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Volume 71 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 71 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 4 (January 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 3 (August 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

13 Articles

original-paper

Open Access

Effects of Different Ambient Temperatures on Caecal Microbial Composition in Broilers

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 33 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

Short-term or acute temperature stress affect the immune responses and alters the gut microbiota of broilers, but the influences of long-term temperature stress on stress biomarkers and the intestinal microbiota remains largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the effect of three long-term ambient temperatures (high (HC), medium (MC), and low (LC) temperature groups) on the gene expression of broilers’ heat shock proteins (Hsps) and inflammation – related genes, as well as the caecal microbial composition. The results revealed that Hsp70 and Hsp90 levels in HC group significantly increased, and levels of Hsp70, Hsp90, IL-6, TNF-α, and NFKB1 in LC group were significantly higher than in MC group (p < 0.05). In comparison with the MC group, the proportion of Firmicutes increased in HC and LC groups, while that of Bacteroidetes decreased in LC group at phylum level (p < 0.05). At genus level, the proportion of Escherichia/Shigella, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides,and Enterococcus increased in HC group; the fraction of Faecalibacterium was higher in LC group; and the percentage of Barnesiella and Alistipes decreased in both HC and LC groups (p < 0.05). Functional analysis based on communities’ phylogenetic investigation revealed that the pathways involved in environmental information processing and metabolism were enriched in the HC group. Those involved in cellular processes and signaling, metabolism, and gene regulation were enriched in LC group. Hence, we conclude that the long-term temperature stress can greatly alter the intestinal microbial communities in broilers and may further affect the host’s immunity and health.

Keywords

  • broiler
  • temperature
  • 16S rRNA sequencing
  • caecal microbial composition
  • KEGG pathway
Open Access

The Effects of Different Modes of Delivery on the Structure and Predicted Function of Intestinal Microbiota in Neonates and Early Infants

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 45 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

Several studies have shown that an increased risk of metabolic and immune disorders associated with cesarean section mode of delivery may exist. However, such studies have not been conducted in the Chinese population. Stool sample sequencing of the gene encoding the 16S rRNA of 82 prospectively enrolled 3- and 30–42-day-old vaginal and cesarean section delivered newborns was performed to study the composition and predicted function of the intestinal microbiota. In the samples from the 3-day-old neonates, the levels of Escherichia-Shigella in the two groups were similar. The genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides were more prominent in the vaginal delivery than in the cesarean section group, which showed a predominance of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Corynebacterium. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05). In the samples from 30- to 42-day-old infants, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Escherichia-Shigella, and Bacteroides were the main genera present in the vaginal delivery group, while in the cesarean section delivery group; the predominant genera were Escherichia-Shigella, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Staphylococcus. Predicted functions of the vaginal delivery group revealed higher metabolic and biodegradation rates of carbohydrates, vitamins, and xenobiotics than those in the cesarean section group, which contributed to the stability of the microbiota in the former. The abundance of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and the negative correlation between obesity and Bacteroides presence were higher in vaginally delivered infants than in cesarean-delivered infants at both studied time points.

Keywords

  • vaginal delivery
  • cesarean section delivery
  • early infants
  • intestinal microbiota
  • predicted function
Open Access

Antibiotic and Disinfectant Resistance in Tap Water Strains – Insight into the Resistance of Environmental Bacteria

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 57 - 67

Abstract

Abstract

Although antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) have been isolated from tap water worldwide, the knowledge of their resistance patterns is still scarce. Both horizontal and vertical gene transfer has been suggested to contribute to the resistance spread among tap water bacteria. In this study, ARB were isolated from finished water collected at two independent water treatment plants (WTPs) and tap water collected at several point-of-use taps during summer and winter sampling campaigns. A total of 24 strains were identified to genus or species level and subjected to antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility testing. The investigated tap water ARB belonged to phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The majority of the isolates proved multidrug resistant and resistant to chemical disinfectant. Neither seasonal nor WTP-dependent variabilities in antibiotic or disinfectant resistance were found. Antibiotics most effective against the investigated isolates included imipenem, tetracyclines, erythromycin, and least effective – aztreonam, cefotaxime, amoxicillin, and ceftazidime. The most resistant strains originate from Afipia sp. and Methylobacterium sp. Comparing resistance patterns of isolated tap water ARB with literature reports concerning the same genera or species confirms intra-genus or even intra-specific variabilities of environmental bacteria. Neither species-specific nor acquired resistance can be excluded.

Keywords

  • susceptibility testing
  • antibiograms
  • MIC testing
  • drinking water bacteria
  • environmental strains
Open Access

Chemotaxis Toward Crude Oil by an Oil-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6-1B Strain

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 69 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

The chemotactic properties of an oil-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 6-1B, isolated from Daqing Oilfield, China, have been investigated. The strain 6-1B could grow well in crude oil with a specific rhamnolipid biosurfactant production. Furthermore, it exhibits chemotaxis toward various substrates, including glycine, glycerol, glucose, and sucrose. Compared with another oil-degrading strain, T7-2, the strain 6-1B presented a better chemotactic response towards crude oil and its vital component, n-alkenes. Based on the observed distribution of the strain 6-1B cells around the oil droplet in the chemotactic assays, the potential chemotaxis process of bacteria toward crude oil could be summarized in the following steps: searching, moving and consuming.

Keywords

  • chemotaxis
  • crude oil
  • 6-1B
  • swarm plate assay
  • modified agarose plug assay
Open Access

Spa typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Specimens from Outpatients in Iraq

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 79 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is notorious as a hospital superbug and a problematic pathogen among communities. The incidence of MRSA has substantially increased over time in Iraq. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and spa types of MRSA isolates from outpatients or patients upon admission into hospitals. Various biochemical tests identified S. aureus isolates, and then this identification was confirmed by PCR using species-specific 16S rRNA primer pairs. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined against methicillin, oxacillin, and vancomycin using the disk diffusion method. Vancomycin MIC was detected by VITEK 2 compact system. All the identified isolates were screened for the presence of mecA and lukS-PV-lukF-PV genes; 36 of them were subjected to spa typing-based PCR. Out of 290 clinical samples, 65 (22.4%) were S. aureus, of which 62 (95.4%) strains were resistant to oxacillin and methicillin. Except for two isolates, all MRSA isolates were mecA positive. One of the three MSSA isolates was mecA positive. Five strains were resistant to vancomycin. Fourteen (21.5%) isolates were positive for the presence of lukS-PV-lukF-PV genes. Spa typing of 36 S. aureus isolates revealed eleven different spa types, t304 (30.3%), t307 (19.4%), t346 (8.3%), t044 (8.3%), t15595 (8.3%), t386 (5.5%), t5475 (5.5%), t17928 (2.8%), t14870 (2.8%), t021 (2.8%), and t024 (2.8%). These findings could be useful for assessing the genetic relatedness of strains in the region for epidemiological and monitoring purposes, which would be essential to limiting the spread of MRSA.

Keywords

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • methicillin resistance
  • typing
  • PCR
Open Access

Diversity of Culturable Bacteria Isolated from Highland Barley Cultivation Soil in Qamdo, Tibet Autonomous Region

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 87 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

The soil bacterial communities have been widely investigated. However, there has been little study of the bacteria in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, especially about the culturable bacteria in highland barley cultivation soil. Here, a total of 830 individual strains were obtained at 4°C and 25°C from a highland barley cultivation soil in Qamdo, Tibet Autonomous Region, using fifteen kinds of media. Seventy-seven species were obtained, which belonged to 42 genera and four phyla; the predominant phylum was Actinobacteria (68.82%), followed by Proteobacteria (15.59%), Firmicutes (14.29%), and Bacteroidetes (1.30%). The predominant genus was Streptomyces (22.08%, 17 species), followed by Bacillus (6.49%, five species), Micromonospora (5.19%, four species), Microbacterium (5.19%, four species), and Kribbella (3.90%, three species). The most diverse isolates belonged to a high G+C Gram-positive group; in particular, the Streptomyces genus is a dominant genus in the high G+C Gram-positive group. There were 62 species and 33 genera bacteria isolated at 25°C (80.52%), 23 species, and 18 genera bacteria isolated at 4°C (29.87%). Meanwhile, only eight species and six genera bacteria could be isolated at 25°C and 4°C. Of the 77 species, six isolates related to six genera might be novel taxa. The results showed abundant bacterial species diversity in the soil sample from the Qamdo, Tibet Autonomous Region.

Keywords

  • Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
  • 16S rRNA, novel taxa
  • high-altitude area
Open Access

Campylobacter fetus Induced Proinflammatory Response in Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 99 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus is the causal agent of sporadic abortion in bovines and infertility that produces economic losses in livestock. In many infectious diseases, the immune response has an important role in limiting the invasion and proliferation of bacterial pathogens. Innate immune sensing of microorganisms is mediated by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and induces the secretion of several proinflammatory cytokines, like IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-8. In this study, the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and IFN-γ in bovine endometrial epithelial cells infected with C. fetus and Salmonella Typhimurium (a bacterial invasion control) was analyzed. The results showed that expression levels of IL-1β and IL-8 were high at the beginning of the infection and decreased throughout the intracellular period. Unlike in this same assay, the expression levels of IFN-γ increased through time and reached the highest peak at 4 hours post infection. In cells infected with S. Typhimurium, the results showed that IL8 expression levels were highly induced by infection but not IFN-γ. In cells infected with S. Typhimurium or C. fetus subsp. fetus, the results showed that TNF-α expression did not show any change during infection. A cytoskeleton inhibition assay was performed to determine if cytokine expression was modified by C. fetus subsp. fetus intracellular invasion. IL-1β and IL-8 expression were downregulated when an intracellular invasion was avoided. The results obtained in this study suggest that bovine endometrial epithelial cells could recognize C. fetus subsp. fetus resulting in early proinflammatory response.

Keywords

  • bacterial infection
  • pathogenicity
  • virulence
  • pathogen-host interaction (MesH)
Open Access

Clonal Dissemination of KPC-2, VIM-1, OXA-48-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147 in Katowice, Poland

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 107 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is an important bacterium of nosocomial infections. In this study, CRKP strains, which were mainly isolated from fecal samples of 14 patients in three wards of the hospital in the Silesia Voivodship, rapidly increased from February to August 2018. Therefore, we conducted microbiological and molecular studies of the CRKP isolates analyzed. Colonized patients had critical underlying diseases and comorbidities; one developed bloodstream infection, and five died (33.3%). Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by the E-test method. A disc synergy test confirmed carbapenemase production. CTX-Mplex PCR evaluated the presence of resistance genes blaCTX-M-type, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9, and the genes blaSHV, blaTEM, blaKPC-2, blaNDM-1, blaOXA-48, blaIMP, and blaVIM-1 was detected with the PCR method. Clonality was evaluated by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Six (40%) strains were of XDR (Extensively Drug-Resistant) phenotype, and nine (60%) of the isolates exhibited MDR (Multidrug-Resistant) phenotype. The range of carbapenem minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs, μg/mL) was as follows doripenem (16 to >32), ertapenem (> 32), imipenem (4 to > 32), and meropenem (> 32). PCR and sequencing confirmed the blaCTX-M-15, blaKPC-2, blaOXA-48, and blaVIM-1 genes in all strains. The isolates formed one large PFGE cluster (clone A). MLST assigned them to the emerging high-risk clone of ST147 (CC147) pandemic lineage harboring the blaOXA-48 gene. This study showed that the K. pneumoniae isolates detected in the multi-profile medical centre in Katowice represented a single strain of the microorganism spreading in the hospital environment.

Keywords

  • clonal dissemination
  • carbapenem-resistant
  • hospital
  • PFGE
  • MLST
Open Access

A Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of α-Viniferin in Staphylococcus aureus – Specific Decolonization without Depleting the Normal Microbiota of Nares

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 117 - 130

Abstract

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus is currently a significant multidrug-resistant bacterium, causing severe healthcare-associated and community-acquired infections worldwide. The current antibiotic regimen against this pathogen is becoming ineffective due to resistance, in addition, they disrupt the normal microbiota. It highlights the urgent need for a pathogen-specific drug with high antibacterial efficacy against S. aureus. α-Viniferin, a bioactive phytochemical compound, has been reported to have excellent anti-Staphylococcus efficacy as a topical agent. However, so far, there were no clinical trials that have been conducted to elucidate its efficacy. The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of α-viniferin against S. aureus in a ten-day clinical trial. Based on the results, α-viniferin showed 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50 values) of 7.8 μg/ml in culture broth medium. α-Viniferin was administered in the nares three times a day for ten days using a sterile cotton swab stick. Nasal swab specimens were collected before (0 days) and after finishing the trial (10th day), and then analyzed. In the culture and RT-PCR-based analysis, S. ureus was reduced significantly: 0.01. In addition, 16S ribosomal RNA-based amplicon sequencing analysis showed that S. aureus reduced from 51.03% to 23.99% at the genus level. RNA-seq analysis was also done to gain insights into molecular mechanisms of α-viniferin against S. aureus, which revealed that some gene groups were reduced in 5-fold FC cutoff at two times MIC conditions. The study results demonstrate α-viniferin as a potential S. aureus-specific drug candidate.

Keywords

  • α-viniferin
  • clinical trial
  • MRSA
  • PCR
  • 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis

mini-review

Open Access

The Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus, Host Defense Mechanisms, and the Development of AFMP4 Antigen as a Vaccine

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 3 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the ubiquitous fungi with airborne conidia, which accounts for most aspergillosis cases. In immunocompetent hosts, the inhaled conidia are rapidly eliminated. However, immunocompromised or immunodeficient hosts are particularly vulnerable to most Aspergillus infections and invasive aspergillosis (IA), with mortality from 50% to 95%. Despite the improvement of antifungal drugs over the last few decades, the therapeutic effect for IA patients is still limited and does not provide significant survival benefits. The drawbacks of antifungal drugs such as side effects, antifungal drug resistance, and the high cost of antifungal drugs highlight the importance of finding novel therapeutic and preventive approaches to fight against IA. In this article, we systemically addressed the pathogenic mechanisms, defense mechanisms against A. fumigatus, the immune response, molecular aspects of host evasion, and vaccines’ current development against aspergillosis, particularly those based on AFMP4 protein, which might be a promising antigen for the development of anti-A. fumigatus vaccines.

Keywords

  • vaccine
  • mannoprotein
Open Access

Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus Bloodstream Infections in Humans: a Review

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 13 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

Staphylococci are among the most frequent human microbiota components associated with the high level of bloodstream infection (BSI) episodes. In predisposed patients, there is a high risk of transformation of BSI episodes to sepsis. Both bacterial and host factors are crucial for the outcomes of BSI and sepsis. The highest rates of BSI episodes were reported in Africa, where these infections were up to twice as high as the European rates. However, there remains a great need to analyze African data for comprehensive quantification of staphylococcal BSI prevalence. The lowest rates of BSI exist in Australia. Asian, European, and North American data showed similar frequency values. Worldwide analysis indicated that both Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most frequent BSI agents. In the second group, the most prevalent species was Staphylococcus epidermidis, although CoNS were not identified at the species level in many studies. The lack of a significant worldwide decrease in BSI episodes indicates a great need to implement standardized diagnostic methods and research etiological factors using advanced genetic methods.

Keywords

  • bacteremia
  • carriage
  • infection
  • sepsis
Open Access

Microbiota: A Missing Link in The Pathogenesis of Chronic Lung Inflammatory Diseases

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 25 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

Chronic respiratory diseases account for high morbidity and mortality, with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) being the most prevalent globally. Even though the diseases increase in prevalence, the exact underlying mechanisms have still not been fully understood. Despite their differences in nature, pathophysiologies, and clinical phenotypes, a growing body of evidence indicates that the presence of lung microbiota can shape the pathogenic processes underlying chronic inflammation, typically observed in the course of the diseases. Therefore, the characterization of the lung microbiota may shed new light on the pathogenesis of these diseases. Specifically, in chronic respiratory tract diseases, the human microbiota may contribute to the disease’s development and severity. The present review explores the role of the microbiota in the area of chronic pulmonary diseases, especially COPD, asthma, and CF.

Keywords

  • microbiota
  • asthma
  • COPD
  • cystic fibrosis
  • lungs

short-communication

Open Access

Growth Inhibition of Phytopathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes by Basidiomycete Irpex lacteus and Identification of its Antimicrobial Extracellular Metabolites

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 131 - 136

Abstract

Abstract

In dual culture confrontation assays, basidiomycete Irpex lacteus efficiently antagonized Fusarium spp., Colletotrichum spp., and Phytophthora spp. phytopathogenic strains, with growth inhibition percentages between 16.7–46.3%. Antibiosis assays evaluating the inhibitory effect of soluble extracellular metabolites indicated I. lacteus strain inhibited phytopathogens growth between 32.0–86.7%. Metabolites in the extracellular broth filtrate, identified by UPLC-QTOF mass spectrometer, included nine terpenes, two aldehydes, and derivatives of a polyketide, a quinazoline, and a xanthone, several of which had antifungal activity. I. lacteus strain and its extracellular metabolites might be valuable tools for phytopathogenic fungi and oomycete biocontrol of agricultural relevance.

Keywords

  • antagonism
  • antifungal
  • extracellular metabolites
  • mycelium
  • terpenes
13 Articles

original-paper

Open Access

Effects of Different Ambient Temperatures on Caecal Microbial Composition in Broilers

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 33 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

Short-term or acute temperature stress affect the immune responses and alters the gut microbiota of broilers, but the influences of long-term temperature stress on stress biomarkers and the intestinal microbiota remains largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the effect of three long-term ambient temperatures (high (HC), medium (MC), and low (LC) temperature groups) on the gene expression of broilers’ heat shock proteins (Hsps) and inflammation – related genes, as well as the caecal microbial composition. The results revealed that Hsp70 and Hsp90 levels in HC group significantly increased, and levels of Hsp70, Hsp90, IL-6, TNF-α, and NFKB1 in LC group were significantly higher than in MC group (p < 0.05). In comparison with the MC group, the proportion of Firmicutes increased in HC and LC groups, while that of Bacteroidetes decreased in LC group at phylum level (p < 0.05). At genus level, the proportion of Escherichia/Shigella, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides,and Enterococcus increased in HC group; the fraction of Faecalibacterium was higher in LC group; and the percentage of Barnesiella and Alistipes decreased in both HC and LC groups (p < 0.05). Functional analysis based on communities’ phylogenetic investigation revealed that the pathways involved in environmental information processing and metabolism were enriched in the HC group. Those involved in cellular processes and signaling, metabolism, and gene regulation were enriched in LC group. Hence, we conclude that the long-term temperature stress can greatly alter the intestinal microbial communities in broilers and may further affect the host’s immunity and health.

Keywords

  • broiler
  • temperature
  • 16S rRNA sequencing
  • caecal microbial composition
  • KEGG pathway
Open Access

The Effects of Different Modes of Delivery on the Structure and Predicted Function of Intestinal Microbiota in Neonates and Early Infants

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 45 - 55

Abstract

Abstract

Several studies have shown that an increased risk of metabolic and immune disorders associated with cesarean section mode of delivery may exist. However, such studies have not been conducted in the Chinese population. Stool sample sequencing of the gene encoding the 16S rRNA of 82 prospectively enrolled 3- and 30–42-day-old vaginal and cesarean section delivered newborns was performed to study the composition and predicted function of the intestinal microbiota. In the samples from the 3-day-old neonates, the levels of Escherichia-Shigella in the two groups were similar. The genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides were more prominent in the vaginal delivery than in the cesarean section group, which showed a predominance of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Corynebacterium. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05). In the samples from 30- to 42-day-old infants, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Escherichia-Shigella, and Bacteroides were the main genera present in the vaginal delivery group, while in the cesarean section delivery group; the predominant genera were Escherichia-Shigella, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Staphylococcus. Predicted functions of the vaginal delivery group revealed higher metabolic and biodegradation rates of carbohydrates, vitamins, and xenobiotics than those in the cesarean section group, which contributed to the stability of the microbiota in the former. The abundance of probiotic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, and the negative correlation between obesity and Bacteroides presence were higher in vaginally delivered infants than in cesarean-delivered infants at both studied time points.

Keywords

  • vaginal delivery
  • cesarean section delivery
  • early infants
  • intestinal microbiota
  • predicted function
Open Access

Antibiotic and Disinfectant Resistance in Tap Water Strains – Insight into the Resistance of Environmental Bacteria

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 57 - 67

Abstract

Abstract

Although antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) have been isolated from tap water worldwide, the knowledge of their resistance patterns is still scarce. Both horizontal and vertical gene transfer has been suggested to contribute to the resistance spread among tap water bacteria. In this study, ARB were isolated from finished water collected at two independent water treatment plants (WTPs) and tap water collected at several point-of-use taps during summer and winter sampling campaigns. A total of 24 strains were identified to genus or species level and subjected to antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility testing. The investigated tap water ARB belonged to phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The majority of the isolates proved multidrug resistant and resistant to chemical disinfectant. Neither seasonal nor WTP-dependent variabilities in antibiotic or disinfectant resistance were found. Antibiotics most effective against the investigated isolates included imipenem, tetracyclines, erythromycin, and least effective – aztreonam, cefotaxime, amoxicillin, and ceftazidime. The most resistant strains originate from Afipia sp. and Methylobacterium sp. Comparing resistance patterns of isolated tap water ARB with literature reports concerning the same genera or species confirms intra-genus or even intra-specific variabilities of environmental bacteria. Neither species-specific nor acquired resistance can be excluded.

Keywords

  • susceptibility testing
  • antibiograms
  • MIC testing
  • drinking water bacteria
  • environmental strains
Open Access

Chemotaxis Toward Crude Oil by an Oil-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6-1B Strain

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 69 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

The chemotactic properties of an oil-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 6-1B, isolated from Daqing Oilfield, China, have been investigated. The strain 6-1B could grow well in crude oil with a specific rhamnolipid biosurfactant production. Furthermore, it exhibits chemotaxis toward various substrates, including glycine, glycerol, glucose, and sucrose. Compared with another oil-degrading strain, T7-2, the strain 6-1B presented a better chemotactic response towards crude oil and its vital component, n-alkenes. Based on the observed distribution of the strain 6-1B cells around the oil droplet in the chemotactic assays, the potential chemotaxis process of bacteria toward crude oil could be summarized in the following steps: searching, moving and consuming.

Keywords

  • chemotaxis
  • crude oil
  • 6-1B
  • swarm plate assay
  • modified agarose plug assay
Open Access

Spa typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Specimens from Outpatients in Iraq

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 79 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is notorious as a hospital superbug and a problematic pathogen among communities. The incidence of MRSA has substantially increased over time in Iraq. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and spa types of MRSA isolates from outpatients or patients upon admission into hospitals. Various biochemical tests identified S. aureus isolates, and then this identification was confirmed by PCR using species-specific 16S rRNA primer pairs. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined against methicillin, oxacillin, and vancomycin using the disk diffusion method. Vancomycin MIC was detected by VITEK 2 compact system. All the identified isolates were screened for the presence of mecA and lukS-PV-lukF-PV genes; 36 of them were subjected to spa typing-based PCR. Out of 290 clinical samples, 65 (22.4%) were S. aureus, of which 62 (95.4%) strains were resistant to oxacillin and methicillin. Except for two isolates, all MRSA isolates were mecA positive. One of the three MSSA isolates was mecA positive. Five strains were resistant to vancomycin. Fourteen (21.5%) isolates were positive for the presence of lukS-PV-lukF-PV genes. Spa typing of 36 S. aureus isolates revealed eleven different spa types, t304 (30.3%), t307 (19.4%), t346 (8.3%), t044 (8.3%), t15595 (8.3%), t386 (5.5%), t5475 (5.5%), t17928 (2.8%), t14870 (2.8%), t021 (2.8%), and t024 (2.8%). These findings could be useful for assessing the genetic relatedness of strains in the region for epidemiological and monitoring purposes, which would be essential to limiting the spread of MRSA.

Keywords

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • methicillin resistance
  • typing
  • PCR
Open Access

Diversity of Culturable Bacteria Isolated from Highland Barley Cultivation Soil in Qamdo, Tibet Autonomous Region

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 87 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

The soil bacterial communities have been widely investigated. However, there has been little study of the bacteria in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, especially about the culturable bacteria in highland barley cultivation soil. Here, a total of 830 individual strains were obtained at 4°C and 25°C from a highland barley cultivation soil in Qamdo, Tibet Autonomous Region, using fifteen kinds of media. Seventy-seven species were obtained, which belonged to 42 genera and four phyla; the predominant phylum was Actinobacteria (68.82%), followed by Proteobacteria (15.59%), Firmicutes (14.29%), and Bacteroidetes (1.30%). The predominant genus was Streptomyces (22.08%, 17 species), followed by Bacillus (6.49%, five species), Micromonospora (5.19%, four species), Microbacterium (5.19%, four species), and Kribbella (3.90%, three species). The most diverse isolates belonged to a high G+C Gram-positive group; in particular, the Streptomyces genus is a dominant genus in the high G+C Gram-positive group. There were 62 species and 33 genera bacteria isolated at 25°C (80.52%), 23 species, and 18 genera bacteria isolated at 4°C (29.87%). Meanwhile, only eight species and six genera bacteria could be isolated at 25°C and 4°C. Of the 77 species, six isolates related to six genera might be novel taxa. The results showed abundant bacterial species diversity in the soil sample from the Qamdo, Tibet Autonomous Region.

Keywords

  • Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
  • 16S rRNA, novel taxa
  • high-altitude area
Open Access

Campylobacter fetus Induced Proinflammatory Response in Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 99 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus is the causal agent of sporadic abortion in bovines and infertility that produces economic losses in livestock. In many infectious diseases, the immune response has an important role in limiting the invasion and proliferation of bacterial pathogens. Innate immune sensing of microorganisms is mediated by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and induces the secretion of several proinflammatory cytokines, like IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-8. In this study, the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8, and IFN-γ in bovine endometrial epithelial cells infected with C. fetus and Salmonella Typhimurium (a bacterial invasion control) was analyzed. The results showed that expression levels of IL-1β and IL-8 were high at the beginning of the infection and decreased throughout the intracellular period. Unlike in this same assay, the expression levels of IFN-γ increased through time and reached the highest peak at 4 hours post infection. In cells infected with S. Typhimurium, the results showed that IL8 expression levels were highly induced by infection but not IFN-γ. In cells infected with S. Typhimurium or C. fetus subsp. fetus, the results showed that TNF-α expression did not show any change during infection. A cytoskeleton inhibition assay was performed to determine if cytokine expression was modified by C. fetus subsp. fetus intracellular invasion. IL-1β and IL-8 expression were downregulated when an intracellular invasion was avoided. The results obtained in this study suggest that bovine endometrial epithelial cells could recognize C. fetus subsp. fetus resulting in early proinflammatory response.

Keywords

  • bacterial infection
  • pathogenicity
  • virulence
  • pathogen-host interaction (MesH)
Open Access

Clonal Dissemination of KPC-2, VIM-1, OXA-48-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST147 in Katowice, Poland

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 107 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is an important bacterium of nosocomial infections. In this study, CRKP strains, which were mainly isolated from fecal samples of 14 patients in three wards of the hospital in the Silesia Voivodship, rapidly increased from February to August 2018. Therefore, we conducted microbiological and molecular studies of the CRKP isolates analyzed. Colonized patients had critical underlying diseases and comorbidities; one developed bloodstream infection, and five died (33.3%). Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by the E-test method. A disc synergy test confirmed carbapenemase production. CTX-Mplex PCR evaluated the presence of resistance genes blaCTX-M-type, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9, and the genes blaSHV, blaTEM, blaKPC-2, blaNDM-1, blaOXA-48, blaIMP, and blaVIM-1 was detected with the PCR method. Clonality was evaluated by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Six (40%) strains were of XDR (Extensively Drug-Resistant) phenotype, and nine (60%) of the isolates exhibited MDR (Multidrug-Resistant) phenotype. The range of carbapenem minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs, μg/mL) was as follows doripenem (16 to >32), ertapenem (> 32), imipenem (4 to > 32), and meropenem (> 32). PCR and sequencing confirmed the blaCTX-M-15, blaKPC-2, blaOXA-48, and blaVIM-1 genes in all strains. The isolates formed one large PFGE cluster (clone A). MLST assigned them to the emerging high-risk clone of ST147 (CC147) pandemic lineage harboring the blaOXA-48 gene. This study showed that the K. pneumoniae isolates detected in the multi-profile medical centre in Katowice represented a single strain of the microorganism spreading in the hospital environment.

Keywords

  • clonal dissemination
  • carbapenem-resistant
  • hospital
  • PFGE
  • MLST
Open Access

A Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of α-Viniferin in Staphylococcus aureus – Specific Decolonization without Depleting the Normal Microbiota of Nares

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 117 - 130

Abstract

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus is currently a significant multidrug-resistant bacterium, causing severe healthcare-associated and community-acquired infections worldwide. The current antibiotic regimen against this pathogen is becoming ineffective due to resistance, in addition, they disrupt the normal microbiota. It highlights the urgent need for a pathogen-specific drug with high antibacterial efficacy against S. aureus. α-Viniferin, a bioactive phytochemical compound, has been reported to have excellent anti-Staphylococcus efficacy as a topical agent. However, so far, there were no clinical trials that have been conducted to elucidate its efficacy. The present study aimed to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of α-viniferin against S. aureus in a ten-day clinical trial. Based on the results, α-viniferin showed 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50 values) of 7.8 μg/ml in culture broth medium. α-Viniferin was administered in the nares three times a day for ten days using a sterile cotton swab stick. Nasal swab specimens were collected before (0 days) and after finishing the trial (10th day), and then analyzed. In the culture and RT-PCR-based analysis, S. ureus was reduced significantly: 0.01. In addition, 16S ribosomal RNA-based amplicon sequencing analysis showed that S. aureus reduced from 51.03% to 23.99% at the genus level. RNA-seq analysis was also done to gain insights into molecular mechanisms of α-viniferin against S. aureus, which revealed that some gene groups were reduced in 5-fold FC cutoff at two times MIC conditions. The study results demonstrate α-viniferin as a potential S. aureus-specific drug candidate.

Keywords

  • α-viniferin
  • clinical trial
  • MRSA
  • PCR
  • 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis

mini-review

Open Access

The Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus, Host Defense Mechanisms, and the Development of AFMP4 Antigen as a Vaccine

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 3 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the ubiquitous fungi with airborne conidia, which accounts for most aspergillosis cases. In immunocompetent hosts, the inhaled conidia are rapidly eliminated. However, immunocompromised or immunodeficient hosts are particularly vulnerable to most Aspergillus infections and invasive aspergillosis (IA), with mortality from 50% to 95%. Despite the improvement of antifungal drugs over the last few decades, the therapeutic effect for IA patients is still limited and does not provide significant survival benefits. The drawbacks of antifungal drugs such as side effects, antifungal drug resistance, and the high cost of antifungal drugs highlight the importance of finding novel therapeutic and preventive approaches to fight against IA. In this article, we systemically addressed the pathogenic mechanisms, defense mechanisms against A. fumigatus, the immune response, molecular aspects of host evasion, and vaccines’ current development against aspergillosis, particularly those based on AFMP4 protein, which might be a promising antigen for the development of anti-A. fumigatus vaccines.

Keywords

  • vaccine
  • mannoprotein
Open Access

Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus Bloodstream Infections in Humans: a Review

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 13 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

Staphylococci are among the most frequent human microbiota components associated with the high level of bloodstream infection (BSI) episodes. In predisposed patients, there is a high risk of transformation of BSI episodes to sepsis. Both bacterial and host factors are crucial for the outcomes of BSI and sepsis. The highest rates of BSI episodes were reported in Africa, where these infections were up to twice as high as the European rates. However, there remains a great need to analyze African data for comprehensive quantification of staphylococcal BSI prevalence. The lowest rates of BSI exist in Australia. Asian, European, and North American data showed similar frequency values. Worldwide analysis indicated that both Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most frequent BSI agents. In the second group, the most prevalent species was Staphylococcus epidermidis, although CoNS were not identified at the species level in many studies. The lack of a significant worldwide decrease in BSI episodes indicates a great need to implement standardized diagnostic methods and research etiological factors using advanced genetic methods.

Keywords

  • bacteremia
  • carriage
  • infection
  • sepsis
Open Access

Microbiota: A Missing Link in The Pathogenesis of Chronic Lung Inflammatory Diseases

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 25 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

Chronic respiratory diseases account for high morbidity and mortality, with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) being the most prevalent globally. Even though the diseases increase in prevalence, the exact underlying mechanisms have still not been fully understood. Despite their differences in nature, pathophysiologies, and clinical phenotypes, a growing body of evidence indicates that the presence of lung microbiota can shape the pathogenic processes underlying chronic inflammation, typically observed in the course of the diseases. Therefore, the characterization of the lung microbiota may shed new light on the pathogenesis of these diseases. Specifically, in chronic respiratory tract diseases, the human microbiota may contribute to the disease’s development and severity. The present review explores the role of the microbiota in the area of chronic pulmonary diseases, especially COPD, asthma, and CF.

Keywords

  • microbiota
  • asthma
  • COPD
  • cystic fibrosis
  • lungs

short-communication

Open Access

Growth Inhibition of Phytopathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes by Basidiomycete Irpex lacteus and Identification of its Antimicrobial Extracellular Metabolites

Published Online: 19 Mar 2021
Page range: 131 - 136

Abstract

Abstract

In dual culture confrontation assays, basidiomycete Irpex lacteus efficiently antagonized Fusarium spp., Colletotrichum spp., and Phytophthora spp. phytopathogenic strains, with growth inhibition percentages between 16.7–46.3%. Antibiosis assays evaluating the inhibitory effect of soluble extracellular metabolites indicated I. lacteus strain inhibited phytopathogens growth between 32.0–86.7%. Metabolites in the extracellular broth filtrate, identified by UPLC-QTOF mass spectrometer, included nine terpenes, two aldehydes, and derivatives of a polyketide, a quinazoline, and a xanthone, several of which had antifungal activity. I. lacteus strain and its extracellular metabolites might be valuable tools for phytopathogenic fungi and oomycete biocontrol of agricultural relevance.

Keywords

  • antagonism
  • antifungal
  • extracellular metabolites
  • mycelium
  • terpenes

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