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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

18 Articles

original-paper

Open Access

Antibiotic Susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. Isolated from Clinical Samples

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 5 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

Cronobacter spp. have been recognized as causative agents of various severe infections in pre-term or full-term infants as well as elderly adults suffering from serious underlying disease or malignancy. A surveillance study was designed to identify antibiotic resistance among clinical Cronobacter spp. strains, which were isolated from patients of two hospitals between May 2007 and August 2013. Altogether, 52 Cronobacter spp. isolates were analyzed. Although MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry recognized all Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus strains, it could not identify Cronobacter muytjensii strain. Nevertheless, all strains were identified as Cronobacter spp. using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Strains were tested against 17 types of antibiotics, using the standard microdilution method according to the 2018 European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing criteria. Three Cronobacter species were identified as C. sakazakii (n = 33), C. malonaticus (n = 18), and C. muytjensii (n = 1); all isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. All strains were PCR-negative for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M β-lactamase genes, as well. Even though the results of this study showed that Cronobacter spp. isolates were pan-susceptible, continued antibiotic resistance surveillance is warranted.

Keywords

  • antibiotics
  • antimicrobial susceptibility
  • spp.
  • MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
  • multilocus sequence typing
Open Access

Interferon Gamma Release Assays in Patients with Respiratory Isolates of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria – a Preliminary Study

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 15 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

Interferon gamma releasing assays (IGRAs) are extensively used in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infections. Comparing to tuberculin skin test (TST) they lack false positive results in the populations vaccinated with BCG, and in most non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections. Nevertheless, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium szulgai may induce positive IGRAs due to RD1 homology with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible influence of NTM respiratory isolates on the results of IGRAs. 39 patients (23 females and 16 males) of median age 61 years, with negative medical history concerning tuberculosis, entered the study. Identification of NTM was performed using the niacin test and molecular method GenoType CM test (Hain Lifescience). QFT-Plus was performed in 17 patients, T-SPOT-Tb – in 23 patients. Chest X-rays and a high-resolution computed tomography of the chest have been reviewed by the experienced radiologist blinded to the results of IGRAs, in search of past tuberculosis signs. Positive IGRAs results were obtained in three out of 39 patients (8%): 22% of patients with M. kansasii isolates and 18% of patients with radiological signs on HRCT that might be suggestive of past tuberculosis. Positive IGRAs correlated with radiological signs suggestive of past tuberculosis (r = 0.32, p = 0.04), and on the borderline with isolation of M. kansasii (r = 0.29, p = 0.06). These findings may suggest that a positive IGRAs result, in our material, could depend mostly on asymptomatic past Tb infection. The cross-reactivity of M. kansasii isolates with IGRAs was less probable; nevertheless, it requires further investigations.

Keywords

  • interferon gamma release
  • non-tuberculous mycobacteria
  • latent tuberculosis infection
Open Access

Bioactive Compounds of Pseudoalteromonas sp. IBRL PD4.8 Inhibit Growth of Fouling Bacteria and Attenuate Biofilms of Vibrio alginolyticus FB3

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 21 - 33

Abstract

Abstract

Biofouling is a phenomenon that describes the fouling organisms attached to man-made surfaces immersed in water over a period of time. It has emerged as a chronic problem to the oceanic industries, especially the shipping and aquaculture fields. The metal-containing coatings that have been used for many years to prevent and destroy biofouling are damaging to the ocean and many organisms. Therefore, this calls for the critical need of natural product-based antifoulants as a substitute for its toxic counterparts. In this study, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the bioactive compounds of Pseudoalteromonas sp. IBRL PD4.8 have been investigated against selected fouling bacteria. The crude extract has shown strong antibacterial activity against five fouling bacteria, with inhibition zones ranging from 9.8 to 13.7 mm and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.13 to 8.0 mg/ml. Meanwhile, the antibiofilm study has indicated that the extract has attenuated the initial and pre-formed biofilms of Vibrio alginolyticus FB3 by 45.37 ± 4.88% and 29.85 ± 2.56%, respectively. Moreover, micrographs from light and scanning electron microscope have revealed extensive structural damages on the treated biofilms. The active fraction was fractionated with chromatographic methods and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses has further disclosed the presence of a polyunsaturated fatty acid 4,7,10,13-hexadecatetraenoic acid (C16H24O2). Therefore, this compound was suggested as a potential bioactive compound contributing to the antibacterial property. In conclusion, Pseudoalteromonas sp. IBRL PD4.8 is a promising source as a natural antifouling agent that can suppress the growth of five fouling bacteria and biofilms of V. alginolyticus FB3.

