the effect of air dilution through filter ventilation on mainstream and sidestream smoke composition. It was found that there is a gradual transition from 'puffing combustion to smoldering combustion as the amount of diluting air entering the system increases. This is directly related to the decreased puff volume at the cone and decreased amount of tobacco consumed per puff. On a per· gram of tobacco consumed basis, sidestream combustion product formation is not changed but the amounts of carbon monoxide and water in the mainstream are decreased, as ventilation increases.

Accesso libero

The Determination of Nitric Oxide in Gas Phase Cigarette Smoke by Non-dispersive Infrared Analysis

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 91 - 99

Astratto

Abstract

Nitric oxide in cigarette smoke was conveniently determined by non-dispersive infrared analysis (NDIR). Recoveries of 95 % were obtained with standard gas-air mixtures but recoveries from smoke increased from 87% for high-yield to 91 % for low-yield cigarettes. Relative error was about 4 %. A reduction in the dead volume of Cambridge filter cassettes, to reduce the amount of NO reacted between puffs, increased NO deliveries of cigarettes by 4%. Deliveries of NO were estimated to average 4 % lower due to oxidation, but reaction with other smoke components reduced them further depending upon concentrations. The NO deliveries of cigarettes increased as blend nitrate increased and as the flow of air around cigarettes decreased. Nitric oxide in smoke and in standard gas-air mixtures, determined by non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy, was substantiated by an automated colorimetric analysis. Interfering smoke species were determined and circumvented in both methods.

Accesso libero

Quantitative Determination of Naphthalenes in Tobacco Smoke by Gas Chromatography

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 100 - 105

Astratto

Abstract

Our previously developed method for the determination of three-ring and larger polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (P AH) of cigarette smoke was modified to allow quantitative determination of the more volatile P AH. Recovery tests with 14C-naphthalene showed that this smoke P AH was being lost to a large extent during the usual solvent evaporation steps. Special solvent removal techniques, using very efficient distillation equipment, were developed and tested to quantitatively recover the naphthalenes. The gas chromatographic profile for the volatile P AH, including naphthalenes, fluorenes, and related compounds, is discussed in relation to the modified procedure. Quantitative values for some of the PAH of cigarette smoke are given. The developed solvent removal and concentration techniques should be most applicable to the analysis of environmental samples containing volatile compounds.

Accesso libero

Coulometric Determination of Hydrogen Cyanide in Cigarette Smoke

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 106 - 110

Astratto

Abstract

We have described a method for determining the HCN delivered in whole cigarette smoke and in smoke condensate extracted from filters. The method is simple, rapid and precise. It eliminates many manual operations and is semi-automatic.

Accesso libero

A Convenient Method for the Determination of Ambient Nicotine

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 111 - 113

Astratto

Abstract

The impinger tube/gas chromatograph sampling technique has distinct advantages in specificity, simplicity and accuracy over the older literature methods for airborne nicotine sampling and analysis. The impinger/GC method was found to be useful in determining nicotine concentrations in both low and high nicotine environments.

Accesso libero

Pesticide-treated vs. “Pesticide-free” Tobacco

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 114 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

A special study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the effects of pesticide treatment on tobacco in comparison with tobacco not treated with any pesticide. For the purpose of growing these tobaccos, experimental plots were selected on Prince Edward Island, Canada, where contamination of air, soil and water was at a minimum. The tobacco leaf was analyzed for 35 components and 28 pesticide residues. These samples are to be used for smoke analysis and bioassay. The results will be reported in a later publication.

