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Volume 71 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 71 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

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Volume 70 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 4 (January 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 3 (August 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

28 Articles
Open Access

Microbial Glycosylation of Flavonoids

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 137 - 151

Abstract

Abstract

Flavonoids constitute a large group of polyphenolic compounds naturally found in plants, which have a wide range of biological activity. Although flavonoids are beneficial to human health, their application is limited by their low bioavailability and poor water-solubility. Therefore, recently there has been a particular interest in glycosylated forms of flavonoids, which usually are better soluble, more stable, and more functional compared to their aglycones. Microbial transformation of natural flavonoids may be an attractive way of receiving their glycosylated derivatives in amounts sufficient for the research on the effect of glycoside group on compound properties and for further application of these compounds as ingredients of dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords

  • biotransformation
  • flavonoids
  • glycosides
  • microbial glycosylation
Open Access

Relationship between ureB Sequence Diversity, Urease Activity and Genotypic Variations of Different Helicobacter pylori Strains in Patients with Gastric Disorders

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 153 - 159

Abstract

Abstract

Association of the severity of Helicobacter pylori induced diseases with virulence entity of the colonized strains was proven in some studies. Urease has been demonstrated as a potent virulence factor for H. pylori. The main aim of this study was investigation of the relationships of ureB sequence diversity, urease activity and virulence genotypes of different H. pylori strains with histopathological changes of gastric tissue in infected patients suffering from different gastric disorders. Analysis of the virulence genotypes in the isolated strains indicated significant associations between the presence of severe active gastritis and cagA+ (P = 0.039) or cagA/iceA1 genotypes (P = 0.026), and intestinal metaplasia and vacA m1 (P = 0.008) or vacA s1/m2 (P = 0.001) genotypes. Our results showed a 2.4-fold increased risk of peptic ulcer (95% CI: 0.483–11.93), compared with gastritis, in the infected patients who had dupA positive strains; however this association was not statistically significant. The results of urease activity showed a significant mean difference between the isolated strains from patients with PUD and NUD (P = 0.034). This activity was relatively higher among patients with intestinal metaplasia. Also a significant association was found between the lack of cagA and increased urease activity among the isolated strains (P = 0.036). While the greatest sequence variation of ureB was detected in a strain from a patient with intestinal metaplasia, the sole determined amino acid change in UreB sequence (Ala201Thr, 30%), showed no influence on urease activity. In conclusion, the supposed role of H. pylori urease to form peptic ulcer and advancing of intestinal metaplasia was postulated in this study. Higher urease activity in the colonizing H. pylori strains that present specific virulence factors was indicated as a risk factor for promotion of histopathological changes of gastric tissue that advance gastric malignancy.

Keywords

  • virulence
  • factor urease activity
  • histopathological changes
Open Access

Interaction of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria with Ceramic Nanomaterials Obtained by Combustion Synthesis – Adsorption and Cytotoxicity Studies

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 161 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the interactions of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas putida) bacteria with ceramic materials obtained by combustion synthesis. These studies were conducted based on an analysis of the adsorption of bacteria onto aggregates of ceramic materials in an aqueous suspension. The materials used in the studies were of a nanostructured nature and consisted mainly of carbides: silicon carbide (SiC) in the form of nanofibers (NFs) and nanorods (NRs), titanium carbide, and graphite, which can also be formed by combustion synthesis. Micrometric SiC was used as a reference material. Gram-positive bacteria adsorbed more strongly to these materials. It seems that both the point of zero charge value and the texture of the ceramic material affected the bacterial adsorption process. Additionally, the viability of bacteria adsorbed onto aggregates of the materials decreased. Generally, P. putida cells were more sensitive to the nanomaterials than S. aureus cells. The maximum loss of viability was noted in the case of bacteria adsorbed onto NRSiC and NFSiC aggregates.

Keywords

  • adsorption
  • ceramic nanomaterials
  • loss of viability
Open Access

Biocontrol of Gray Mold Decay in Pear by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BA3 and its Effect on Postharvest Quality Parameters

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 171 - 176

Abstract

Abstract

The economic losses caused by postharvest fruits diseases have attracted global attention. Traditional chemical fungicide could not meet the need of humans. In recent years, microbial agent which has begun to take the place of chemical fungicide comes into people’s vision. The aim of this paper was to investigate the potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BA3 for its biocontrol capability on gray mold decay of pears and its effect on postharvest quality of pears. Compared with other treatments, the inhibition effect on gray mold of washed cell suspension of B. amyloliquefaciens was the best. Consequently it was utilized in subsequent experiments. Spore germination and germ tube length of Botrytis cinerea was 18.72% and 12.85 μm treated with BA3, while the control group was 62.88% and 30.44 μm. We confirmed that increase of the concentration of B. amyloliquefaciens, improved the efficacy of BA3 in controlling gray mold decay of pears. Colonization variation of BA3 in wounds of pears was recorded. To begin with, the populations of B. amyloliquefaciens increased rapidly and remained stable. On the fourth day, there was a declining trend, after that the population increased to 4 × 105 CFU/wound and remained stable. BA3 had no significant effect on mass loss, titratable acidity, firmness and total soluble solids of pears that were stored at 25°C for 7 days comparing with control group. However, the effect of B. amyloliquefaciens on ascorbic acid was significantly higher than that of the control group. Our study indicates that B. amyloliquefaciens has a potential as postharvest biocontrol agent on pears.

Keywords

  • biocontrol agents
  • gray mold
  • quality parameters
Open Access

Enzymes Involved in Naproxen Degradation by Planococcus sp. S5

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 177 - 182

Abstract

Abstract

Naproxen is a one of the most popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) entering the environment as a result of high consumption. For this reason, there is an emerging need to recognize mechanisms of its degradation and enzymes engaged in this process. Planococcus sp. S5 is a gram positive strain able to degrade naproxen in monosubstrate culture (27%). However, naproxen is not a sufficient growth substrate for this strain. In the presence of benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid or vanillic acid as growth substrates, the degradation of 21.5%, 71.71%, 14.75% and 8.16% of naproxen was observed respectively. It was shown that the activity of monooxygenase, hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase, protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase and protocatechuate 4,5-dioxyegnase in strain S5 was induced after growth of the strain with naproxen and 4-hydroxybenzoate. Moreover, in the presence of naproxen activity of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, enzyme engaged in 4-hydroxybenzoate metabolism, was completely inhibited. The obtained results suggest that monooxygenase and hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase are the main enzymes in naproxen degradation by Planococcus sp. S5.

Keywords

  • biodegradation
  • naproxen
  • enzymes induction
  • aromatic plant compounds
Open Access

Characterization of Bacteria Isolation of Bacteria from Pinyon Rhizosphere, Producing Biosurfactants from Agro-Industrial Waste

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 183 - 189

Abstract

Abstract

Two hundred and fifty bacterial strains were isolated from pinyon rhizosphere and screened for biosurfactants production. Among them, six bacterial strains were selected for their potential to produce biosurfactants using two low cost wastes, crude glycerol and lactoserum, as raw material. Both wastes were useful for producing biosurfactants because of their high content in fat and carbohydrates. The six strains were identified by 16S rDNA with an identity percentage higher than 95%, three strains belonged to Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pumilus and Rhizobium sp. All strains assayed were able to grow and showed halos around the colonies as evidence of biosurfactants production on Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide agar with crude glycerol and lactoserum as substrate. In a mineral salt liquid medium enriched with both wastes, the biosurfactants were produced and collected from free cell medium after 72 h incubation. The biosurfactants produced reduced the surface tension from 69 to 30 mN/m with an emulsification index of diesel at approximately 60%. The results suggest that biosurfactants produced by rhizosphere bacteria from pinyon have promising environmental applications.

Keywords

  • agro-industrial wastes
  • biosurfactants
  • emulsification index
  • surface tension
Open Access

Levels of Organic Compounds, Number of Microorganisms and Cadmium Accumulation in Festuca ovina Hydroponic Culture

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 191 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

Understanding the microbiological, biochemical and physiological aspects of phytoremediation of soil and water environments polluted to different degrees with heavy metals has very important theoretical and practical implications. In this study, a comparison was made between total cadmium concentration in root and shoot tissues as well as concentrations of particular fractions of Cd immobilized by roots of Festuca ovina (Sheep’s fescue) hydroponically cultivated in nutrient solutions supplemented with 1 μg Cd ml−1 and those cultivated at 10 μg Cd ml−1. After three weeks of F. ovina cultivation, the number of bacterial CFU and the amounts of organic chelators, siderophores, proteins and reducing sugars in the growth medium and on the root surface were higher at 10 than at 1 μg Cd ml−1. The grass also reacted to the high Cd concentration by a decrease in plant growth and dehydrogenase activity in root tissues. The concentration of Cd determined in fractions bound with different strength in roots was significantly dependent on Cd concentration in the growth medium. When the plants were grown at 1 μg Cd ml−1, 9% of the immobilized cadmium was loosely bound to the root surface, 20% was exchangeable adsorbed, and 28% was bound by chelation; at 10 μg Cd ml−1, the respective values were 12%, 25%, and 20%. About 43% of the immobilized cadmium remained in roots after sequential extraction, and bioaccumulation factors in shoots had the same values independently of Cd concentration.

At both Cd concentrations, the cadmium translocation index for F. ovina was low (< 1), which is why this grass can be recommended for phytostabilization of the metal under study.

Keywords

  • hydroponic culture under different Cd concentrations
  • metal chelators
  • phytoremediation
  • sequential extraction of Cd
Open Access

Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination in Salad Vegetables Collected from Supermarkets and Street Vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 201 - 207

Abstract

Abstract

One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

Keywords

  • Amman
  • Baqa’a refugee camp
  • contamination
  • parasite
  • salad vegetable
Open Access

Identification and Localization of β-D-Glucosidase from Two Typical Oenococcus oeni Strains

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 209 - 213

Abstract

Abstract

β-D-glucosidase (βG) gene from Oenococcus oeni SD-2a and 31MBR was cloned, sequenced and analyzed, also intracellular βG of the two strains was further localized. The results showed that βG gene of the two strains was in high homology (> 99%) to reported βG gene, confirming both strains possess βG activity at the molecular level. Intracellular βG of SD-2a is a mainly soluble protein, existing mostly in the cytoplasm and to some extent in the periplasm. While for 31MBR, intracellular βG is mainly insoluble protein existing in the cytoplasmic membrane. This study provides basic information for further study of the metabolic mechanism of βG from O. oeni SD-2a and 31MBR.

Keywords

  • β-D-glucosidase
  • βG cloned
  • gene localization
Open Access

Characterization of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains Isolated from Biomaterial-Associated Infections and their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 215 - 217

Abstract

Abstract

This work aims to provide an insight into staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements and antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dominating type was SCCmec – IV. Fifteen isolates were assigned to SCCmec type III, two isolates to SCCmec type II. Most isolates were resistant to at least three of the non-β-lactam antibiotics tested. None of the strains exhibited resistance to new generation antibiotics, such as daptomycin and linezolid. Also, none of these strains showed resistance to tigecycline and only four strains were resistant to rifampin i.e. antibiotics which are very efficient in treating biofilm-associated infections.

Keywords

  • SCC type
  • antibiotic resistance
Open Access

Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Selected Bacterial Groups in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 219 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was evaluation of qualitative and quantitative changes in bacterial ecosystem in 109 children with inflammatory bowel diseases. Stools obtained from patients were analysed for selected bacteria and concentration of faecal inflammatory markers (calprotectin, lactoferrin, M2-PK). The number of selected microorganisms depends on the level of clinical activity of disease and is correlated with faecal concentration of inflammatory markers. Differences in microflora disturbance, observed in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, may suggest different causes of development of both pathologies.

Keywords

  • Crohn’s disease
  • faecal bacteria
  • IBD
  • inflammatory markers
  • M2-PK
Open Access

Cytotoxic and Bacteriostatic Activity of Nanostructured TiO2 Coatings

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 225 - 229

Abstract

Abstract

Nanostructures are structures, mainly synthetic (nanosurfaces, cylindrical nanotubes, and nanospheres), which range between 1–100 nm in at least one dimension and can be engineered to a wide range of physical properties. This paper aims to explore the bacteriostatic and cytotoxic characteristics of nano-TiO2 coated specimens of glass, stainless steel and ceramic with different thickness and roughness. The results show that stainless steel and glass specimens with a nano-TiO2 coating thickness of 200 nm have a bacteriostatic effect of 97% and 100%, respectively after 30 minutes of UV exposure. Glass specimens with a nano-TiO2 coating thickness of 750, 200 and 50 nm have a bacteriostatic effect of 86%, 93% and 100% after 60 minutes. Nano-TiO2 coatings show a great bacteriostatic but not a cytotoxic effect, thus representing a valuable alternative for biomedical applications.

Keywords

  • bacteriostatic effect
  • cytotoxic activity
  • TiO coatings
Open Access

Enteroviruses Associated with Aseptic Meningitis in Poland, 2011–2014

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 231 - 235

Abstract

Abstract

A 4-year study (2011–2014) of patients with meningitis was performed. Out of the 686 cerebrospinal fluid samples, 465 (67.8%) were positive for eneteroviruses using RT-PCR and out of 334 clinical samples, 216 (64.7%) were positive for enteroviruses using cell culture methods. The highest detection rate was observed in the summer and autumn. In total, 185 enteroviruses were identified by using neutralization test. Echovirus 6 and 30 were the most common (41.7% and 37.5% respectively). The highest frequency of neurological infections (32.7%) occurred in children aged 5–9 years, mostly males (63.9%).

Keywords

  • aseptic meningitis
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • diagnostic PCR
  • enteroviruses
Open Access

Monitoring of Virulence Genes, Drug-Resistance in Campylobacter coli Isolated from Golden Retrievers

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 237 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

The investigation was performed on 75 of Golden Retriever puppies. Faecal samples were collected on the 42 day of the puppies life (control). Probiotic preparation was administered on 43 day of the puppies life and 10 days after the application of the probiotic, faecal samples were collected again (on 53 day of puppies life). All isolates of Campylobacter coli isolated prior to the administration of the probiotic were found to contain the cadF gene responsible for adhesion, as well as, the flaA gene influencing motility of the examined bacteria. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were recorded only in the case of enrofloxacin.

Keywords

  • dogs microflora
  • drug-resistance
  • virulence genes
28 Articles
Open Access

Microbial Glycosylation of Flavonoids

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 137 - 151

Abstract

Abstract

Flavonoids constitute a large group of polyphenolic compounds naturally found in plants, which have a wide range of biological activity. Although flavonoids are beneficial to human health, their application is limited by their low bioavailability and poor water-solubility. Therefore, recently there has been a particular interest in glycosylated forms of flavonoids, which usually are better soluble, more stable, and more functional compared to their aglycones. Microbial transformation of natural flavonoids may be an attractive way of receiving their glycosylated derivatives in amounts sufficient for the research on the effect of glycoside group on compound properties and for further application of these compounds as ingredients of dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords

  • biotransformation
  • flavonoids
  • glycosides
  • microbial glycosylation
Open Access

Relationship between ureB Sequence Diversity, Urease Activity and Genotypic Variations of Different Helicobacter pylori Strains in Patients with Gastric Disorders

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 153 - 159

Abstract

Abstract

Association of the severity of Helicobacter pylori induced diseases with virulence entity of the colonized strains was proven in some studies. Urease has been demonstrated as a potent virulence factor for H. pylori. The main aim of this study was investigation of the relationships of ureB sequence diversity, urease activity and virulence genotypes of different H. pylori strains with histopathological changes of gastric tissue in infected patients suffering from different gastric disorders. Analysis of the virulence genotypes in the isolated strains indicated significant associations between the presence of severe active gastritis and cagA+ (P = 0.039) or cagA/iceA1 genotypes (P = 0.026), and intestinal metaplasia and vacA m1 (P = 0.008) or vacA s1/m2 (P = 0.001) genotypes. Our results showed a 2.4-fold increased risk of peptic ulcer (95% CI: 0.483–11.93), compared with gastritis, in the infected patients who had dupA positive strains; however this association was not statistically significant. The results of urease activity showed a significant mean difference between the isolated strains from patients with PUD and NUD (P = 0.034). This activity was relatively higher among patients with intestinal metaplasia. Also a significant association was found between the lack of cagA and increased urease activity among the isolated strains (P = 0.036). While the greatest sequence variation of ureB was detected in a strain from a patient with intestinal metaplasia, the sole determined amino acid change in UreB sequence (Ala201Thr, 30%), showed no influence on urease activity. In conclusion, the supposed role of H. pylori urease to form peptic ulcer and advancing of intestinal metaplasia was postulated in this study. Higher urease activity in the colonizing H. pylori strains that present specific virulence factors was indicated as a risk factor for promotion of histopathological changes of gastric tissue that advance gastric malignancy.

Keywords

  • virulence
  • factor urease activity
  • histopathological changes
Open Access

Interaction of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria with Ceramic Nanomaterials Obtained by Combustion Synthesis – Adsorption and Cytotoxicity Studies

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 161 - 170

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the interactions of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas putida) bacteria with ceramic materials obtained by combustion synthesis. These studies were conducted based on an analysis of the adsorption of bacteria onto aggregates of ceramic materials in an aqueous suspension. The materials used in the studies were of a nanostructured nature and consisted mainly of carbides: silicon carbide (SiC) in the form of nanofibers (NFs) and nanorods (NRs), titanium carbide, and graphite, which can also be formed by combustion synthesis. Micrometric SiC was used as a reference material. Gram-positive bacteria adsorbed more strongly to these materials. It seems that both the point of zero charge value and the texture of the ceramic material affected the bacterial adsorption process. Additionally, the viability of bacteria adsorbed onto aggregates of the materials decreased. Generally, P. putida cells were more sensitive to the nanomaterials than S. aureus cells. The maximum loss of viability was noted in the case of bacteria adsorbed onto NRSiC and NFSiC aggregates.

Keywords

  • adsorption
  • ceramic nanomaterials
  • loss of viability
Open Access

Biocontrol of Gray Mold Decay in Pear by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BA3 and its Effect on Postharvest Quality Parameters

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 171 - 176

Abstract

Abstract

The economic losses caused by postharvest fruits diseases have attracted global attention. Traditional chemical fungicide could not meet the need of humans. In recent years, microbial agent which has begun to take the place of chemical fungicide comes into people’s vision. The aim of this paper was to investigate the potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BA3 for its biocontrol capability on gray mold decay of pears and its effect on postharvest quality of pears. Compared with other treatments, the inhibition effect on gray mold of washed cell suspension of B. amyloliquefaciens was the best. Consequently it was utilized in subsequent experiments. Spore germination and germ tube length of Botrytis cinerea was 18.72% and 12.85 μm treated with BA3, while the control group was 62.88% and 30.44 μm. We confirmed that increase of the concentration of B. amyloliquefaciens, improved the efficacy of BA3 in controlling gray mold decay of pears. Colonization variation of BA3 in wounds of pears was recorded. To begin with, the populations of B. amyloliquefaciens increased rapidly and remained stable. On the fourth day, there was a declining trend, after that the population increased to 4 × 105 CFU/wound and remained stable. BA3 had no significant effect on mass loss, titratable acidity, firmness and total soluble solids of pears that were stored at 25°C for 7 days comparing with control group. However, the effect of B. amyloliquefaciens on ascorbic acid was significantly higher than that of the control group. Our study indicates that B. amyloliquefaciens has a potential as postharvest biocontrol agent on pears.

Keywords

  • biocontrol agents
  • gray mold
  • quality parameters
Open Access

Enzymes Involved in Naproxen Degradation by Planococcus sp. S5

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 177 - 182

Abstract

Abstract

Naproxen is a one of the most popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) entering the environment as a result of high consumption. For this reason, there is an emerging need to recognize mechanisms of its degradation and enzymes engaged in this process. Planococcus sp. S5 is a gram positive strain able to degrade naproxen in monosubstrate culture (27%). However, naproxen is not a sufficient growth substrate for this strain. In the presence of benzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid or vanillic acid as growth substrates, the degradation of 21.5%, 71.71%, 14.75% and 8.16% of naproxen was observed respectively. It was shown that the activity of monooxygenase, hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase, protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase and protocatechuate 4,5-dioxyegnase in strain S5 was induced after growth of the strain with naproxen and 4-hydroxybenzoate. Moreover, in the presence of naproxen activity of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, enzyme engaged in 4-hydroxybenzoate metabolism, was completely inhibited. The obtained results suggest that monooxygenase and hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase are the main enzymes in naproxen degradation by Planococcus sp. S5.

Keywords

  • biodegradation
  • naproxen
  • enzymes induction
  • aromatic plant compounds
Open Access

Characterization of Bacteria Isolation of Bacteria from Pinyon Rhizosphere, Producing Biosurfactants from Agro-Industrial Waste

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 183 - 189

Abstract

Abstract

Two hundred and fifty bacterial strains were isolated from pinyon rhizosphere and screened for biosurfactants production. Among them, six bacterial strains were selected for their potential to produce biosurfactants using two low cost wastes, crude glycerol and lactoserum, as raw material. Both wastes were useful for producing biosurfactants because of their high content in fat and carbohydrates. The six strains were identified by 16S rDNA with an identity percentage higher than 95%, three strains belonged to Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pumilus and Rhizobium sp. All strains assayed were able to grow and showed halos around the colonies as evidence of biosurfactants production on Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide agar with crude glycerol and lactoserum as substrate. In a mineral salt liquid medium enriched with both wastes, the biosurfactants were produced and collected from free cell medium after 72 h incubation. The biosurfactants produced reduced the surface tension from 69 to 30 mN/m with an emulsification index of diesel at approximately 60%. The results suggest that biosurfactants produced by rhizosphere bacteria from pinyon have promising environmental applications.

Keywords

  • agro-industrial wastes
  • biosurfactants
  • emulsification index
  • surface tension
Open Access

Levels of Organic Compounds, Number of Microorganisms and Cadmium Accumulation in Festuca ovina Hydroponic Culture

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 191 - 200

Abstract

Abstract

Understanding the microbiological, biochemical and physiological aspects of phytoremediation of soil and water environments polluted to different degrees with heavy metals has very important theoretical and practical implications. In this study, a comparison was made between total cadmium concentration in root and shoot tissues as well as concentrations of particular fractions of Cd immobilized by roots of Festuca ovina (Sheep’s fescue) hydroponically cultivated in nutrient solutions supplemented with 1 μg Cd ml−1 and those cultivated at 10 μg Cd ml−1. After three weeks of F. ovina cultivation, the number of bacterial CFU and the amounts of organic chelators, siderophores, proteins and reducing sugars in the growth medium and on the root surface were higher at 10 than at 1 μg Cd ml−1. The grass also reacted to the high Cd concentration by a decrease in plant growth and dehydrogenase activity in root tissues. The concentration of Cd determined in fractions bound with different strength in roots was significantly dependent on Cd concentration in the growth medium. When the plants were grown at 1 μg Cd ml−1, 9% of the immobilized cadmium was loosely bound to the root surface, 20% was exchangeable adsorbed, and 28% was bound by chelation; at 10 μg Cd ml−1, the respective values were 12%, 25%, and 20%. About 43% of the immobilized cadmium remained in roots after sequential extraction, and bioaccumulation factors in shoots had the same values independently of Cd concentration.

At both Cd concentrations, the cadmium translocation index for F. ovina was low (< 1), which is why this grass can be recommended for phytostabilization of the metal under study.

Keywords

  • hydroponic culture under different Cd concentrations
  • metal chelators
  • phytoremediation
  • sequential extraction of Cd
Open Access

Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination in Salad Vegetables Collected from Supermarkets and Street Vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 201 - 207

Abstract

Abstract

One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

Keywords

  • Amman
  • Baqa’a refugee camp
  • contamination
  • parasite
  • salad vegetable
Open Access

Identification and Localization of β-D-Glucosidase from Two Typical Oenococcus oeni Strains

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 209 - 213

Abstract

Abstract

β-D-glucosidase (βG) gene from Oenococcus oeni SD-2a and 31MBR was cloned, sequenced and analyzed, also intracellular βG of the two strains was further localized. The results showed that βG gene of the two strains was in high homology (> 99%) to reported βG gene, confirming both strains possess βG activity at the molecular level. Intracellular βG of SD-2a is a mainly soluble protein, existing mostly in the cytoplasm and to some extent in the periplasm. While for 31MBR, intracellular βG is mainly insoluble protein existing in the cytoplasmic membrane. This study provides basic information for further study of the metabolic mechanism of βG from O. oeni SD-2a and 31MBR.

Keywords

  • β-D-glucosidase
  • βG cloned
  • gene localization
Open Access

Characterization of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains Isolated from Biomaterial-Associated Infections and their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 215 - 217

Abstract

Abstract

This work aims to provide an insight into staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements and antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dominating type was SCCmec – IV. Fifteen isolates were assigned to SCCmec type III, two isolates to SCCmec type II. Most isolates were resistant to at least three of the non-β-lactam antibiotics tested. None of the strains exhibited resistance to new generation antibiotics, such as daptomycin and linezolid. Also, none of these strains showed resistance to tigecycline and only four strains were resistant to rifampin i.e. antibiotics which are very efficient in treating biofilm-associated infections.

Keywords

  • SCC type
  • antibiotic resistance
Open Access

Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Selected Bacterial Groups in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 219 - 224

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the study was evaluation of qualitative and quantitative changes in bacterial ecosystem in 109 children with inflammatory bowel diseases. Stools obtained from patients were analysed for selected bacteria and concentration of faecal inflammatory markers (calprotectin, lactoferrin, M2-PK). The number of selected microorganisms depends on the level of clinical activity of disease and is correlated with faecal concentration of inflammatory markers. Differences in microflora disturbance, observed in patients with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, may suggest different causes of development of both pathologies.

Keywords

  • Crohn’s disease
  • faecal bacteria
  • IBD
  • inflammatory markers
  • M2-PK
Open Access

Cytotoxic and Bacteriostatic Activity of Nanostructured TiO2 Coatings

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 225 - 229

Abstract

Abstract

Nanostructures are structures, mainly synthetic (nanosurfaces, cylindrical nanotubes, and nanospheres), which range between 1–100 nm in at least one dimension and can be engineered to a wide range of physical properties. This paper aims to explore the bacteriostatic and cytotoxic characteristics of nano-TiO2 coated specimens of glass, stainless steel and ceramic with different thickness and roughness. The results show that stainless steel and glass specimens with a nano-TiO2 coating thickness of 200 nm have a bacteriostatic effect of 97% and 100%, respectively after 30 minutes of UV exposure. Glass specimens with a nano-TiO2 coating thickness of 750, 200 and 50 nm have a bacteriostatic effect of 86%, 93% and 100% after 60 minutes. Nano-TiO2 coatings show a great bacteriostatic but not a cytotoxic effect, thus representing a valuable alternative for biomedical applications.

Keywords

  • bacteriostatic effect
  • cytotoxic activity
  • TiO coatings
Open Access

Enteroviruses Associated with Aseptic Meningitis in Poland, 2011–2014

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 231 - 235

Abstract

Abstract

A 4-year study (2011–2014) of patients with meningitis was performed. Out of the 686 cerebrospinal fluid samples, 465 (67.8%) were positive for eneteroviruses using RT-PCR and out of 334 clinical samples, 216 (64.7%) were positive for enteroviruses using cell culture methods. The highest detection rate was observed in the summer and autumn. In total, 185 enteroviruses were identified by using neutralization test. Echovirus 6 and 30 were the most common (41.7% and 37.5% respectively). The highest frequency of neurological infections (32.7%) occurred in children aged 5–9 years, mostly males (63.9%).

Keywords

  • aseptic meningitis
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • diagnostic PCR
  • enteroviruses
Open Access

Monitoring of Virulence Genes, Drug-Resistance in Campylobacter coli Isolated from Golden Retrievers

Published Online: 07 Jun 2016
Page range: 237 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

The investigation was performed on 75 of Golden Retriever puppies. Faecal samples were collected on the 42 day of the puppies life (control). Probiotic preparation was administered on 43 day of the puppies life and 10 days after the application of the probiotic, faecal samples were collected again (on 53 day of puppies life). All isolates of Campylobacter coli isolated prior to the administration of the probiotic were found to contain the cadF gene responsible for adhesion, as well as, the flaA gene influencing motility of the examined bacteria. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were recorded only in the case of enrofloxacin.

Keywords

  • dogs microflora
  • drug-resistance
  • virulence genes

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