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Volume 69 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

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Volume 68 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 3 (August 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles

short-communication

access type Open Access

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6: A Preliminary Report from Istanbul

Published Online: 31 May 2019
Page range: 165 - 171

Abstract

Abstract

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by various serotypes of Enterovirus genus. Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) were known to be the only responsible agents for these epidemics; however, this opinion was challenged after the detection that coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was the responsible species for the outbreak in Finland in 2008. HFMD is frequently seen in Turkey, and no detailed study on its clinical and microbiological epidemiology has previously been reported. The present study addresses this question. Twenty-seven patient samples collected between 2015 and 2017 were included in the study. Typing was conducted by RT-PCR and the sequencing applied directly to patient’s samples and as well as to the viral cultures with pan-enterovirus and serotype-specific primers. The presence of Enterovirus in 12 of 27 HFMD samples was shown with RT-PCR. The causative agent for three of these 12 samples was CV-A16, one of the most frequent two serotypes around the world, and the remaining nine samples was CV-A6. The findings of the study are relevant since it pertains to the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Turkey, a gateway country where different serotypes might be circulating and transmitted. The findings also support the notion that CV-A6 cases are rising in number, which has caused more severe clinical features and widespread rashes in recent outbreaks.

Keywords

  • hand foot and mouth disease
  • HFMD
  • enterovirus
  • coxsackievirus A6
  • coxsackievirus A16
access type Open Access

Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Isolated from Honeybee Gut as a Potential Live Oral Vaccine Against Lethal Infection of Salmonella Typhimurium

Published Online: 31 May 2019
Page range: 173 - 183

Abstract

Abstract

In this research, Salmonella species were isolated from the animal, insect and human enteric sources in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. These species were characterized by different microbiological and molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, sequencing of the amplicons confirmed all ten isolates as Salmonella strains. The antigenic cross-reactivity was found maximum between the HB1 (strain isolated from honeybee) antiserum and its antigen with an antibody titer of 1:128, while the HB1 antiserum showed a cross-reactive titer range of 1:8 to 1:64. On the basis of the highest geometric mean titer (GMT) shown by the antiserum of the HB1 antigen, it was selected as the best candidate for a cross-reactive live Salmonella oral antigen. Moreover, the HB1 antigen was used a live oral antigen (1 × 1010 CFU/ml) in a safety test in rabbits and proved to be avirulent. During the animal trial, three different oral doses of the HB1 live oral antigen were evaluated in four different rabbits’ groups (R1, R2, R3, and R4). The dose number 2 of 0.5 ml (two drops orally and repeated after one week) gave the best GMT measured by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) as compared to the other two doses, while R4 group was kept as control. Results of the challenge protection test also validated the efficacy of the double dose of the HB1 live vaccine, which gave the highest survival percentage. Results of this study lay the foundation for a potential cross-reactive live oral Salmonella vaccine that has proved to be immunogenic in rabbits.

Keywords

  • antigen
  • cross-reactivity
  • 16S rRNA gene
  • geometric mean titer
access type Open Access

Evaluation of The Pathogenic Potential of Insecticidal Serratia marcescens Strains to Humans

Published Online: 31 May 2019
Page range: 185 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

We observed the death of insect caterpillars of Spodoptera exigua in the laboratory culture line and identified Serratia marcescens as the bacterial causative agent of the insect death. We confirmed that S. marcescens had insecticidal activity against S. exigua and caused high mortality of larvae. The LC50 values of S. marcescens CFU per 1 cm2 of insect diet surface were similar for all isolates. Our research reports novel strains with high pesticidal activity as candidates for future research on a new bioinsecticide. As bioinsecticides cannot be harmful to non-target organisms, we determined the pathogenic properties of S. marcescens to humans. We proved the ability of S. marcescens to damage mammalian epithelial cells. All strains had cytopathic effects to Vero cells with a cytotoxic index ranging from 51.2% ± 3.8% to 79.2% ± 4.1%. We found that all of the strains excreted catecholate siderophore – enterobactin. All isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin, gentamicin, cefepime, and aztreonam. We did not observe the ESBL phenotype and the integrons’ integrase genes. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole was due to the presence of the sul1 or sul2 gene. The use of resistant S. marcescens strains that are pathogenic to humans in plant protection may cause infections difficult to cure and lead to the spread of resistance genes. The results of our study emphasize the necessity of determination of the safety to vertebrates of the bacteria that are proposed to serve as biocontrol agents. The novelty of our study lies in the demonstration of the indispensability of the bacteria verification towards the lack of hazardous properties to humans.

Keywords

  • bioinsecticide
  • insecticidal activity
  • pathogenicity
  • pesticide safety
access type Open Access

Bacterial Diversity in Soybean Rhizosphere Soil at Seedling and Mature Stages

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 281 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

Changes in the structural diversity of bacterial communities in soybean rhizospheres play important roles in plant growth and crop productivity. However, there are only a few studies on different soybean growth stages. Here, we investigated the changes in the bacterial community of soybean rhizosphere soil at two stages using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the bacterial abundance and diversity in the seeding stage were higher than those in the mature stage and that the diversity changed significantly. Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria in the soybean rhizosphere soil. Additionally, changes in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria abundances showed opposite trends.

Keywords

  • soybean
  • growth stages
  • rhizosphere soil
  • bacterial community
  • Illumina high-throughput sequencing

original-paper

access type Open Access

An Investigation of Petrol Metabolizing Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soil Samples Collected from Various Fuel Stations

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 193 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

The present study aimed to isolate the high-efficiency petrol metabolizing thermophilic bacteria from petrol contaminated soil samples. Isolation was carried out through enrichment culture, serial dilution and pour plate methods using the petrol supplemented minimal salt media. The isolated bacteria were analyzed to document growth behavior, petrol removal efficiencies, antibiotic resistance profile, and biochemical characteristics. The 16S rRNA based phylogenetic analysis helped to reveal the identity of isolated bacterial species and construct the phylogenetic trees. Total nine bacteria were isolated, out of which three (IUBP2, IUBP3, IUBP5) were identified as Brevibacillus formosus, one (IUBP1) was found similar to Brevibacillus agri, four (IUBP7, IUBP8, IUBP13, and IUBP14) shared homology with Burkholderia lata, and one (IUBP15) with Burkholderia pyrrocinia. All the isolates were fast growing and exhibited considerable petrol degradation potential. The highest petrol removal efficiency (69.5% ± 13.44/6 days) was recorded for the strain IUBP15 at a petrol concentration of 0.1% (v/v). All bacteria studied (100%) were positive for esculinase and phosphatase. Many strains exhibited positive responses for arginine dehydrolase (22%), β-naphthylamidase (11%), β-D-glucosaminide (33%), mannitol (55%), sorbitol (66%) and inulin (88%) fermentation test. While all were sensitive to the antibiotics, some of them were found resistant against chloramphenicol and oxacillin. The remarkable biochemical characteristics and considerable petrol removal potential (40–70%) highlights utilization of the bacteria isolated for petrol bioremediation, mineralization of organophosphates, dairy and food industry, and also as biofertilizers and biocontrol agents.

Keywords

  • bioremediation
  • minimal salt media
  • green technology
  • gasoline and 16S rRNA profiling
access type Open Access

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Nigerian Women During the Menstrual Cycle

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 203 - 209

Abstract

Abstract

The composition of vagina lactic acid bacteria (LAB) differs within the different ethnic group. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of LAB with their antimicrobial properties in Nigerian women’s vagina during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Microorganisms were isolated from vaginal swabs of ten Nigerian women during different stages of the menstrual cycle and identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The antimicrobial properties of the LAB were tested against the multidrug-resistant uropathogens. The prevalence of LAB was higher during ovulation period while during menstruation period, it declined. Twenty-five LAB isolates were identified as three species, namely: Lactobacillus plantarum (15), Lactobacillus fermentum (9), Lactobacillus brevis (1) and one acetic acid bacteria – Acetobacter pasteurianus. The LAB had antimicrobial activities against the three uropathogens with zones of inhibition from 8 to 22 mm. The presence of LAB inhibits the growth of Staphylococcus sp. GF01 also in the co-culture. High LAB counts were found during ovulation period with L. plantarum as a dominant species while during menstruation, there was a decrease in the LAB counts. The isolated LAB has antimicrobial properties against the urogenital pathogens tested thus exhibiting their potential protective role against uropathogens.

Keywords

  • menstrual cycle
  • Nigerian women
  • lactobacilli
  • uropathogens
access type Open Access

In situ Impact of the Antagonistic Fungal Strain, Trichoderma gamsii T30 on the Plant Pathogenic Fungus, Rhizoctonia solani in Soil

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 211 - 216

Abstract

Abstract

Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne fungus causing a wide range of plants diseases. Trichoderma gamsii strain T30 has previously been reported as antagonistic against R. solani. Although there are a few studies about the influence of Trichoderma strains on the R. solani density in a pathosystem in the presence of plant hosts, this report for the first time comprehensively describes in situ effects of a T. gamsii strain on the population density of R. solani in the soil microcosmic conditions. The population dynamics of R. solani were followed in the autoclaved and non-autoclaved soils in artificially prepared microcosms up to day 25 after co-inoculation with T. gamsii in the variable ratios (R1/T1; R1/T0.1; R1/T0.01 of R. solani/T. gamsii). The population density of R. solani was evaluated by qPCR. In the autoclaved soil, target DNA copies of R. solani increased in the control samples from 1 × 105 to 6.5 × 106. At R1/T0.01, the number of target DNA copies were not significantly changed until day 11; however, it decreased by around five times at day 25. At R1/T0.1 and R1/T1, the number of DNA copies was reduced to 2.1 × 106 and 7.6 × 105 at day 11, respectively and the reduction was as much as 17 times at day 25. In the non-autoclaved soil, the number of the fungal cells decreased at day 25 whether inoculated or not with Trichoderma indicating a general suppression by the soil microbiome. In brief, T. gamsii significantly inhibited the growth of R. solani in the soil in situ and there was a general suppressive effect of the natural microbiome.

Keywords

  • study
  • population density
  • antagonism
  • real-time PCR
access type Open Access

Campylobacter fetus is Internalized by Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 217 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

Campylobacter fetus is an important venereal pathogen of cattle that causes infertility and abortions. It is transmitted during mating, and it travels from the vagina to the uterus; therefore, an important cell type that interacts with C. fetus are endometrial epithelial cells. Several virulence factors have been identified in the genome of C. fetus, such as adhesins, secretion systems, and antiphagocytic layers, but their expression is unknown. The ability of C. fetus to invade human epithelial cells has been demonstrated, but the ability of this microorganism to infect bovine endometrial epithelial cells has not been demonstrated. Bovine endometrial epithelial cells were isolated and challenged with C. fetus. The presence of C. fetus inside the endometrial epithelial cells was confirmed by the confocal immunofluorescence. C. fetus was not internalized when actin polymerization was disturbed, suggesting cytoskeleton participation in an internalization mechanism. To evaluate the intracellular survival of C. fetus, a gentamicin protection assay was performed. Although C. fetus was able to invade epithelial cells, the results showed that it did not have the capacity to survive in the intracellular environment. This study reports for the first time, the ability of C. fetus to invade bovine endometrial epithelial cells, and actin participation in this phenomenon.

Keywords

  • bacterial infection
  • pathogenicity
  • virulence
  • pathogen-host interaction
  • infectivity
access type Open Access

Patterns of Drug-Resistant Bacteria in a General Hospital, China, 2011–2016

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 225 - 232

Abstract

Abstract

Drug-resistant bacteria has been a threat to public life and property. We described the trends and changes in antibiotic resistance of important pathogens in a general hospital in Zhengzhou, China from 2011 to 2016, to control antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in hospital and provide support to clinicians and decision-making departments.

Five dominant bacteria were enrolled based on the data from the general hospital during 6 years. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). From 2011 to 2016, a total of 19,260 strains of bacteria were isolated, of which Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii accounted for 51.98%. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae and E. coli to carbapenem was less than 15%, but resistance of K. pneumoniae to carbapenems increased with time and resistance of E. coli to meropenem increased. The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production among K. pneumoniae and E. coli was decreasing. For most antibiotics, the resistance rate of ESBL-positive isolates was higher than that of ESBL-negative isolates, excluding carbapenems and cefoxitin. For S. aureus, the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was stable. Resistance of S. aureus to mostly antibiotics decreased with time. Besides polymyxin B, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii showed high resistance to other antibiotics. For A. baumannii, the resistance rate to mostly antibiotics was increasing. The bacteria showed high levels of resistance and multiple drug resistance. Continuous surveillance and optimizing the use of antibiotics are essential.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • Gram-negative bacteria
  • ESBL
  • MRSA
  • surveillance
access type Open Access

Analysis of the Amino Acid Sequence Variation of the 67–72p Protein and the Structural Pili Proteins of Corynebacterium diphtheriae for their Suitability as Potential Vaccine Antigens

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 233 - 246

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify the potential vaccine antigens in Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains by in silico analysis of the amino acid variation in the 67–72p surface protein that is involved in the colonization and induction of epithelial cell apoptosis in the early stages of infection. The analysis of pili structural proteins involved in bacterial adherence to host cells and related to various types of infections was also performed. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to amplify the genes encoding the 67–72p protein and three pili structural proteins (SpaC, SpaI, SapD) and the products obtained were sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the particular genes were translated into amino acid sequences, which were then matched among all the tested strains using bioinformatics tools. In the last step, the affinity of the tested proteins to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classes I and II, and linear B-cell epitopes was analyzed. The variations in the nucleotide sequence of the 67–72p protein and pili structural proteins among C. diphtheriae strains isolated from various infections were noted. A transposition of the insertion sequence within the gene encoding the SpaC pili structural proteins was also detected. In addition, the bioinformatics analyses enabled the identification of epitopes for B-cells and T-cells in the conserved regions of the proteins, thus, demonstrating that these proteins could be used as antigens in the potential vaccine development. The results identified the most conserved regions in all tested proteins that are exposed on the surface of C. diphtheriae cells.

Keywords

  • non-toxigenic
  • pili
  • 67–72p protein
  • vaccine
access type Open Access

Gastric Microbiota Alteration in Klebsiella pneumoniae-Caused Liver Abscesses Mice

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 247 - 254

Abstract

Abstract

Gastric microbiota provides a biological barrier against the invasion of foreign pathogens from the oral cavity, playing a vital role in maintaining gastrointestinal health. Klebsiella spp. of oral origin causes various infections not only in gastrointestinal tract but also in other organs, with Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K1 resulting in a liver abscess (KLA) through oral inoculation in mice. However, the relationship between gastric microbiota and the extra-gastrointestinal KLA infection is not clear. In our study, a 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene shows that the composition of gastric mucosal microbiota in mice with or without KLA infection varies greatly after oral inoculation with K. pneumoniae serotype K1 isolate. Interestingly, only several bacteria taxa show a significant change in gastric mucosal microbiota of KLA mice, including the decreased abundance of Bacteroides, Alisptipes and increased abundance of Streptococcus. It is worth noting that the abundance of Klebsiella exhibits an obvious increase in KLA mice, which might be closely related to KLA infection. At the same time, the endogenous antibiotics, defensins, involved in the regulation of the bacterial microbiota also show an increase in stomach and intestine. All these findings indicate that liver abscess caused by K. pneumoniae oral inoculation has a close relationship with gastric microbiota, which might provide important information for future clinical treatment.

Keywords

  • serotype K1
  • defensins
  • gastric mucosal microbiota
  • High-throughput pyrosequencing
  • liver abscess
access type Open Access

Influence of Environmental and Genetic Factors on Proteomic Profiling of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Campylobacter jejuni

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 255 - 261

Abstract

Abstract

The proteomes of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) secreted by C. jejuni 81–176 strain, which was exposed to oxygen or antibiotic stress (polymyxin B), were characterized. We also assessed the OMVs production and their content in two mutated strains – ∆dsbI and ∆htrA. OMVs production was significantly increased under the polymyxin B stress and remained unaltered in all other variants. Interestingly, the qualitative load of OMVs was constant regardless of the stress conditions or genetic background. However, certain proteins exhibited notable quantitative changes, ranging from 4-fold decrease to 10-fold increase. Up- or downregulated proteins (e.g. major outer membrane protein porA, iron ABC transporter, serine protease- htrA, 60 kDa chaperonin-groL, enolase) represented various cell compartments (cytoplasm, periplasm, and membrane) and exhibited various functions; nevertheless, one common group was noted that consisted of components of flagellar apparatus, i.e., FlaA/B, FlgC/E, which were mostly upregulated. Some of these proteins are the putative substrates of DsbI protein. Further investigation of the regulation of C. jejuni OMVs composition and their role in virulence will allow a better understanding of the infectious process of C. jejuni.

Keywords

  • outer membrane vesicles (OMVs)
  • proteomics
access type Open Access

Effects of Sodium Tripolyphosphate on Oral Commensal and Pathogenic Bacteria

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 263 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

Polyphosphate (polyP) is a food additive with antimicrobial activity. Here we evaluated the effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (polyP3, Na5P3O10) on four major oral bacterial species, in both single- and mixed-culture. PolyP3 inhibited three opportunistic pathogenic species: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. On the contrary, a commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii was relatively less susceptible to polyP3 than the pathogens. When all bacterial species were co-cultured, polyP3 (≥ 0.09%) significantly reduced their total growth and biofilm formation, among which the three pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited. Collectively, polyP3 may be an alternative antibacterial agent to control oral pathogenic bacteria.

Keywords

  • polyphosphate
  • antibacterial
  • oral bacteria
  • commensal
  • pathogenic
access type Open Access

The Joint Effect of pH Gradient and Glucose Feeding on the Growth Kinetics of Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 in Glucose-Limited Fed-Batch Cultures

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 269 - 280

Abstract

Abstract

Two glucose-limited realkalized fed-batch cultures of Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 were carried out in a diluted whey medium (DW) using two different feeding media. The cultures were fed a mixture of a 400 g/l concentrated lactose and a concentrated mussel processing waste (CMPW, 101.72 g glucose/l) medium (fermentation I) or a CMPW medium supplemented with glucose and KH2PO4 up to concentrations of 400 g glucose/l and 3.21 g total phosphorus/l, respectively (fermentation II). For an accurate description and a better understanding of the kinetics of both cultures, the growth and product formation by L. lactis CECT 539 were both modelled, for the first time, as a function of the amounts of glucose (G) added and the pH gradient (VpH) generated in every realkalization and feeding cycle, by using an empirical polynomial model. With this modeling procedure, the kinetics of biomass, viable cell counts, nisin, lactic acid, acetic acid and butane-2,3-diol production in both cultures were successfully described (R2 values > 0.970) and interpreted for the first time. In addition, the optimum VpH and G values for each product were accurately calculated in the two realkalized fed-batch cultures. This approach appears to be useful for designing feeding strategies to enhance the productions of biomass, bacteriocin, and metabolites by the nisin-producing strain in wastes from the food industry.

Keywords

  • fed-batch fermentation
  • empirical modeling
  • probiotic biomass
  • nisin
  • glucose-limited cultures

minireview

access type Open Access

The State of Research on Antimicrobial Activity of Cold Plasma

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 153 - 164

Abstract

Abstract

Microbiological contamination is a big challenge to the food industry, medicine, agriculture, and environmental protection. For this reason, scientists are constantly looking for alternative methods of decontamination, which ensure the effective elimination of unwanted biological agents. Cold plasma is a new technology, which due to its unique physical and chemical properties becomes a point of interest to a growing group of researchers. The previously conducted experiments confirm its effective action, e.g. in the disinfection of skin wounds, air, and sewage treatment, as well as in food preservation and decontamination. The reactive compounds present in the plasma: high-energy electrons, ionized atoms and molecules, and UV photons are the key factors that cause an effective reduction in the number of microorganisms. The mechanism and effectiveness of the cold plasma are complex and depend on the process parameters, environmental factors and the type and properties of the microorganisms that are to be killed. This review describes the current state of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of the cold plasma and characterizes its interaction with various groups of microorganisms based on the available literature data.

Keywords

  • biofilm
  • cellular response
  • cold plasma
  • mycotoxin
  • viruses
15 Articles

short-communication

access type Open Access

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6: A Preliminary Report from Istanbul

Published Online: 31 May 2019
Page range: 165 - 171

Abstract

Abstract

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by various serotypes of Enterovirus genus. Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) were known to be the only responsible agents for these epidemics; however, this opinion was challenged after the detection that coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was the responsible species for the outbreak in Finland in 2008. HFMD is frequently seen in Turkey, and no detailed study on its clinical and microbiological epidemiology has previously been reported. The present study addresses this question. Twenty-seven patient samples collected between 2015 and 2017 were included in the study. Typing was conducted by RT-PCR and the sequencing applied directly to patient’s samples and as well as to the viral cultures with pan-enterovirus and serotype-specific primers. The presence of Enterovirus in 12 of 27 HFMD samples was shown with RT-PCR. The causative agent for three of these 12 samples was CV-A16, one of the most frequent two serotypes around the world, and the remaining nine samples was CV-A6. The findings of the study are relevant since it pertains to the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Turkey, a gateway country where different serotypes might be circulating and transmitted. The findings also support the notion that CV-A6 cases are rising in number, which has caused more severe clinical features and widespread rashes in recent outbreaks.

Keywords

  • hand foot and mouth disease
  • HFMD
  • enterovirus
  • coxsackievirus A6
  • coxsackievirus A16
access type Open Access

Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Isolated from Honeybee Gut as a Potential Live Oral Vaccine Against Lethal Infection of Salmonella Typhimurium

Published Online: 31 May 2019
Page range: 173 - 183

Abstract

Abstract

In this research, Salmonella species were isolated from the animal, insect and human enteric sources in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. These species were characterized by different microbiological and molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, sequencing of the amplicons confirmed all ten isolates as Salmonella strains. The antigenic cross-reactivity was found maximum between the HB1 (strain isolated from honeybee) antiserum and its antigen with an antibody titer of 1:128, while the HB1 antiserum showed a cross-reactive titer range of 1:8 to 1:64. On the basis of the highest geometric mean titer (GMT) shown by the antiserum of the HB1 antigen, it was selected as the best candidate for a cross-reactive live Salmonella oral antigen. Moreover, the HB1 antigen was used a live oral antigen (1 × 1010 CFU/ml) in a safety test in rabbits and proved to be avirulent. During the animal trial, three different oral doses of the HB1 live oral antigen were evaluated in four different rabbits’ groups (R1, R2, R3, and R4). The dose number 2 of 0.5 ml (two drops orally and repeated after one week) gave the best GMT measured by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) as compared to the other two doses, while R4 group was kept as control. Results of the challenge protection test also validated the efficacy of the double dose of the HB1 live vaccine, which gave the highest survival percentage. Results of this study lay the foundation for a potential cross-reactive live oral Salmonella vaccine that has proved to be immunogenic in rabbits.

Keywords

  • antigen
  • cross-reactivity
  • 16S rRNA gene
  • geometric mean titer
access type Open Access

Evaluation of The Pathogenic Potential of Insecticidal Serratia marcescens Strains to Humans

Published Online: 31 May 2019
Page range: 185 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

We observed the death of insect caterpillars of Spodoptera exigua in the laboratory culture line and identified Serratia marcescens as the bacterial causative agent of the insect death. We confirmed that S. marcescens had insecticidal activity against S. exigua and caused high mortality of larvae. The LC50 values of S. marcescens CFU per 1 cm2 of insect diet surface were similar for all isolates. Our research reports novel strains with high pesticidal activity as candidates for future research on a new bioinsecticide. As bioinsecticides cannot be harmful to non-target organisms, we determined the pathogenic properties of S. marcescens to humans. We proved the ability of S. marcescens to damage mammalian epithelial cells. All strains had cytopathic effects to Vero cells with a cytotoxic index ranging from 51.2% ± 3.8% to 79.2% ± 4.1%. We found that all of the strains excreted catecholate siderophore – enterobactin. All isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin, gentamicin, cefepime, and aztreonam. We did not observe the ESBL phenotype and the integrons’ integrase genes. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole was due to the presence of the sul1 or sul2 gene. The use of resistant S. marcescens strains that are pathogenic to humans in plant protection may cause infections difficult to cure and lead to the spread of resistance genes. The results of our study emphasize the necessity of determination of the safety to vertebrates of the bacteria that are proposed to serve as biocontrol agents. The novelty of our study lies in the demonstration of the indispensability of the bacteria verification towards the lack of hazardous properties to humans.

Keywords

  • bioinsecticide
  • insecticidal activity
  • pathogenicity
  • pesticide safety
access type Open Access

Bacterial Diversity in Soybean Rhizosphere Soil at Seedling and Mature Stages

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 281 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

Changes in the structural diversity of bacterial communities in soybean rhizospheres play important roles in plant growth and crop productivity. However, there are only a few studies on different soybean growth stages. Here, we investigated the changes in the bacterial community of soybean rhizosphere soil at two stages using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the bacterial abundance and diversity in the seeding stage were higher than those in the mature stage and that the diversity changed significantly. Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria in the soybean rhizosphere soil. Additionally, changes in Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria abundances showed opposite trends.

Keywords

  • soybean
  • growth stages
  • rhizosphere soil
  • bacterial community
  • Illumina high-throughput sequencing

original-paper

access type Open Access

An Investigation of Petrol Metabolizing Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soil Samples Collected from Various Fuel Stations

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 193 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

The present study aimed to isolate the high-efficiency petrol metabolizing thermophilic bacteria from petrol contaminated soil samples. Isolation was carried out through enrichment culture, serial dilution and pour plate methods using the petrol supplemented minimal salt media. The isolated bacteria were analyzed to document growth behavior, petrol removal efficiencies, antibiotic resistance profile, and biochemical characteristics. The 16S rRNA based phylogenetic analysis helped to reveal the identity of isolated bacterial species and construct the phylogenetic trees. Total nine bacteria were isolated, out of which three (IUBP2, IUBP3, IUBP5) were identified as Brevibacillus formosus, one (IUBP1) was found similar to Brevibacillus agri, four (IUBP7, IUBP8, IUBP13, and IUBP14) shared homology with Burkholderia lata, and one (IUBP15) with Burkholderia pyrrocinia. All the isolates were fast growing and exhibited considerable petrol degradation potential. The highest petrol removal efficiency (69.5% ± 13.44/6 days) was recorded for the strain IUBP15 at a petrol concentration of 0.1% (v/v). All bacteria studied (100%) were positive for esculinase and phosphatase. Many strains exhibited positive responses for arginine dehydrolase (22%), β-naphthylamidase (11%), β-D-glucosaminide (33%), mannitol (55%), sorbitol (66%) and inulin (88%) fermentation test. While all were sensitive to the antibiotics, some of them were found resistant against chloramphenicol and oxacillin. The remarkable biochemical characteristics and considerable petrol removal potential (40–70%) highlights utilization of the bacteria isolated for petrol bioremediation, mineralization of organophosphates, dairy and food industry, and also as biofertilizers and biocontrol agents.

Keywords

  • bioremediation
  • minimal salt media
  • green technology
  • gasoline and 16S rRNA profiling
access type Open Access

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Nigerian Women During the Menstrual Cycle

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 203 - 209

Abstract

Abstract

The composition of vagina lactic acid bacteria (LAB) differs within the different ethnic group. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of LAB with their antimicrobial properties in Nigerian women’s vagina during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Microorganisms were isolated from vaginal swabs of ten Nigerian women during different stages of the menstrual cycle and identified by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The antimicrobial properties of the LAB were tested against the multidrug-resistant uropathogens. The prevalence of LAB was higher during ovulation period while during menstruation period, it declined. Twenty-five LAB isolates were identified as three species, namely: Lactobacillus plantarum (15), Lactobacillus fermentum (9), Lactobacillus brevis (1) and one acetic acid bacteria – Acetobacter pasteurianus. The LAB had antimicrobial activities against the three uropathogens with zones of inhibition from 8 to 22 mm. The presence of LAB inhibits the growth of Staphylococcus sp. GF01 also in the co-culture. High LAB counts were found during ovulation period with L. plantarum as a dominant species while during menstruation, there was a decrease in the LAB counts. The isolated LAB has antimicrobial properties against the urogenital pathogens tested thus exhibiting their potential protective role against uropathogens.

Keywords

  • menstrual cycle
  • Nigerian women
  • lactobacilli
  • uropathogens
access type Open Access

In situ Impact of the Antagonistic Fungal Strain, Trichoderma gamsii T30 on the Plant Pathogenic Fungus, Rhizoctonia solani in Soil

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 211 - 216

Abstract

Abstract

Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne fungus causing a wide range of plants diseases. Trichoderma gamsii strain T30 has previously been reported as antagonistic against R. solani. Although there are a few studies about the influence of Trichoderma strains on the R. solani density in a pathosystem in the presence of plant hosts, this report for the first time comprehensively describes in situ effects of a T. gamsii strain on the population density of R. solani in the soil microcosmic conditions. The population dynamics of R. solani were followed in the autoclaved and non-autoclaved soils in artificially prepared microcosms up to day 25 after co-inoculation with T. gamsii in the variable ratios (R1/T1; R1/T0.1; R1/T0.01 of R. solani/T. gamsii). The population density of R. solani was evaluated by qPCR. In the autoclaved soil, target DNA copies of R. solani increased in the control samples from 1 × 105 to 6.5 × 106. At R1/T0.01, the number of target DNA copies were not significantly changed until day 11; however, it decreased by around five times at day 25. At R1/T0.1 and R1/T1, the number of DNA copies was reduced to 2.1 × 106 and 7.6 × 105 at day 11, respectively and the reduction was as much as 17 times at day 25. In the non-autoclaved soil, the number of the fungal cells decreased at day 25 whether inoculated or not with Trichoderma indicating a general suppression by the soil microbiome. In brief, T. gamsii significantly inhibited the growth of R. solani in the soil in situ and there was a general suppressive effect of the natural microbiome.

Keywords

  • study
  • population density
  • antagonism
  • real-time PCR
access type Open Access

Campylobacter fetus is Internalized by Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 217 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

Campylobacter fetus is an important venereal pathogen of cattle that causes infertility and abortions. It is transmitted during mating, and it travels from the vagina to the uterus; therefore, an important cell type that interacts with C. fetus are endometrial epithelial cells. Several virulence factors have been identified in the genome of C. fetus, such as adhesins, secretion systems, and antiphagocytic layers, but their expression is unknown. The ability of C. fetus to invade human epithelial cells has been demonstrated, but the ability of this microorganism to infect bovine endometrial epithelial cells has not been demonstrated. Bovine endometrial epithelial cells were isolated and challenged with C. fetus. The presence of C. fetus inside the endometrial epithelial cells was confirmed by the confocal immunofluorescence. C. fetus was not internalized when actin polymerization was disturbed, suggesting cytoskeleton participation in an internalization mechanism. To evaluate the intracellular survival of C. fetus, a gentamicin protection assay was performed. Although C. fetus was able to invade epithelial cells, the results showed that it did not have the capacity to survive in the intracellular environment. This study reports for the first time, the ability of C. fetus to invade bovine endometrial epithelial cells, and actin participation in this phenomenon.

Keywords

  • bacterial infection
  • pathogenicity
  • virulence
  • pathogen-host interaction
  • infectivity
access type Open Access

Patterns of Drug-Resistant Bacteria in a General Hospital, China, 2011–2016

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 225 - 232

Abstract

Abstract

Drug-resistant bacteria has been a threat to public life and property. We described the trends and changes in antibiotic resistance of important pathogens in a general hospital in Zhengzhou, China from 2011 to 2016, to control antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in hospital and provide support to clinicians and decision-making departments.

Five dominant bacteria were enrolled based on the data from the general hospital during 6 years. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing were interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). From 2011 to 2016, a total of 19,260 strains of bacteria were isolated, of which Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii accounted for 51.98%. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae and E. coli to carbapenem was less than 15%, but resistance of K. pneumoniae to carbapenems increased with time and resistance of E. coli to meropenem increased. The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production among K. pneumoniae and E. coli was decreasing. For most antibiotics, the resistance rate of ESBL-positive isolates was higher than that of ESBL-negative isolates, excluding carbapenems and cefoxitin. For S. aureus, the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was stable. Resistance of S. aureus to mostly antibiotics decreased with time. Besides polymyxin B, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii showed high resistance to other antibiotics. For A. baumannii, the resistance rate to mostly antibiotics was increasing. The bacteria showed high levels of resistance and multiple drug resistance. Continuous surveillance and optimizing the use of antibiotics are essential.

Keywords

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • Gram-negative bacteria
  • ESBL
  • MRSA
  • surveillance
access type Open Access

Analysis of the Amino Acid Sequence Variation of the 67–72p Protein and the Structural Pili Proteins of Corynebacterium diphtheriae for their Suitability as Potential Vaccine Antigens

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 233 - 246

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify the potential vaccine antigens in Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains by in silico analysis of the amino acid variation in the 67–72p surface protein that is involved in the colonization and induction of epithelial cell apoptosis in the early stages of infection. The analysis of pili structural proteins involved in bacterial adherence to host cells and related to various types of infections was also performed. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to amplify the genes encoding the 67–72p protein and three pili structural proteins (SpaC, SpaI, SapD) and the products obtained were sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the particular genes were translated into amino acid sequences, which were then matched among all the tested strains using bioinformatics tools. In the last step, the affinity of the tested proteins to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classes I and II, and linear B-cell epitopes was analyzed. The variations in the nucleotide sequence of the 67–72p protein and pili structural proteins among C. diphtheriae strains isolated from various infections were noted. A transposition of the insertion sequence within the gene encoding the SpaC pili structural proteins was also detected. In addition, the bioinformatics analyses enabled the identification of epitopes for B-cells and T-cells in the conserved regions of the proteins, thus, demonstrating that these proteins could be used as antigens in the potential vaccine development. The results identified the most conserved regions in all tested proteins that are exposed on the surface of C. diphtheriae cells.

Keywords

  • non-toxigenic
  • pili
  • 67–72p protein
  • vaccine
access type Open Access

Gastric Microbiota Alteration in Klebsiella pneumoniae-Caused Liver Abscesses Mice

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 247 - 254

Abstract

Abstract

Gastric microbiota provides a biological barrier against the invasion of foreign pathogens from the oral cavity, playing a vital role in maintaining gastrointestinal health. Klebsiella spp. of oral origin causes various infections not only in gastrointestinal tract but also in other organs, with Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype K1 resulting in a liver abscess (KLA) through oral inoculation in mice. However, the relationship between gastric microbiota and the extra-gastrointestinal KLA infection is not clear. In our study, a 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene shows that the composition of gastric mucosal microbiota in mice with or without KLA infection varies greatly after oral inoculation with K. pneumoniae serotype K1 isolate. Interestingly, only several bacteria taxa show a significant change in gastric mucosal microbiota of KLA mice, including the decreased abundance of Bacteroides, Alisptipes and increased abundance of Streptococcus. It is worth noting that the abundance of Klebsiella exhibits an obvious increase in KLA mice, which might be closely related to KLA infection. At the same time, the endogenous antibiotics, defensins, involved in the regulation of the bacterial microbiota also show an increase in stomach and intestine. All these findings indicate that liver abscess caused by K. pneumoniae oral inoculation has a close relationship with gastric microbiota, which might provide important information for future clinical treatment.

Keywords

  • serotype K1
  • defensins
  • gastric mucosal microbiota
  • High-throughput pyrosequencing
  • liver abscess
access type Open Access

Influence of Environmental and Genetic Factors on Proteomic Profiling of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Campylobacter jejuni

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 255 - 261

Abstract

Abstract

The proteomes of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) secreted by C. jejuni 81–176 strain, which was exposed to oxygen or antibiotic stress (polymyxin B), were characterized. We also assessed the OMVs production and their content in two mutated strains – ∆dsbI and ∆htrA. OMVs production was significantly increased under the polymyxin B stress and remained unaltered in all other variants. Interestingly, the qualitative load of OMVs was constant regardless of the stress conditions or genetic background. However, certain proteins exhibited notable quantitative changes, ranging from 4-fold decrease to 10-fold increase. Up- or downregulated proteins (e.g. major outer membrane protein porA, iron ABC transporter, serine protease- htrA, 60 kDa chaperonin-groL, enolase) represented various cell compartments (cytoplasm, periplasm, and membrane) and exhibited various functions; nevertheless, one common group was noted that consisted of components of flagellar apparatus, i.e., FlaA/B, FlgC/E, which were mostly upregulated. Some of these proteins are the putative substrates of DsbI protein. Further investigation of the regulation of C. jejuni OMVs composition and their role in virulence will allow a better understanding of the infectious process of C. jejuni.

Keywords

  • outer membrane vesicles (OMVs)
  • proteomics
access type Open Access

Effects of Sodium Tripolyphosphate on Oral Commensal and Pathogenic Bacteria

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 263 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

Polyphosphate (polyP) is a food additive with antimicrobial activity. Here we evaluated the effects of sodium tripolyphosphate (polyP3, Na5P3O10) on four major oral bacterial species, in both single- and mixed-culture. PolyP3 inhibited three opportunistic pathogenic species: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. On the contrary, a commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii was relatively less susceptible to polyP3 than the pathogens. When all bacterial species were co-cultured, polyP3 (≥ 0.09%) significantly reduced their total growth and biofilm formation, among which the three pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited. Collectively, polyP3 may be an alternative antibacterial agent to control oral pathogenic bacteria.

Keywords

  • polyphosphate
  • antibacterial
  • oral bacteria
  • commensal
  • pathogenic
access type Open Access

The Joint Effect of pH Gradient and Glucose Feeding on the Growth Kinetics of Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 in Glucose-Limited Fed-Batch Cultures

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 269 - 280

Abstract

Abstract

Two glucose-limited realkalized fed-batch cultures of Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 were carried out in a diluted whey medium (DW) using two different feeding media. The cultures were fed a mixture of a 400 g/l concentrated lactose and a concentrated mussel processing waste (CMPW, 101.72 g glucose/l) medium (fermentation I) or a CMPW medium supplemented with glucose and KH2PO4 up to concentrations of 400 g glucose/l and 3.21 g total phosphorus/l, respectively (fermentation II). For an accurate description and a better understanding of the kinetics of both cultures, the growth and product formation by L. lactis CECT 539 were both modelled, for the first time, as a function of the amounts of glucose (G) added and the pH gradient (VpH) generated in every realkalization and feeding cycle, by using an empirical polynomial model. With this modeling procedure, the kinetics of biomass, viable cell counts, nisin, lactic acid, acetic acid and butane-2,3-diol production in both cultures were successfully described (R2 values > 0.970) and interpreted for the first time. In addition, the optimum VpH and G values for each product were accurately calculated in the two realkalized fed-batch cultures. This approach appears to be useful for designing feeding strategies to enhance the productions of biomass, bacteriocin, and metabolites by the nisin-producing strain in wastes from the food industry.

Keywords

  • fed-batch fermentation
  • empirical modeling
  • probiotic biomass
  • nisin
  • glucose-limited cultures

minireview

access type Open Access

The State of Research on Antimicrobial Activity of Cold Plasma

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Page range: 153 - 164

Abstract

Abstract

Microbiological contamination is a big challenge to the food industry, medicine, agriculture, and environmental protection. For this reason, scientists are constantly looking for alternative methods of decontamination, which ensure the effective elimination of unwanted biological agents. Cold plasma is a new technology, which due to its unique physical and chemical properties becomes a point of interest to a growing group of researchers. The previously conducted experiments confirm its effective action, e.g. in the disinfection of skin wounds, air, and sewage treatment, as well as in food preservation and decontamination. The reactive compounds present in the plasma: high-energy electrons, ionized atoms and molecules, and UV photons are the key factors that cause an effective reduction in the number of microorganisms. The mechanism and effectiveness of the cold plasma are complex and depend on the process parameters, environmental factors and the type and properties of the microorganisms that are to be killed. This review describes the current state of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of the cold plasma and characterizes its interaction with various groups of microorganisms based on the available literature data.

Keywords

  • biofilm
  • cellular response
  • cold plasma
  • mycotoxin
  • viruses

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