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Volume 76 (2022): Issue 4 (August 2022)

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Volume 75 (2021): Issue 4 (August 2021)

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Volume 74 (2020): Issue 4 (August 2020)

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Volume 74 (2020): Issue 1 (February 2020)

Volume 73 (2019): Issue 6 (December 2019)

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Volume 73 (2019): Issue 3 (July 2019)

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Volume 69 (2015): Issue 4 (September 2015)

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Volume 68 (2014): Issue 5-6 (December 2014)

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Volume 65 (2011): Issue 5-6 (December 2011)

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Volume 64 (2010): Issue 5-6 (December 2010)

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Volume 63 (2009): Issue 6 (December 2009)

Volume 63 (2009): Issue 4-5 (October 2009)
The National Research Programme On Main Diseases Threatening The Life Expectancy and Life Quality of The Latvian Population: Scientific papers

Volume 63 (2009): Issue 3 (June 2009)

Volume 63 (2009): Issue 1-2 (April 2009)

Volume 62 (2008): Issue 6 (December 2008)

Volume 62 (2008): Issue 4-5 (October 2008)

Volume 62 (2008): Issue 3 (June 2008)

Volume 62 (2008): Issue 1-2 (April 2008)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2255-890X
First Published
14 Sep 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 74 (2020): Issue 6 (December 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2255-890X
First Published
14 Sep 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

10 Articles
Open Access

Mental Disorders Following Covid-19 Infection: A Systematic Review of Acute and Long-Term Psychiatric Manifestations and Associated Brain Changes

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 347 - 357

Abstract

Abstract

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily affects the respiratory tract, but sometimes also other organs, including the central nervous system (CNS). It is not well understood how the virus affects the CNS and how frequently it happens. Our review provides insight into the occurrence of mental disorders in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We also collected information about the biological basis of the susceptibility of brain cells to SARS-CoV-2 and its implication to psychiatric manifestations. We included 24 publications in our review, reporting psychiatric manifestations published between 31 December 2019 and 30 July 2020, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. Mental disorders occurred in up to one-fifth of patients during the acute phase of the infection. The most common disorders included anxiety-related disorders, mood-spectrum disorders, impaired consciousness, confusion, delirium and psychosis. The onset of psychiatric manifestations is not always preceded by respiratory symptoms, but occurs initially in COVID-19 patients. Long-term manifestations are mainly depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms. The obtained data allow the statement that direct infection of the CNS by SARS-CoV-2 could be responsible for the observed findings. To further investigate long-term psychiatric manifestations, randomised controlled studies must be initiated.

Keywords

  • mental disorders
  • psychiatry
  • brain changes
  • Covid-19
  • susceptibility
  • SARS-CoV-2
Open Access

Second European Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy Survey (Crt Survey Ii): Latvian Data Compared to Europe

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 358 - 365

Abstract

Abstract

The cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) survey II is a joint initiative between the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Failure Association. It compiles real world data about cardiac resynchronisation therapy in European Society of Cardiology member states. 11 088 patients assigned to implantation of CRT with pacemaker function (CRT-P) or CRT with an incorporated defibrillator (CRT-D) were enrolled in the survey starting 1 October 2015 till 31 December 2016 and for each patient, an electronic case report form (eCRF) was completed. Each participating country had each eCRF data-point benchmarked against the total cohort. In total, 79 patients were included from Latvia. The mean age of patients was 68.1, similar to the total cohort of other ESC member states, and 21.8% of patients were female. Latvian patients compared to other countries more often had permanent atrial fibrillation, NYHA class III and IV, ejection fraction 35 %. CRT-Ds and multipolar lead implantation rates were higher. Peri-procedural complication rates were similarly low in both groups. At discharge, prescribed medication rates were similar but more frequently MRAs, ivabradine and calcium channel blockers were prescribed and slightly less frequently ACE inhibitors/ARBs were prescribed. The CRT survey II is a valuable resource that describes ongoing practice of cardiac resynchronisation therapy around Europe and benchmarking against the total cohort is nationally significant for each participating country.

Keywords

  • demographic
  • medication therapy
  • heart failure
Open Access

Correlation of Body Mass Index and Lung Volume in 3–7 Year-Old Children in Rīga Pre-School Educational Institutions

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 366 - 372

Abstract

Abstract

The number of people with excess weight increases every year. Overweight and obesity in childhood can cause several chronic diseases in adulthood. Children with excess body mass develop more morphological and functional changes, including pulmonary functions. One of the common methods to assess lung function is spirometry. This method is a challenge in assessing lung function for pre-school age children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between lung vital capacity and body mass index for the pre-school children aged 3–7 years in Rīga. In total 995 pre-school children were included in the study. An informative consent and questionnaire about the development of each individual child was filled in by parents. Several measurements were performed, including height, body mass, and lung vital capacity. This is the first study in Latvia where several morphologic and somatometric measurements were determined in children of pre-school age. There was a positive and statistically significant correlation between lung vital capacity and body height, mass, and chest circumference. The correlation between lung vital capacity and body mass index was not statistically significant. The main results do not differ from the results of similar studies in other countries. The obtained results will help to create a standard of morphological and somatometric parameters in pre-school aged children in Rīga region.

Keywords

  • pre-school children
  • body mass index
  • lung vital capacity
Open Access

Polymorphism of Genes of the Protein and Lipid Exchanges in Modern Ukranian Breeds of Cattle Bred for Dairy Productivity

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 373 - 380

Abstract

Abstract

Genetic structure of animals of several Ukrainian modern breeds analysed by genes of protein and lipid exchange CSN3 (kappa-casein), BLG (betalactaglobulin), LEP (leptin), Pit-1 (pituitery transcription factor), TG-5 (thyroglobulin) were investigated in cows of three domestic breeds (Ukrainian Red Dairy, Ukrainian Black-speckled Dairy, Ukrainian Red-speckled Dairy). Polymer-ase chain reaction, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for the molecular-genetic analysis.

Keywords

  • structural genes
  • homozygosity
  • genetic equilibrium
  • milk productivity
Open Access

Genetic Structure of the Limecola Balthica Population in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 381 - 384

Abstract

Abstract

Samples of Limecola balthica with normal and deformed shells were collected from ten sites throughout the Gulf of Riga. Genetic diversity was evaluated by the retrotransposon-based iPBS method. Samples had close mutual genetic distances, which showed that all of them belong to one wider population of the Gulf of Rīga. No direct relationship between the activity of retrotransposons and deformation of shells was found.

Keywords

  • retrotransposon-based markers
  • iPBS
  • Baltic macoma
  • genetic distances
Open Access

Features of the Demographic Structure and the Condition of Populations of the Rare Relic Hedysarum Gmelinii Ledeb. (Fabaceae) in Peripheral and Central Parts of Its Distribution Range

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 385 - 395

Abstract

Abstract

The features of the ontogenetic structure of cenopopulations of a rare species Hedysarum gmelinii Ledeb. (Fabaceae) were studied on the periphery of its range (the Middle Volga region and the Bashkir Cis-Urals) and in its central part (the Altai Mountains region). Types of cenopopulations were determined according to the “delta-omega” criterion: in the Bashkir Urals, they were mostly young, in the Middle Volga region, they were mature, in the Altai Mountains, they were maturing. The proportion of pregenerative individuals in populations increases in habitats with high moisture levels. Anthropogenic load (mainly in the form of grazing) had a greater effect on the number and density of individuals, rather than on the type of ontogenetic spectrum of cenopopulations.

Keywords

  • Hedysarum gmelinii Ledeb.
  • cenopopulation
  • ontogenetic spectrum
  • demographic indicators
  • habitat
Open Access

Oxygen Evolution Reaction on a N-Doped Co0.5-Terminated Co3o4 (001) Surface

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 396 - 403

Abstract

Abstract

Recent experimental findings suggest that the catalytic activity of Co3O4 for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) could be improved by nitrogen doping. We present preliminary OER modelling on a N-doped Co3O4 surface, with varying concentration of the dopant and its spatial distribution around Cooct and Cotet adsorption sites. The overpotential was calculated for two adsorption sites on seven types of N-doped Co3O4 surface. The largest calculated overpotential value for a N-doped surface was ~1V.

Keywords

  • Cobalt oxide
  • OER
  • electrocatalyst
  • first principles calculations
Open Access

Old Principle of Liquid Ion-Impedance Spectrometry (Particularly in Milk) Realised by New Components

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 404 - 409

Abstract

Abstract

Ion impedance spectrometry enables detection of the concentrations of multiple chemical compositions in a weak solution, usually if only part of a complex signal is used and the frequency is not swept. Prior to the method described in this paper, ion impedance required rather sophisticated electronics to collect the results from an instrument, as well as the electrode polarisation minimising. We elaborated and tested circuitry that uses the newest electronics components for a chemical analysis instrument designed according to a principle patented in Latvia (No. SU-1021440A), year 1981. The newly improved ion impedance spectrometry apparatus is suited for accurate measurement of ion concentrations for commercial use by various trade professionals. The primary target was an in-flow milk tester for dairy farm milking devices (yet this is not the exclusive use).

Keywords

  • experiment computerisation
  • AC-conductometry
  • balanced bridge circuit
  • electrode anti-polarisation
  • two-electrode-system
  • milk mastitometry
  • electronic circuitry
Open Access

Adapting Open Dialogue for Early-Onset Psychosis in Latvia: Barriers and Facilitators

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 410 - 414

Abstract

Abstract

Open Dialogue (OD) is the Finnish crisis intervention approach based on an open dialogue involving various professionals and a trusted person of the patient. This publication has demonstrated both clinical and economic benefits from the implementation of the principles of OD. The implementation of this approach was started in Latvia in cooperation with Dr. D. Ziedonis from the Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School (today working at University of California San Diego), by translating into Latvian “The Key Elements of Dialogic Practice in Open Dialogue” and carrying out expert consensus panel discussions on the barriers and facilitators of the approach. The obstacles are linked with the lack of education in family therapy, lack of resources, possible problems of cooperation among professionals, and the existing standard practice where there are no active home visits in crisis situations. At the same time, positive elements that are close to Latvian psychiatry can be observed in the OD approach, for instance, the importance of a clinical conversation and listening to the points of views of family members encourage psychiatrists in Latvia to use this approach. The setting of OD could be community-based mental health centres as well as inpatient psychiatric departments dealing with acutely psychotic patients. OD can be a valuable addition and alternative in the case of new psychotic patients when treatment with medications is not efficient, and the patient is not favourably disposed to the use of medications, but nevertheless is seeking help.

Keywords

  • open dialogue
  • mental health
  • psychiatry
Open Access

Edgars Bervalds (1936–2019), Latvian Scientist in Mechanical Engineering

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 415 - 416

Abstract

10 Articles
Open Access

Mental Disorders Following Covid-19 Infection: A Systematic Review of Acute and Long-Term Psychiatric Manifestations and Associated Brain Changes

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 347 - 357

Abstract

Abstract

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily affects the respiratory tract, but sometimes also other organs, including the central nervous system (CNS). It is not well understood how the virus affects the CNS and how frequently it happens. Our review provides insight into the occurrence of mental disorders in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We also collected information about the biological basis of the susceptibility of brain cells to SARS-CoV-2 and its implication to psychiatric manifestations. We included 24 publications in our review, reporting psychiatric manifestations published between 31 December 2019 and 30 July 2020, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. Mental disorders occurred in up to one-fifth of patients during the acute phase of the infection. The most common disorders included anxiety-related disorders, mood-spectrum disorders, impaired consciousness, confusion, delirium and psychosis. The onset of psychiatric manifestations is not always preceded by respiratory symptoms, but occurs initially in COVID-19 patients. Long-term manifestations are mainly depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms. The obtained data allow the statement that direct infection of the CNS by SARS-CoV-2 could be responsible for the observed findings. To further investigate long-term psychiatric manifestations, randomised controlled studies must be initiated.

Keywords

  • mental disorders
  • psychiatry
  • brain changes
  • Covid-19
  • susceptibility
  • SARS-CoV-2
Open Access

Second European Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy Survey (Crt Survey Ii): Latvian Data Compared to Europe

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 358 - 365

Abstract

Abstract

The cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) survey II is a joint initiative between the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Failure Association. It compiles real world data about cardiac resynchronisation therapy in European Society of Cardiology member states. 11 088 patients assigned to implantation of CRT with pacemaker function (CRT-P) or CRT with an incorporated defibrillator (CRT-D) were enrolled in the survey starting 1 October 2015 till 31 December 2016 and for each patient, an electronic case report form (eCRF) was completed. Each participating country had each eCRF data-point benchmarked against the total cohort. In total, 79 patients were included from Latvia. The mean age of patients was 68.1, similar to the total cohort of other ESC member states, and 21.8% of patients were female. Latvian patients compared to other countries more often had permanent atrial fibrillation, NYHA class III and IV, ejection fraction 35 %. CRT-Ds and multipolar lead implantation rates were higher. Peri-procedural complication rates were similarly low in both groups. At discharge, prescribed medication rates were similar but more frequently MRAs, ivabradine and calcium channel blockers were prescribed and slightly less frequently ACE inhibitors/ARBs were prescribed. The CRT survey II is a valuable resource that describes ongoing practice of cardiac resynchronisation therapy around Europe and benchmarking against the total cohort is nationally significant for each participating country.

Keywords

  • demographic
  • medication therapy
  • heart failure
Open Access

Correlation of Body Mass Index and Lung Volume in 3–7 Year-Old Children in Rīga Pre-School Educational Institutions

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 366 - 372

Abstract

Abstract

The number of people with excess weight increases every year. Overweight and obesity in childhood can cause several chronic diseases in adulthood. Children with excess body mass develop more morphological and functional changes, including pulmonary functions. One of the common methods to assess lung function is spirometry. This method is a challenge in assessing lung function for pre-school age children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between lung vital capacity and body mass index for the pre-school children aged 3–7 years in Rīga. In total 995 pre-school children were included in the study. An informative consent and questionnaire about the development of each individual child was filled in by parents. Several measurements were performed, including height, body mass, and lung vital capacity. This is the first study in Latvia where several morphologic and somatometric measurements were determined in children of pre-school age. There was a positive and statistically significant correlation between lung vital capacity and body height, mass, and chest circumference. The correlation between lung vital capacity and body mass index was not statistically significant. The main results do not differ from the results of similar studies in other countries. The obtained results will help to create a standard of morphological and somatometric parameters in pre-school aged children in Rīga region.

Keywords

  • pre-school children
  • body mass index
  • lung vital capacity
Open Access

Polymorphism of Genes of the Protein and Lipid Exchanges in Modern Ukranian Breeds of Cattle Bred for Dairy Productivity

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 373 - 380

Abstract

Abstract

Genetic structure of animals of several Ukrainian modern breeds analysed by genes of protein and lipid exchange CSN3 (kappa-casein), BLG (betalactaglobulin), LEP (leptin), Pit-1 (pituitery transcription factor), TG-5 (thyroglobulin) were investigated in cows of three domestic breeds (Ukrainian Red Dairy, Ukrainian Black-speckled Dairy, Ukrainian Red-speckled Dairy). Polymer-ase chain reaction, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for the molecular-genetic analysis.

Keywords

  • structural genes
  • homozygosity
  • genetic equilibrium
  • milk productivity
Open Access

Genetic Structure of the Limecola Balthica Population in the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 381 - 384

Abstract

Abstract

Samples of Limecola balthica with normal and deformed shells were collected from ten sites throughout the Gulf of Riga. Genetic diversity was evaluated by the retrotransposon-based iPBS method. Samples had close mutual genetic distances, which showed that all of them belong to one wider population of the Gulf of Rīga. No direct relationship between the activity of retrotransposons and deformation of shells was found.

Keywords

  • retrotransposon-based markers
  • iPBS
  • Baltic macoma
  • genetic distances
Open Access

Features of the Demographic Structure and the Condition of Populations of the Rare Relic Hedysarum Gmelinii Ledeb. (Fabaceae) in Peripheral and Central Parts of Its Distribution Range

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 385 - 395

Abstract

Abstract

The features of the ontogenetic structure of cenopopulations of a rare species Hedysarum gmelinii Ledeb. (Fabaceae) were studied on the periphery of its range (the Middle Volga region and the Bashkir Cis-Urals) and in its central part (the Altai Mountains region). Types of cenopopulations were determined according to the “delta-omega” criterion: in the Bashkir Urals, they were mostly young, in the Middle Volga region, they were mature, in the Altai Mountains, they were maturing. The proportion of pregenerative individuals in populations increases in habitats with high moisture levels. Anthropogenic load (mainly in the form of grazing) had a greater effect on the number and density of individuals, rather than on the type of ontogenetic spectrum of cenopopulations.

Keywords

  • Hedysarum gmelinii Ledeb.
  • cenopopulation
  • ontogenetic spectrum
  • demographic indicators
  • habitat
Open Access

Oxygen Evolution Reaction on a N-Doped Co0.5-Terminated Co3o4 (001) Surface

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 396 - 403

Abstract

Abstract

Recent experimental findings suggest that the catalytic activity of Co3O4 for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) could be improved by nitrogen doping. We present preliminary OER modelling on a N-doped Co3O4 surface, with varying concentration of the dopant and its spatial distribution around Cooct and Cotet adsorption sites. The overpotential was calculated for two adsorption sites on seven types of N-doped Co3O4 surface. The largest calculated overpotential value for a N-doped surface was ~1V.

Keywords

  • Cobalt oxide
  • OER
  • electrocatalyst
  • first principles calculations
Open Access

Old Principle of Liquid Ion-Impedance Spectrometry (Particularly in Milk) Realised by New Components

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 404 - 409

Abstract

Abstract

Ion impedance spectrometry enables detection of the concentrations of multiple chemical compositions in a weak solution, usually if only part of a complex signal is used and the frequency is not swept. Prior to the method described in this paper, ion impedance required rather sophisticated electronics to collect the results from an instrument, as well as the electrode polarisation minimising. We elaborated and tested circuitry that uses the newest electronics components for a chemical analysis instrument designed according to a principle patented in Latvia (No. SU-1021440A), year 1981. The newly improved ion impedance spectrometry apparatus is suited for accurate measurement of ion concentrations for commercial use by various trade professionals. The primary target was an in-flow milk tester for dairy farm milking devices (yet this is not the exclusive use).

Keywords

  • experiment computerisation
  • AC-conductometry
  • balanced bridge circuit
  • electrode anti-polarisation
  • two-electrode-system
  • milk mastitometry
  • electronic circuitry
Open Access

Adapting Open Dialogue for Early-Onset Psychosis in Latvia: Barriers and Facilitators

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 410 - 414

Abstract

Abstract

Open Dialogue (OD) is the Finnish crisis intervention approach based on an open dialogue involving various professionals and a trusted person of the patient. This publication has demonstrated both clinical and economic benefits from the implementation of the principles of OD. The implementation of this approach was started in Latvia in cooperation with Dr. D. Ziedonis from the Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School (today working at University of California San Diego), by translating into Latvian “The Key Elements of Dialogic Practice in Open Dialogue” and carrying out expert consensus panel discussions on the barriers and facilitators of the approach. The obstacles are linked with the lack of education in family therapy, lack of resources, possible problems of cooperation among professionals, and the existing standard practice where there are no active home visits in crisis situations. At the same time, positive elements that are close to Latvian psychiatry can be observed in the OD approach, for instance, the importance of a clinical conversation and listening to the points of views of family members encourage psychiatrists in Latvia to use this approach. The setting of OD could be community-based mental health centres as well as inpatient psychiatric departments dealing with acutely psychotic patients. OD can be a valuable addition and alternative in the case of new psychotic patients when treatment with medications is not efficient, and the patient is not favourably disposed to the use of medications, but nevertheless is seeking help.

Keywords

  • open dialogue
  • mental health
  • psychiatry
Open Access

Edgars Bervalds (1936–2019), Latvian Scientist in Mechanical Engineering

Published Online: 05 Jan 2021
Page range: 415 - 416

Abstract

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