Accesso libero

Effects Attributed to Maleic Hydrazide when used for Chemical Sucker Control on Bright Tobacco

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 120 - 126

Astratto

Abstract

The effect of maleic hydrazide (MH) per se on bright tobacco was determined by comparing plants treated with MH to those without MH under conditions of good chemical sucker control. Sequential applications of each of five contact-type agents with MH one week later (Group I) were compared to dual applications of each of the same contact agents (Group II). In Group II suckers missed during applications were individually wetted to ensure excellent control. Sucker control was measured as 95 % for Group I and assumed to be 99 % for Group II. There were no agronomic differences between Groups I and II. In the visual warehouse appraisal, there was only a statistical difference for thin-bodied tobaccos between the two groups and a trend for slightly more heavy-bodied tobaccos in Group I. The chemical and physical analyses showed that filling value at 13 % moisture and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) measured at 60 % relative humidity were significantly lower in Group I than Group II. The result for EMC was questioned. Actual values for total alkaloids, total volatile bases minus nicotine, total ash, and alkalinity number of water-soluble ash were lower and reducing sugars were higher where MH was used. Except for EMC, the findings in this study reflected those established in studies where MH-treated and normally hand-suckered tobaccos were compared, but the differences here were generally not as great.

Accesso libero

Residues of Ethoprop and Disulfoton in Soils and Flue-cured Tobacco

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 127 - 133

Astratto

Abstract

Soil samples collected approximately 21 days after pretransplant applications of ethoprop to flue-cured tobacco land contained residues averaging 0.54 and 1.13 ppm, respectively, for the 6.7 and 13.4 kg/ha rates. In contrast total residues of disulfoton (disulfoton plus three metabolites) averaged 0.28 and 0.54 ppm at 3.4 and 6.7 kg/ha rates. Concentrations of both compounds decreased with time at each of two locations. Residue levels of ethoprop in the first harvest of flue-cured tobacco from the Central Crops Research Station (Clayton, North Carolina) were 0.04, 0.02, and 0.08 ppm; from the Upper Piedmont Research Station (Reidsville, North Carolina), residues were 0.20, 0.16, and 0.27 ppm, respectively, for rates of 6.7, 6.7 combination (with disulfoton), and 13.4 kg/ha. Residues declined in succeeding harvests. Total residues of disulfoton plus three metabolites in the first sample of tobacco harvested from Central Crops averaged 2.52 and 1.89 ppm; and from Upper Piedmont residues averaged 10.24 and 6.50 ppm, respectively, for rates of 3.4 and 6.7 kg/ha. The residues declined in succeeding harvest and were 0.14 ppm or less by the fourth harvest at Central Crops and 0.08 ppm or less by the fifth harvest at Upper Piedmont.

Accesso libero

Transfer of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues into Cigarette Smoke as a Function of Tobacco Blends and Filter Types

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 134 - 138

Astratto

Abstract

The transfer during smoking of pesticides contained in tobacco into the smoke and the filter of cigarettes was investigated. The overall transfer into the mainstream smoke was 17 %. It was found to be independent of the type of the tobacco blend (American, Maryland, Virginia and Oriental). The pesticide retention of the following four filters was investigated: cellulose filter, cellulose acetate filter with low and high pressure drop, and a charcoal filter, characterized by nicotine retentions of 38 %, 27 %, 48 % and 54 %, respectively. The corresponding pesticide retentions found were 40 %, 21 %, 39 % and 38 %, i.e. lower than the nicotine retention in the cellulose acetate, and significantly lower in the charcoal filter. A 3 % degradation of p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT contained in tobacco to p,p'-DDE and o,p'-DDE respectively, was also observed. The pesticides initially contained in the tobacco part of the cigarette butt decreased during smoking. This appears to be the result of some initial condensation of substances carried through by the smoke stream (as indicated by the presence of pesticide degradation products), followed by strong desorption during the very last puffs.

Accesso libero

Distillation Method for the Determination of Inorganic Bromide in Cured Tobacco

Pubblicato online: 14 Aug 2014
Pagine: 139 - 143

Astratto

Abstract

A rapid, reliable and inexpensive method for the determination of inorganic bromide in cured tobacco is presented. The method features a unique CrO3 selective oxidation with steam in Markham stills. The results by this method have been compared with five other methods. The reliability of the distillation method is shown by the recoveries of spiked samples at a mean of 97.8 %. The average standard error of ± 0.03 mg g-1 indicates an acceptable level of precision. No loss of bromide takes place in the ashing process.

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo