Rivista e Edizione

Volume 31 (2022): Edizione 2 (July 2022)

Volume 31 (2022): Edizione 1 (March 2022)

Volume 30 (2021): Edizione 4 (November 2021)

Volume 30 (2021): Edizione 3 (July 2021)

Volume 30 (2021): Edizione 2 (May 2021)

Volume 30 (2021): Edizione 1 (March 2021)

Volume 29 (2020): Edizione 3 (December 2020)

Volume 29 (2020): Edizione 2 (August 2020)

Volume 29 (2020): Edizione 1 (April 2020)

Volume 28 (2019): Edizione 7 (December 2019)

Volume 28 (2019): Edizione 6 (August 2019)

Volume 28 (2019): Edizione 5 (May 2019)

Volume 28 (2018): Edizione 4 (December 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Edizione 3 (October 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Edizione 2 (August 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Edizione 1 (April 2018)

Volume 27 (2017): Edizione 8 (December 2017)

Volume 27 (2017): Edizione 7 (September 2017)

Volume 27 (2017): Edizione 6 (April 2017)

Volume 27 (2017): Edizione 5 (January 2017)

Volume 27 (2016): Edizione 4 (October 2016)

Volume 27 (2016): Edizione 3 (July 2016)

Volume 27 (2016): Edizione 2 (April 2016)

Volume 27 (2016): Edizione 1 (January 2016)

Volume 26 (2015): Edizione 7 (September 2015)

Volume 26 (2015): Edizione 6 (June 2015)

Volume 26 (2015): Edizione 5 (March 2015)

Volume 26 (2014): Edizione 4 (December 2014)

Volume 26 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Volume 26 (2014): Edizione 2 (July 2014)

Volume 26 (2014): Edizione 1 (April 2014)

Volume 25 (2013): Edizione 8 (December 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Edizione 7 (September 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Edizione 6 (June 2013)

Volume 25 (2013): Edizione 5 (March 2013)

Volume 25 (2012): Edizione 4 (December 2012)

Volume 25 (2012): Edizione 3 (August 2012)

Volume 25 (2012): Edizione 2 (June 2012)

Volume 25 (2012): Edizione 1 (February 2012)

Volume 24 (2011): Edizione 6 (November 2011)

Volume 24 (2011): Edizione 5 (May 2011)

Volume 24 (2011): Edizione 4 (January 2011)

Volume 24 (2010): Edizione 3 (November 2010)

Volume 24 (2010): Edizione 2 (July 2010)

Volume 24 (2010): Edizione 1 (April 2010)

Volume 23 (2009): Edizione 6 (December 2009)

Volume 23 (2009): Edizione 5 (September 2009)

Volume 23 (2009): Edizione 4 (May 2009)

Volume 23 (2008): Edizione 3 (December 2008)

Volume 23 (2008): Edizione 2 (August 2008)

Volume 23 (2008): Edizione 1 (April 2008)

Volume 22 (2007): Edizione 5 (June 2007)

Volume 22 (2007): Edizione 4 (January 2007)

Volume 22 (2006): Edizione 3 (October 2006)

Volume 22 (2006): Edizione 2 (July 2006)

Volume 22 (2006): Edizione 1 (April 2006)

Volume 21 (2005): Edizione 8 (December 2005)

Volume 21 (2005): Edizione 7 (October 2005)

Volume 21 (2005): Edizione 6 (July 2005)

Volume 21 (2005): Edizione 5 (April 2005)

Volume 21 (2004): Edizione 4 (December 2004)

Volume 21 (2004): Edizione 3 (October 2004)

Volume 21 (2004): Edizione 2 (July 2004)

Volume 21 (2004): Edizione 1 (March 2004)

Volume 20 (2003): Edizione 8 (December 2003)

Volume 20 (2003): Edizione 7 (November 2003)

Volume 20 (2003): Edizione 6 (July 2003)

Volume 20 (2003): Edizione 5 (March 2003)

Volume 20 (2002): Edizione 4 (December 2002)

Volume 20 (2002): Edizione 3 (August 2002)

Volume 20 (2002): Edizione 2 (June 2002)

Volume 20 (2002): Edizione 1 (February 2002)

Volume 19 (2001): Edizione 7 (October 2001)

Volume 19 (2001): Edizione 6 (July 2001)

Volume 19 (2001): Edizione 5 (April 2001)

Volume 19 (2001): Edizione 4 (January 2001)

Volume 19 (2000): Edizione 3 (October 2000)

Volume 19 (2000): Edizione 2 (July 2000)

Volume 19 (2000): Edizione 1 (April 2000)

Volume 18 (1999): Edizione 6 (December 1999)

Volume 18 (1999): Edizione 5 (July 1999)

Volume 18 (1999): Edizione 4 (April 1999)

Volume 18 (1998): Edizione 3 (December 1998)

Volume 18 (1998): Edizione 2 (August 1998)

Volume 18 (1998): Edizione 1 (April 1998)

Volume 17 (1997): Edizione 3 (December 1997)

Volume 17 (1997): Edizione 2 (September 1997)

Volume 17 (1996): Edizione 1 (December 1996)

Volume 16 (1995): Edizione 4 (November 1995)

Volume 16 (1995): Edizione 3 (July 1995)

Volume 16 (1994): Edizione 2 (June 1994)

Volume 16 (1994): Edizione 1 (May 1994)

Volume 15 (1992): Edizione 3 (November 1992)

Volume 15 (1992): Edizione 2 (April 1992)

Volume 15 (1991): Edizione 1 (August 1991)

Volume 14 (1990): Edizione 6 (June 1990)

Volume 14 (1989): Edizione 5 (October 1989)

Volume 14 (1989): Edizione 4 (February 1989)

Volume 14 (1989): Edizione 3 (January 1989)

Volume 14 (1988): Edizione 2 (October 1988)

Volume 14 (1987): Edizione 1 (December 1987)

Volume 13 (1986): Edizione 5 (December 1986)

Volume 13 (1986): Edizione 4 (August 1986)

Volume 13 (1986): Edizione 3 (July 1986)

Volume 13 (1985): Edizione 2 (December 1985)

Volume 13 (1985): Edizione 1 (January 1985)

Volume 12 (1984): Edizione 5 (November 1984)

Volume 12 (1984): Edizione 4 (July 1984)

Volume 12 (1984): Edizione 3 (February 1984)

Volume 12 (1983): Edizione 2 (June 1983)

Volume 12 (1983): Edizione 1 (February 1983)

Volume 11 (1982): Edizione 5 (November 1982)

Volume 11 (1982): Edizione 4 (August 1982)

Volume 11 (1982): Edizione 3 (January 1982)

Volume 11 (1981): Edizione 2 (September 1981)

Volume 11 (1981): Edizione 1 (March 1981)

Volume 10 (1980): Edizione 3 (October 1980)

Volume 10 (1980): Edizione 2 (July 1980)

Volume 10 (1979): Edizione 1 (December 1979)

Volume 9 (1978): Edizione 5 (December 1978)

Volume 9 (1978): Edizione 4 (July 1978)

Volume 9 (1977): Edizione 3 (October 1977)

Volume 9 (1977): Edizione 2 (June 1977)

Volume 9 (1977): Edizione 1 (April 1977)

Volume 8 (1976): Edizione 7 (October 1976)

Volume 8 (1976): Edizione 6 (June 1976)

Volume 8 (1976): Edizione 5 (March 1976)

Volume 8 (1975): Edizione 4 (December 1975)

Volume 8 (1975): Edizione 3 (August 1975)

Volume 8 (1975): Edizione 2 (May 1975)

Volume 8 (1975): Edizione 1 (January 1975)

Volume 7 (1974): Edizione 5 (September 1974)

Volume 7 (1974): Edizione 4 (April 1974)

Volume 7 (1973): Edizione 3 (November 1973)

Volume 7 (1973): Edizione 2 (June 1973)

Volume 7 (1973): Edizione 1 (January 1973)

Volume 6 (1972): Edizione 5 (October 1972)

Volume 6 (1972): Edizione 4 (August 1972)

Volume 6 (1972): Edizione 3 (March 1972)

Volume 6 (1971): Edizione 2 (September 1971)

Volume 6 (1971): Edizione 1 (July 1971)

Volume 5 (1970): Edizione 6 (December 1970)

Volume 5 (1970): Edizione 5 (November 1970)

Volume 5 (1970): Edizione 4 (August 1970)

Volume 5 (1969): Edizione 3 (December 1969)

Volume 5 (1969): Edizione 2 (August 1969)

Volume 5 (1969): Edizione 1 (June 1969)

Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 7 (December 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 6 (November 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 5 (July 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 4 (May 1968)

Volume 4 (1968): Edizione 3 (February 1968)

Volume 4 (1967): Edizione 2 (October 1967)

Volume 4 (1967): Edizione 1 (August 1967)

Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 9 (December 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 8 (December 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 7 (November 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 6 (September 1966)

Volume 3 (1966): Edizione 5 (May 1966)

Volume 3 (1965): Edizione 4 (October 1965)

Volume 3 (1965): Edizione 3 (August 1965)

Volume 3 (1965): Edizione 2 (May 1965)

Volume 3 (1965): Edizione 1 (April 1965)

Volume 2 (1964): Edizione 7 (November 1964)

Volume 2 (1964): Edizione 6 (October 1964)

Volume 2 (1964): Edizione 5 (May 1964)

Volume 2 (1964): Edizione 4 (February 1964)

Volume 2 (1963): Edizione 3 (October 1963)

Volume 2 (1963): Edizione 2 (June 1963)

Volume 2 (1963): Edizione 1 (March 1963)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 10 (December 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 9 (December 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 8 (November 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 7 (November 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 6 (July 1962)

Volume 1 (1962): Edizione 5 (February 1962)

Volume 1 (1961): Edizione 4 (November 1961)

Volume 1 (1961): Edizione 3 (August 1961)

Volume 1 (1961): Edizione 2 (May 1961)

Volume 1 (1961): Edizione 1 (January 1961)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2719-9509
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1992
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 15 (1992): Edizione 2 (April 1992)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2719-9509
Pubblicato per la prima volta
01 Jan 1992
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

5 Articoli
Accesso libero

Time Resolved Emission of Sidestream Smoke Particles

Pubblicato online: 06 Jan 2015
Pagine: 53 - 57

Astratto

Abstract

By means of the dispersion quotient method, the aerosol properties of freshly produced sidestream smoke were measured during the puff and subsequent interpuff period. These measurements were made on short time scales and at high aerosol concentrations. Examples are presented, which show the influence of different combustion conditions during the puff (resulting from different degrees of ventilation and different types of tobacco) on the emission of sidestream particles during the interpuff period. The ratio of the volume concentrations of the particles before and during a puff is reduced by ventilation and is nearly unchanged by the variation of the tobacco type.

Accesso libero

An Application of Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) Microspectroscopy to the Study of Cigarette Manufacturing Defects

Pubblicato online: 06 Jan 2015
Pagine: 59 - 64

Astratto

Abstract

FT-IR microspectroscopy was used to investigate a common type of cigarette defect in which the filter separates from the tobacco rod. Infra-red imagings of the adhesive located at this junction on the tipping papers from both defective and acceptable cigarettes were obtained. A comparison of these data revealed that although adhesive was present in the seam area of the defective cigarettes, the amount of adhesive was significantly less and its distribution was not uniform.

Accesso libero

Relative Positions of the Thermal Convection Column and Smoke Plume Generated from a Smoldering Cigarette

Pubblicato online: 06 Jan 2015
Pagine: 65 - 74

Astratto

Abstract

The relative positions of the thermal convection column and the smoke plume from a variety of smoldering cigarettes were measured using a combination of schlieren and visual optical systems. The schlieren technique is an optical method used to observe refractive index gradients in gases and other clear media. The refractive index gradients can be caused by variations in pressure, composition or temperature. The convection column of heated air and combustion gases rising from a cigarette coal was observed with a two mirror schlieren system. A video camera was used as the observing device rather than the usual photographic camera. A second video camera was arranged to view the smoke plume rising from the coal region. The two video images were combined with a video special effects generator and were viewed on a single monitor. The behaviour and relative positions of both columns were thus observed in real time with two non-invasive optical methods. The schlieren images of the convection column were compared to those of model systems such as a heated cylinder and a small flame. Results for experimental cigarettes with paper porosities of 12 cm/min to 48 cm/min (Coresta) during smolder showed that the thermal convection column was centered 2 mm to 3 mm in front of the paper char line directly over the hottest part of the coal as determined by infra-red imaging. The smoke plume was centered 2 mm behind the paper char line and the position did not change with paper porosity. Results for experimental cigarettes made with a commercially available low sidestream paper showed that the position of the convection column did not change. However, the position of the smoke plume changed considerably. In addition to being markedly decreased in visibility, the plume now appeared to be centered directly over the paper char line. This change in position provides a valuable insight into the mechanism of smoke reduction. The low sidestream papers seem to work by preventing the escape of smoke forming condensibles through the paper behind the paper char line. The condensibles are therefore forced to escape at the paper char line and undergo increased combustion and pyrolysis. As a result, some are converted to lower molecular weight materials and are unable to condense as readily to form the smoke. In addition, the remaining condensibles are released into a hotter and faster rising gas stream. This serves to reduce smoke formation by suppressing condensation and increasing dilution.

Accesso libero

The Measurement of Intrapuff Nicotine Yield

Pubblicato online: 06 Jan 2015
Pagine: 75 - 86

Astratto

Abstract

Time-resolved measurements of intrapuff nicotine yield in mainstream smoke have been performed with a specially designed intrapuff smoking apparatus (IPSA). The IPSA-filter traversing mechanism collects mainstream particles on a rectangular filter pad which moves at a constant velocity perpendicular to the direction of smoke flow at the mouthend of the cigarette. Filter pads were assayed by two analytical techniques. Standard gas chromatographic (GC) methodology was used to quantify nicotine mass in five equal time segments per puff. A second method, using a Berthold TLC-Linear Analyser, measured total radioactivity across the pad for samples from [2'-14C]-nicotine labelled cigarettes. Intrapuff nicotine concentrations were determined from measured puff flow-rate profiles and the collected masses of nicotine on the filters. GC nicotine concentration measurements correlated well with total activity from the scanner measurements. Studies carried out with filtered full-flavour cigarettes revealed that nicotine concentrations in the smoke vary significantly during a puff. This work provides a new technique for studying time-resolved yields of mainstream smoke components. It may potentially be used to elucidate mechanisms controlling the yield of nicotine and other mainstream smoke components.

Accesso libero

Effects of Curing and Fertilization on Nitrosamine Formation in Bright and Burley Tobacco

Pubblicato online: 06 Jan 2015
Pagine: 87 - 92

Astratto

Abstract

A bright and a Burley tobacco were grown at four fertilization rates and each tobacco was then both flue-cured and air-cured. Levels of alkaloids and nitrosamines were found to increase with increasing fertilization levels. Levels of alkaloids, N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and other tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) were consistently higher in the Burley tobacco than in the bright tobacco, regardless of curing method. In comparing the effects of curing, it was found that NNN and total TSNA levels were higher in the midrib than in the lamina of the air-cured samples, while just the opposite was found for the flue-cured samples. Flue-curing bright tobacco produced three times the level of TSNA vs air-curing the same tobacco. On the other hand, flue-curing Burley tobacco reduced the alkaloids, but greatly increased the TSNA in the lamina. As midribs from the air-cured Burley leaves had three times the TSNA concentration of the lamina, the use of air-cured midribs in tobacco products should be avoided. It was concluded that lower fertilization levels and careful manipulations of curing parameters could lower nitrosamine levels in cured tobacco.

5 Articoli
Accesso libero

Time Resolved Emission of Sidestream Smoke Particles

Pubblicato online: 06 Jan 2015
Pagine: 53 - 57

Astratto

Abstract

By means of the dispersion quotient method, the aerosol properties of freshly produced sidestream smoke were measured during the puff and subsequent interpuff period. These measurements were made on short time scales and at high aerosol concentrations. Examples are presented, which show the influence of different combustion conditions during the puff (resulting from different degrees of ventilation and different types of tobacco) on the emission of sidestream particles during the interpuff period. The ratio of the volume concentrations of the particles before and during a puff is reduced by ventilation and is nearly unchanged by the variation of the tobacco type.

Accesso libero

An Application of Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) Microspectroscopy to the Study of Cigarette Manufacturing Defects

Pubblicato online: 06 Jan 2015
Pagine: 59 - 64

Astratto

Abstract

FT-IR microspectroscopy was used to investigate a common type of cigarette defect in which the filter separates from the tobacco rod. Infra-red imagings of the adhesive located at this junction on the tipping papers from both defective and acceptable cigarettes were obtained. A comparison of these data revealed that although adhesive was present in the seam area of the defective cigarettes, the amount of adhesive was significantly less and its distribution was not uniform.

Accesso libero

Relative Positions of the Thermal Convection Column and Smoke Plume Generated from a Smoldering Cigarette

Pubblicato online: 06 Jan 2015
Pagine: 65 - 74

Astratto

Abstract

The relative positions of the thermal convection column and the smoke plume from a variety of smoldering cigarettes were measured using a combination of schlieren and visual optical systems. The schlieren technique is an optical method used to observe refractive index gradients in gases and other clear media. The refractive index gradients can be caused by variations in pressure, composition or temperature. The convection column of heated air and combustion gases rising from a cigarette coal was observed with a two mirror schlieren system. A video camera was used as the observing device rather than the usual photographic camera. A second video camera was arranged to view the smoke plume rising from the coal region. The two video images were combined with a video special effects generator and were viewed on a single monitor. The behaviour and relative positions of both columns were thus observed in real time with two non-invasive optical methods. The schlieren images of the convection column were compared to those of model systems such as a heated cylinder and a small flame. Results for experimental cigarettes with paper porosities of 12 cm/min to 48 cm/min (Coresta) during smolder showed that the thermal convection column was centered 2 mm to 3 mm in front of the paper char line directly over the hottest part of the coal as determined by infra-red imaging. The smoke plume was centered 2 mm behind the paper char line and the position did not change with paper porosity. Results for experimental cigarettes made with a commercially available low sidestream paper showed that the position of the convection column did not change. However, the position of the smoke plume changed considerably. In addition to being markedly decreased in visibility, the plume now appeared to be centered directly over the paper char line. This change in position provides a valuable insight into the mechanism of smoke reduction. The low sidestream papers seem to work by preventing the escape of smoke forming condensibles through the paper behind the paper char line. The condensibles are therefore forced to escape at the paper char line and undergo increased combustion and pyrolysis. As a result, some are converted to lower molecular weight materials and are unable to condense as readily to form the smoke. In addition, the remaining condensibles are released into a hotter and faster rising gas stream. This serves to reduce smoke formation by suppressing condensation and increasing dilution.

Accesso libero

The Measurement of Intrapuff Nicotine Yield

Pubblicato online: 06 Jan 2015
Pagine: 75 - 86

Astratto

Abstract

Time-resolved measurements of intrapuff nicotine yield in mainstream smoke have been performed with a specially designed intrapuff smoking apparatus (IPSA). The IPSA-filter traversing mechanism collects mainstream particles on a rectangular filter pad which moves at a constant velocity perpendicular to the direction of smoke flow at the mouthend of the cigarette. Filter pads were assayed by two analytical techniques. Standard gas chromatographic (GC) methodology was used to quantify nicotine mass in five equal time segments per puff. A second method, using a Berthold TLC-Linear Analyser, measured total radioactivity across the pad for samples from [2'-14C]-nicotine labelled cigarettes. Intrapuff nicotine concentrations were determined from measured puff flow-rate profiles and the collected masses of nicotine on the filters. GC nicotine concentration measurements correlated well with total activity from the scanner measurements. Studies carried out with filtered full-flavour cigarettes revealed that nicotine concentrations in the smoke vary significantly during a puff. This work provides a new technique for studying time-resolved yields of mainstream smoke components. It may potentially be used to elucidate mechanisms controlling the yield of nicotine and other mainstream smoke components.

Accesso libero

Effects of Curing and Fertilization on Nitrosamine Formation in Bright and Burley Tobacco

Pubblicato online: 06 Jan 2015
Pagine: 87 - 92

Astratto

Abstract

A bright and a Burley tobacco were grown at four fertilization rates and each tobacco was then both flue-cured and air-cured. Levels of alkaloids and nitrosamines were found to increase with increasing fertilization levels. Levels of alkaloids, N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and other tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) were consistently higher in the Burley tobacco than in the bright tobacco, regardless of curing method. In comparing the effects of curing, it was found that NNN and total TSNA levels were higher in the midrib than in the lamina of the air-cured samples, while just the opposite was found for the flue-cured samples. Flue-curing bright tobacco produced three times the level of TSNA vs air-curing the same tobacco. On the other hand, flue-curing Burley tobacco reduced the alkaloids, but greatly increased the TSNA in the lamina. As midribs from the air-cured Burley leaves had three times the TSNA concentration of the lamina, the use of air-cured midribs in tobacco products should be avoided. It was concluded that lower fertilization levels and careful manipulations of curing parameters could lower nitrosamine levels in cured tobacco.

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo