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Volume 71 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 71 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 70 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 4 (January 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 67 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 66 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 3 (August 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 65 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 69 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

12 Articles

original-paper

access type Open Access

Biofilm-Forming Ability and Effect of Sanitation Agents on Biofilm-Control of Thermophile Geobacillus sp. D413 and Geobacillus toebii E134

Published Online: 23 Nov 2020
Page range: 411 - 419

Abstract

Abstract

Geobacillus sp. D413 and Geobacillus toebii E134 are aerobic, non-pathogenic, endospore-forming, obligately thermophilic bacilli. Gram-positive thermophilic bacilli can produce heat-resistant spores. The bacteria are indicator organisms for assessing the manufacturing process’s hygiene and are capable of forming biofilms on surfaces used in industrial sectors. The present study aimed to determine the biofilm-forming properties of Geobacillus isolates and how to eliminate this formation with sanitation agents. According to the results, extracellular DNA (eDNA) was interestingly not affected by the DNase I, RNase A, and proteinase K. However, the genomic DNA (gDNA) was degraded by only DNase I. It seemed that the eDNA had resistance to DNase I when purified. It is considered that the enzymes could not reach the target eDNA. Moreover, the eDNA resistance may result from the conserved folded structure of eDNA after purification. Another assumption is that the eDNA might be protected by other extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and/or extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) structures. On the contrary, DNase I reduced unpurified eDNA (mature biofilms). Biofilm formation on surfaces used in industrial areas was investigated in this work: the D413 and E134 isolates adhered to all surfaces. Various sanitation agents could control biofilms of Geobacillus isolates. The best results were provided by nisin for D413 (80%) and α-amylase for E134 (98%). This paper suggests that sanitation agents could be a solution to control biofilm structures of thermophilic bacilli.

Keywords

  • sp.
  • abiotic surfaces
  • biofilm
  • sanitation agents
access type Open Access

Application of PCR for Specific Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in Humans in Ukraine

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 421 - 426

Abstract

Abstract

Leptospirosis remains one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world and Ukraine, in particular. Ukrainian clinicians have been faced with early detection of the disease due to the availability of only a serological method for routine diagnostics in Ukraine, namely the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). This paper demonstrates the first results of the complex application of MAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for routine verification of leptospirosis, which were first applied simultaneously in Lviv Oblast of Ukraine in 2016. We examined the sera of 150 patients clinically suspected of leptospirosis, 31 of whom were treated at the Lviv Oblast Clinical Hospital for Infectious Diseases (LOCHID). The application of PCR during the first seven days of the disease allowed increasing the share of confirmed leptospirosis cases by 16,1% in patients that were treated in LOCHID during 2016–2017.

Keywords

  • Leptospirosis
  • diagnostics
  • microagglutination test
  • polymerase chain reaction
access type Open Access

Biofilm Production Potential of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Chickens in North West Province, South Africa

Published Online: 23 Nov 2020
Page range: 427 - 439

Abstract

Abstract

Bacterial biofilms have recently gained considerable interest in the food production and medical industries due to their ability to resist destruction by disinfectants and other antimicrobials. Biofilms are extracellular polymer matrices that may enhance the survival of pathogens even when exposed to environmental stress. The effect of incubation temperatures (25°C, 37°C, and 40°C) and Salmonella serotype on biofilm-forming potentials was evaluated. Previously typed Salmonella serotypes (55) isolated from the gut of chickens were accessed for biofilms formation using a standard assay. Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028TM and Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076TM (positive controls), Escherichia coli (internal control) and un-inoculated Luria Bertani (LB) broth (negative control) were used. The isolates formed no biofilm (11.86–13.56%), weak (11.86–45.76%), moderate (18.64–20.34%), strong biofilms (23.73–54.24%) across the various temperatures investigated. Serotypes, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Weltevreden were the strongest biofilm formers at temperatures (25°C, 37°C, and 40°C, respectively). The potential of a large proportion (80%) of Salmonella serotypes to form biofilms increased with increasing incubation temperatures but decreased at 40°C. Findings indicate that average temperature favours biofilm formation by Salmonella serotypes. However, the influence of incubation temperature on biofilm formation was greater when compared to serotype. A positive correlation exists between Salmonella biofilm formed at 25°C, 37°C and 40°C (p ≥ 0.01). The ability of Salmonella species to form biofilms at 25°C and 37°C suggests that these serotypes may present severe challenges to food-processing and hospital facilities.

Keywords

  • biofilm
  • biofilm production potential
  • crystal violet microtitre
access type Open Access

The Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius SGL03 on Clinical and Microbiological Parameters in Periodontal Patients

Published Online: 27 Nov 2020
Page range: 441 - 451

Abstract

Abstract

The destruction of periodontal tissues during periodontitis is the result of the immune-inflammatory reactions to the bacteria of dental biofilm. Probiotics may reduce dysbiosis by the modification of the dental microbiome, which can influence the immune-inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical and microbiological parameters, before and after 30 days of application of the dietary supplement containing Lactobacillus salivarius SGL03 or placebo. The study was conducted in 51 patients with stage I or II periodontitis during the maintenance phase of treatment. The clinical parameters and the number of colony forming units (CFU) of bacteria in supragingival plaque were assessed before and after 30 days of the oral once daily administration of the dietary supplement in the form of suspension containing L. salivarius SGL03 or placebo. There were no changes in the PI scores between and within the groups. The value of BOP decreased in both groups. In the study group the significant reduction of the mean pocket depth was revealed (from 2.5 to 2.42, p = 0,027) but without the difference between the groups. There were no significant changes in the number of bacteria within the groups. In the control, but not the study group, positive correlations were observed between the clinical parameters (variables) and the number of bacteria. The use of the dietary supplement containing L. salivarius SGL03 may reduce pocket depth despite the lack of changes in other clinical parameters and the number of bacteria in supragingival plaque.

Keywords

  • probiotics
  • periodontal treatment
access type Open Access

Benefits of Soleris® over the Conventional Method for Enumeration of Microbial Load in Salacia Herbal Extract

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 453 - 462

Abstract

Abstract

Stems and roots of Salacia genus plants have been used as a specific remedy for early-stage diabetes, and one of the four sulphonium sulphates, salacinol is the compound responsible for the anti-diabetic activity. Salacia is prone to microbial contamination and insect infestation; hence, methods to estimate the microbial load in such plants will enhance its nutritional value. This paper highlights the novel use of Soleris® to quantify microbes of all types, namely bacteria, yeasts, molds, and coliforms in herbal extracts. The microbial analysis results obtained with Soleris® test vial have been compared with the conventional method, and the results indicate that Soleris® is equally efficient as the conventional method and in fact displays several advantages over the traditional method. The Soleris® method is a real time monitoring system that is highly sensitive, user-friendly, and environmentally friendly since it generates very little biomedical waste and saves a large amount of time. The data presented here demonstrate that for highly contaminated samples, results are available within 24 h. For yeasts and molds, the Soleris® method produces results in 48 h, thus offering considerable time savings compared to other commonly used methods.

Keywords

  • salacinol
  • microbial load
  • bacteria
  • yeasts
  • herbals
access type Open Access

The Incidence of Scabies and Head Lice and Their Associated Risk Factors among Displaced People in Cham Mishko Camp, Zakho City, Duhok Province, Iraq

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 463 - 469

Abstract

Abstract

This study was conducted to estimate the incidence and the effects of associated risk factors of scabies and head lice on displaced people in Cham Mishko camp, Zakho city, Duhok Province, Iraq. The study included 1300 internally displaced people (IDPs) who visited the dermatology clinic and health care center in Cham Mishko camp from January 2018 to December 2019. Participants’ bio-information was collected on special questionnaire form after receiving permission from the camp’s health authorities and verbal consent from the participants. Monthly weather data were collected from Duhok Directorate of Meteorology and Seismology. The total rate of ectoparasites was 81.2% (45% for scabies and 36.2% for head lice). Ages from 1–10, 21–30, and 31–40 years showed the highest rates with scabies (48.1%, 46.7% and 46.1%, respectively), while the highest rates of head pediculosis were at ages from 1–10 and 11–20 years (40% and 36.6%, respectively). Scabies rate was slightly higher in males than females (46.6% vs. 43.4%), while the rate of head pediculosis was significantly higher in females than males (58.2% vs. 13.9%). Families with more than ten people showed the highest rates of scabies and head pediculosis (49.5% and 74.5%). Scabies was more common in cold months than in summer while head pediculosis was more common in hot months. The number of scabies and head pediculosis cases increased by 123 and 85 cases, respectively, in 2019. It is inferred that the effects of scabies and head pediculosis in IDPs will be considerable, with a higher carriage rate than other studies in Iraq.

Keywords

  • scabies
  • pediculosis
  • infestation
  • displacement
  • climate
  • Iraq
access type Open Access

Identification and Characterization of a Novel Recombinant Porcine Astrovirus from Pigs in Anhui, China

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 471 - 478

Abstract

Abstract

Porcine astroviruses (PAstVs) have wide distribution in swine herds worldwide. At present, five porcine astrovirus genotypes have been identified. In this study, using viral metagenomics, a novel PAstV strain (designated as Ahast) was identified in fecal samples from pigs in Anhui of China, and the complete genomic sequence of Ahast was obtained by assembling and PCR amplification. Genomic structural analysis indicated that Ahast had a typical ribosomal frameshifting signal, and some conserve amino acid motifs were also found in virally encoded proteins. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison indicated that this virus belonged to porcine astrovirus genotype 4 (PAstV4), which formed a clade clustered with other PAstV4. Multiple recombinant events were confirmed by recombination analysis and indicated that Ahast was a potential recombinant. Epidemiological investigation indicated that PAstV4 has a 10.7% prevalence in this pig farm. The new recombinant identified in this study will be beneficial to comprehend the origin, genetic diversity, and evolution of porcine astroviruses in Anhui of China.

Keywords

  • porcine astroviruses
  • viral metagenomics
  • genome recombination
access type Open Access

Bioinformatics Analysis of Key micro-RNAs and mRNAs under the Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Virus Infection

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 479 - 490

Abstract

Abstract

To clarify crucial key micro-RNAs and mRNAs associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) virus infection, we conducted this bioinformatics analysis from four GEO datasets. The following datasets were used for the analysis: GSE85829, GSE94551, GSE52780, and GSE45589. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were acquired, and the analysis of functional and pathway enrichment and the relative regulatory network were conducted. After screening common differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs), five key miRNAs were acquired: miR-100-3p, miR-125a-3p, miR-1273g-3p, miR-5585-3p, and miR-671-5p. There were three common enriched GO terms between miRNA-derived prediction and mRNA-derived analysis: biosynthetic process, cytosol, and nucleoplasm. There was one common KEGG pathway, i.e., cell cycle shared between miRNA-based and mRNA-based enrichment. Using TarBase V8 in DIANA tools, we acquired 1,520 potential targets (mRNA) from the five key DE-miRNAs, among which the159 DE-mRNAs also included 11 DEGs. These common DEGs showed a PPI network mainly connected by SMC1A, SMARCC1, SF3B3, LIG1, and BRMS1L. Together, changes in five key miRNAs and 11 key mRNAs may play crucial roles in HFMD progression. A combination of these roles may benefit the early diagnosis and treatment of HFMD.

Keywords

  • HFMD
  • micro-RNA
  • protein-protein interaction
  • microarray
  • regulatory network
access type Open Access

Multidrug-resistant Opportunistic and Pathogenic Bacteria Contaminate Algerian Banknotes Currency

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 491 - 501

Abstract

Abstract

Currency is one of the most exchanged items in human communities as it is used daily in exchange for goods and services. It is handled by persons with different hygiene standards and can transit in different environments. Hence, money can constitute a reservoir for different types of human pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Algerian banknotes to shelter opportunistic pathogenic and multiresistant bacteria. To that end, 200 circulating notes of four different denominations were collected from various places and analyzed for their bacterial loads and contents. Besides, predominant strains were identified and characterized by biochemical and molecular methods, and their resistance profiles against 34 antibiotics were determined. Our results indicated that 100% of the studied banknotes were contaminated with bacteria. The total bacterial concentrations were relatively high, and different bacterial groups were grown, showing important diversity. In total, 48 predominant strains were identified as belonging to 17 genera. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most prevalent genera, followed by Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that all the isolates harbored resistance to at least two molecules, and worrying resistance levels were observed. These findings prove that Algerian currency harbors opportunistic multiresistant bacteria and could potentially act as a vehicle for the spread of bacterial diseases and as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes among the community. Therefore, no cash payment systems should be developed and generalized to minimize cash handling and subsequent potential health risks.

Keywords

  • currency
  • Algeria
  • opportunistic bacteria
  • antibiotic resistance
  • circulating resistance genes

short-communication

access type Open Access

A Novel Improved Gram Staining Method Based on the Capillary Tube

Published Online: 23 Nov 2020
Page range: 503 - 508

Abstract

Abstract

In this work, an exploratory study was conducted to examine Gram staining based on the capillary tube. Each Gram staining step for all bacterial strains tested was completed in capillary tubes. The results showed that different Gram staining morphologies were clearly visible in the capillary tubes. The results presented here demonstrated that the improved method could effectively distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and only small volumes of reagents were required in this method. Collectively, this efficient method could rapidly and accurately identify the types of bacteria. Therefore, our findings could be used as a useful reference study for other staining methods.

Keywords

  • Gram staining
  • capillary tube
  • bacteria
  • and glass slide

mini-review

access type Open Access

Hepatitis B Virus: From Diagnosis to Treatment

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 391 - 399

Abstract

Abstract

Hepatitis B infection is still a global concern progressing as acute-chronic hepatitis, severe liver failure, and death. The infection is most widely transmitted from the infected mother to a child, with infected blood and body fluids. Pregnant women, adolescents, and all adults at high risk of chronic infection are recommended to be screened for hepatitis B infection. The initial analysis includes serological tests that allow differentiation of acute and chronic hepatitis. Molecular assays performed provide detection and quantification of viral DNA, genotyping, drug resistance, and precore/core mutation analysis to confirm infection and monitor disease progression in chronic hepatitis B patients. All patients with chronic hepatitis B should be treated with antiviral medications and regularly monitored for efficient treatment. The current treatment is based on nucleos(t)ide analogs and pegylated interferons that save lives by decreasing liver cancer death, liver transplant, slow or reverse the progression of liver disease as well as the virus infectivity.

Keywords

  • hepatitis B virus (HBV)
  • serology
  • nucleic acid testing
  • antiviral treatment
access type Open Access

Biofloc Technology: Emerging Microbial Biotechnology for the Improvement of Aquaculture Productivity

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 401 - 409

Abstract

Abstract

With the significant increases in the human population, global aquaculture has undergone a great increase during the last decade. The management of optimum conditions for fish production, which are entirely based on the physicochemical and biological qualities of water, plays a vital role in the prompt aquaculture growth. Therefore, focusing on research that highlights the understanding of water quality and breeding systems’ stability is very important. The biofloc technology (BFT) is a system that maximizes aquaculture productivity by using microbial biotechnology to increase the efficacy and utilization of fish feeds, where toxic materials such as nitrogen components are treated and converted to a useful product, like a protein for using as supplementary feeds to the fish and crustaceans. Thus, biofloc is an excellent technology used to develop the aquaculture system under limited or zero water exchange with high fish stocking density, strong aeration, and biota. This review is highlighted on biofloc composition and mechanism of system work, especially the optimization of water quality and treatment of ammonium wastes. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the BFT system have been explained. Finally, the importance of contemporary research on biofloc systems as a figure of microbial biotechnology has been emphasized with arguments for developing this system for better production of aquaculture with limited natural resources of water.

Keywords

  • biofloc
  • BFT
  • aquaculture
  • microbes
  • water quality
  • wastes
12 Articles

original-paper

access type Open Access

Biofilm-Forming Ability and Effect of Sanitation Agents on Biofilm-Control of Thermophile Geobacillus sp. D413 and Geobacillus toebii E134

Published Online: 23 Nov 2020
Page range: 411 - 419

Abstract

Abstract

Geobacillus sp. D413 and Geobacillus toebii E134 are aerobic, non-pathogenic, endospore-forming, obligately thermophilic bacilli. Gram-positive thermophilic bacilli can produce heat-resistant spores. The bacteria are indicator organisms for assessing the manufacturing process’s hygiene and are capable of forming biofilms on surfaces used in industrial sectors. The present study aimed to determine the biofilm-forming properties of Geobacillus isolates and how to eliminate this formation with sanitation agents. According to the results, extracellular DNA (eDNA) was interestingly not affected by the DNase I, RNase A, and proteinase K. However, the genomic DNA (gDNA) was degraded by only DNase I. It seemed that the eDNA had resistance to DNase I when purified. It is considered that the enzymes could not reach the target eDNA. Moreover, the eDNA resistance may result from the conserved folded structure of eDNA after purification. Another assumption is that the eDNA might be protected by other extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and/or extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) structures. On the contrary, DNase I reduced unpurified eDNA (mature biofilms). Biofilm formation on surfaces used in industrial areas was investigated in this work: the D413 and E134 isolates adhered to all surfaces. Various sanitation agents could control biofilms of Geobacillus isolates. The best results were provided by nisin for D413 (80%) and α-amylase for E134 (98%). This paper suggests that sanitation agents could be a solution to control biofilm structures of thermophilic bacilli.

Keywords

  • sp.
  • abiotic surfaces
  • biofilm
  • sanitation agents
access type Open Access

Application of PCR for Specific Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in Humans in Ukraine

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 421 - 426

Abstract

Abstract

Leptospirosis remains one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world and Ukraine, in particular. Ukrainian clinicians have been faced with early detection of the disease due to the availability of only a serological method for routine diagnostics in Ukraine, namely the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). This paper demonstrates the first results of the complex application of MAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for routine verification of leptospirosis, which were first applied simultaneously in Lviv Oblast of Ukraine in 2016. We examined the sera of 150 patients clinically suspected of leptospirosis, 31 of whom were treated at the Lviv Oblast Clinical Hospital for Infectious Diseases (LOCHID). The application of PCR during the first seven days of the disease allowed increasing the share of confirmed leptospirosis cases by 16,1% in patients that were treated in LOCHID during 2016–2017.

Keywords

  • Leptospirosis
  • diagnostics
  • microagglutination test
  • polymerase chain reaction
access type Open Access

Biofilm Production Potential of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Chickens in North West Province, South Africa

Published Online: 23 Nov 2020
Page range: 427 - 439

Abstract

Abstract

Bacterial biofilms have recently gained considerable interest in the food production and medical industries due to their ability to resist destruction by disinfectants and other antimicrobials. Biofilms are extracellular polymer matrices that may enhance the survival of pathogens even when exposed to environmental stress. The effect of incubation temperatures (25°C, 37°C, and 40°C) and Salmonella serotype on biofilm-forming potentials was evaluated. Previously typed Salmonella serotypes (55) isolated from the gut of chickens were accessed for biofilms formation using a standard assay. Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028TM and Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076TM (positive controls), Escherichia coli (internal control) and un-inoculated Luria Bertani (LB) broth (negative control) were used. The isolates formed no biofilm (11.86–13.56%), weak (11.86–45.76%), moderate (18.64–20.34%), strong biofilms (23.73–54.24%) across the various temperatures investigated. Serotypes, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Weltevreden were the strongest biofilm formers at temperatures (25°C, 37°C, and 40°C, respectively). The potential of a large proportion (80%) of Salmonella serotypes to form biofilms increased with increasing incubation temperatures but decreased at 40°C. Findings indicate that average temperature favours biofilm formation by Salmonella serotypes. However, the influence of incubation temperature on biofilm formation was greater when compared to serotype. A positive correlation exists between Salmonella biofilm formed at 25°C, 37°C and 40°C (p ≥ 0.01). The ability of Salmonella species to form biofilms at 25°C and 37°C suggests that these serotypes may present severe challenges to food-processing and hospital facilities.

Keywords

  • biofilm
  • biofilm production potential
  • crystal violet microtitre
access type Open Access

The Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius SGL03 on Clinical and Microbiological Parameters in Periodontal Patients

Published Online: 27 Nov 2020
Page range: 441 - 451

Abstract

Abstract

The destruction of periodontal tissues during periodontitis is the result of the immune-inflammatory reactions to the bacteria of dental biofilm. Probiotics may reduce dysbiosis by the modification of the dental microbiome, which can influence the immune-inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical and microbiological parameters, before and after 30 days of application of the dietary supplement containing Lactobacillus salivarius SGL03 or placebo. The study was conducted in 51 patients with stage I or II periodontitis during the maintenance phase of treatment. The clinical parameters and the number of colony forming units (CFU) of bacteria in supragingival plaque were assessed before and after 30 days of the oral once daily administration of the dietary supplement in the form of suspension containing L. salivarius SGL03 or placebo. There were no changes in the PI scores between and within the groups. The value of BOP decreased in both groups. In the study group the significant reduction of the mean pocket depth was revealed (from 2.5 to 2.42, p = 0,027) but without the difference between the groups. There were no significant changes in the number of bacteria within the groups. In the control, but not the study group, positive correlations were observed between the clinical parameters (variables) and the number of bacteria. The use of the dietary supplement containing L. salivarius SGL03 may reduce pocket depth despite the lack of changes in other clinical parameters and the number of bacteria in supragingival plaque.

Keywords

  • probiotics
  • periodontal treatment
access type Open Access

Benefits of Soleris® over the Conventional Method for Enumeration of Microbial Load in Salacia Herbal Extract

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 453 - 462

Abstract

Abstract

Stems and roots of Salacia genus plants have been used as a specific remedy for early-stage diabetes, and one of the four sulphonium sulphates, salacinol is the compound responsible for the anti-diabetic activity. Salacia is prone to microbial contamination and insect infestation; hence, methods to estimate the microbial load in such plants will enhance its nutritional value. This paper highlights the novel use of Soleris® to quantify microbes of all types, namely bacteria, yeasts, molds, and coliforms in herbal extracts. The microbial analysis results obtained with Soleris® test vial have been compared with the conventional method, and the results indicate that Soleris® is equally efficient as the conventional method and in fact displays several advantages over the traditional method. The Soleris® method is a real time monitoring system that is highly sensitive, user-friendly, and environmentally friendly since it generates very little biomedical waste and saves a large amount of time. The data presented here demonstrate that for highly contaminated samples, results are available within 24 h. For yeasts and molds, the Soleris® method produces results in 48 h, thus offering considerable time savings compared to other commonly used methods.

Keywords

  • salacinol
  • microbial load
  • bacteria
  • yeasts
  • herbals
access type Open Access

The Incidence of Scabies and Head Lice and Their Associated Risk Factors among Displaced People in Cham Mishko Camp, Zakho City, Duhok Province, Iraq

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 463 - 469

Abstract

Abstract

This study was conducted to estimate the incidence and the effects of associated risk factors of scabies and head lice on displaced people in Cham Mishko camp, Zakho city, Duhok Province, Iraq. The study included 1300 internally displaced people (IDPs) who visited the dermatology clinic and health care center in Cham Mishko camp from January 2018 to December 2019. Participants’ bio-information was collected on special questionnaire form after receiving permission from the camp’s health authorities and verbal consent from the participants. Monthly weather data were collected from Duhok Directorate of Meteorology and Seismology. The total rate of ectoparasites was 81.2% (45% for scabies and 36.2% for head lice). Ages from 1–10, 21–30, and 31–40 years showed the highest rates with scabies (48.1%, 46.7% and 46.1%, respectively), while the highest rates of head pediculosis were at ages from 1–10 and 11–20 years (40% and 36.6%, respectively). Scabies rate was slightly higher in males than females (46.6% vs. 43.4%), while the rate of head pediculosis was significantly higher in females than males (58.2% vs. 13.9%). Families with more than ten people showed the highest rates of scabies and head pediculosis (49.5% and 74.5%). Scabies was more common in cold months than in summer while head pediculosis was more common in hot months. The number of scabies and head pediculosis cases increased by 123 and 85 cases, respectively, in 2019. It is inferred that the effects of scabies and head pediculosis in IDPs will be considerable, with a higher carriage rate than other studies in Iraq.

Keywords

  • scabies
  • pediculosis
  • infestation
  • displacement
  • climate
  • Iraq
access type Open Access

Identification and Characterization of a Novel Recombinant Porcine Astrovirus from Pigs in Anhui, China

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 471 - 478

Abstract

Abstract

Porcine astroviruses (PAstVs) have wide distribution in swine herds worldwide. At present, five porcine astrovirus genotypes have been identified. In this study, using viral metagenomics, a novel PAstV strain (designated as Ahast) was identified in fecal samples from pigs in Anhui of China, and the complete genomic sequence of Ahast was obtained by assembling and PCR amplification. Genomic structural analysis indicated that Ahast had a typical ribosomal frameshifting signal, and some conserve amino acid motifs were also found in virally encoded proteins. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparison indicated that this virus belonged to porcine astrovirus genotype 4 (PAstV4), which formed a clade clustered with other PAstV4. Multiple recombinant events were confirmed by recombination analysis and indicated that Ahast was a potential recombinant. Epidemiological investigation indicated that PAstV4 has a 10.7% prevalence in this pig farm. The new recombinant identified in this study will be beneficial to comprehend the origin, genetic diversity, and evolution of porcine astroviruses in Anhui of China.

Keywords

  • porcine astroviruses
  • viral metagenomics
  • genome recombination
access type Open Access

Bioinformatics Analysis of Key micro-RNAs and mRNAs under the Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Virus Infection

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 479 - 490

Abstract

Abstract

To clarify crucial key micro-RNAs and mRNAs associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) virus infection, we conducted this bioinformatics analysis from four GEO datasets. The following datasets were used for the analysis: GSE85829, GSE94551, GSE52780, and GSE45589. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were acquired, and the analysis of functional and pathway enrichment and the relative regulatory network were conducted. After screening common differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs), five key miRNAs were acquired: miR-100-3p, miR-125a-3p, miR-1273g-3p, miR-5585-3p, and miR-671-5p. There were three common enriched GO terms between miRNA-derived prediction and mRNA-derived analysis: biosynthetic process, cytosol, and nucleoplasm. There was one common KEGG pathway, i.e., cell cycle shared between miRNA-based and mRNA-based enrichment. Using TarBase V8 in DIANA tools, we acquired 1,520 potential targets (mRNA) from the five key DE-miRNAs, among which the159 DE-mRNAs also included 11 DEGs. These common DEGs showed a PPI network mainly connected by SMC1A, SMARCC1, SF3B3, LIG1, and BRMS1L. Together, changes in five key miRNAs and 11 key mRNAs may play crucial roles in HFMD progression. A combination of these roles may benefit the early diagnosis and treatment of HFMD.

Keywords

  • HFMD
  • micro-RNA
  • protein-protein interaction
  • microarray
  • regulatory network
access type Open Access

Multidrug-resistant Opportunistic and Pathogenic Bacteria Contaminate Algerian Banknotes Currency

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 491 - 501

Abstract

Abstract

Currency is one of the most exchanged items in human communities as it is used daily in exchange for goods and services. It is handled by persons with different hygiene standards and can transit in different environments. Hence, money can constitute a reservoir for different types of human pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Algerian banknotes to shelter opportunistic pathogenic and multiresistant bacteria. To that end, 200 circulating notes of four different denominations were collected from various places and analyzed for their bacterial loads and contents. Besides, predominant strains were identified and characterized by biochemical and molecular methods, and their resistance profiles against 34 antibiotics were determined. Our results indicated that 100% of the studied banknotes were contaminated with bacteria. The total bacterial concentrations were relatively high, and different bacterial groups were grown, showing important diversity. In total, 48 predominant strains were identified as belonging to 17 genera. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were the most prevalent genera, followed by Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that all the isolates harbored resistance to at least two molecules, and worrying resistance levels were observed. These findings prove that Algerian currency harbors opportunistic multiresistant bacteria and could potentially act as a vehicle for the spread of bacterial diseases and as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes among the community. Therefore, no cash payment systems should be developed and generalized to minimize cash handling and subsequent potential health risks.

Keywords

  • currency
  • Algeria
  • opportunistic bacteria
  • antibiotic resistance
  • circulating resistance genes

short-communication

access type Open Access

A Novel Improved Gram Staining Method Based on the Capillary Tube

Published Online: 23 Nov 2020
Page range: 503 - 508

Abstract

Abstract

In this work, an exploratory study was conducted to examine Gram staining based on the capillary tube. Each Gram staining step for all bacterial strains tested was completed in capillary tubes. The results showed that different Gram staining morphologies were clearly visible in the capillary tubes. The results presented here demonstrated that the improved method could effectively distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and only small volumes of reagents were required in this method. Collectively, this efficient method could rapidly and accurately identify the types of bacteria. Therefore, our findings could be used as a useful reference study for other staining methods.

Keywords

  • Gram staining
  • capillary tube
  • bacteria
  • and glass slide

mini-review

access type Open Access

Hepatitis B Virus: From Diagnosis to Treatment

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 391 - 399

Abstract

Abstract

Hepatitis B infection is still a global concern progressing as acute-chronic hepatitis, severe liver failure, and death. The infection is most widely transmitted from the infected mother to a child, with infected blood and body fluids. Pregnant women, adolescents, and all adults at high risk of chronic infection are recommended to be screened for hepatitis B infection. The initial analysis includes serological tests that allow differentiation of acute and chronic hepatitis. Molecular assays performed provide detection and quantification of viral DNA, genotyping, drug resistance, and precore/core mutation analysis to confirm infection and monitor disease progression in chronic hepatitis B patients. All patients with chronic hepatitis B should be treated with antiviral medications and regularly monitored for efficient treatment. The current treatment is based on nucleos(t)ide analogs and pegylated interferons that save lives by decreasing liver cancer death, liver transplant, slow or reverse the progression of liver disease as well as the virus infectivity.

Keywords

  • hepatitis B virus (HBV)
  • serology
  • nucleic acid testing
  • antiviral treatment
access type Open Access

Biofloc Technology: Emerging Microbial Biotechnology for the Improvement of Aquaculture Productivity

Published Online: 27 Dec 2020
Page range: 401 - 409

Abstract

Abstract

With the significant increases in the human population, global aquaculture has undergone a great increase during the last decade. The management of optimum conditions for fish production, which are entirely based on the physicochemical and biological qualities of water, plays a vital role in the prompt aquaculture growth. Therefore, focusing on research that highlights the understanding of water quality and breeding systems’ stability is very important. The biofloc technology (BFT) is a system that maximizes aquaculture productivity by using microbial biotechnology to increase the efficacy and utilization of fish feeds, where toxic materials such as nitrogen components are treated and converted to a useful product, like a protein for using as supplementary feeds to the fish and crustaceans. Thus, biofloc is an excellent technology used to develop the aquaculture system under limited or zero water exchange with high fish stocking density, strong aeration, and biota. This review is highlighted on biofloc composition and mechanism of system work, especially the optimization of water quality and treatment of ammonium wastes. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the BFT system have been explained. Finally, the importance of contemporary research on biofloc systems as a figure of microbial biotechnology has been emphasized with arguments for developing this system for better production of aquaculture with limited natural resources of water.

Keywords

  • biofloc
  • BFT
  • aquaculture
  • microbes
  • water quality
  • wastes

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