Keywords

  • sp.
  • antibiofilm
  • biofouling
  • liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy
  • scanning electron microscope
Open Access

Mycosynthesis of Size-Controlled Silver Nanoparticles through Optimization of Process Variables by Response Surface Methodology

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 35 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

The present study was carried out to reduce the size of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by optimizing physico-chemical conditions of the Aspergillus fumigatus BTCB10 growth based on central composite design (CCD) through response surface methodology (RSM). Variables such as a concentration of silver nitrate (mM), NaCl (%) and the wet weight of biomass (g) were controlled to produce spherical, monodispersed particles of 33.23 nm size, observing 78.7% reduction in size as compared to the initially obtained size that was equal to 356 nm. The obtained AgNPs exhibited negative zeta potential of –9.91 mV with a peak at 420 nm in the UV-Vis range whereas Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis identified O–H, C = C, C ≡ C, C–Br and C–Cl groups attached as capping agents. After conducting RSM experiments, a high nitrate reductase activity value of 179.15 nmol/h/ml was obtained; thus indicating a likely correlation between enzyme production and AgNPs synthesis. The F-value (significant at 3.91), non-significant lack of fit and determination coefficient (R2 = 0.7786) is representative of the good relation between the predicted values of response. We conclude that CCD is an effective tool in obtaining significant results of high quality and efficiency.

Keywords

  • and AgNPs
  • Central Composite Design (CCD) for AgNPs synthesis
  • green synthesis of AgNPs
  • nitrate reductase activity for AgNPs synthesis
Open Access

Thermoregulation of Prodigiosin Biosynthesis by Serratia marcescens is Controlled at the Transcriptional Level and Requires HexS

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 43 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Several biotypes of the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens produce the tri-pyrole pigment and secondary metabolite prodigiosin. The biological activities of this pigment have therapeutic potential. For over half a century it has been known that biosynthesis of prodi giosin is inhibited when bacteria are grown at elevated temperatures, yet the fundamental mechanism underlying this thermoregulation has not been characterized. In this study, chromosomal and plasmid-borne luxCDABE transcriptional reporters revealed reduced transcription of the prodigiosin biosynthetic operon at 37°C compared to 30°C indicating transcriptional control of pigment production. Moreover, induced expression of the prodigiosin biosynthetic operon at 37°C was able to produce pigmented colonies and cultures demonstrating that physiological conditions at 37°C allow prodigiosin production and indicating that post-transcriptional control is not a major contributor to the thermoregulation of prodigiosin pigmentation. Genetic experiments support the model that the HexS transcription factor is a key contributor to thermoregulation of pigmentation, whereas CRP plays a minor role, and a clear role for EepR and PigP was not observed. Together, these data indicate that thermoregulation of prodigiosin production at elevated temperatures is controlled largely, if not exclusively, at the transcriptional level.

Keywords

  • secondary metabolite
  • regulation
  • pigment
  • prodigiosin
  • bacteria
  • transcription factor
Open Access

Clinical Interpretation of Detection of IgM Anti-Brucella Antibody in the Absence of IgG and Vice Versa; a Diagnostic Challenge for Clinicians

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 51 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

Non-specific and often misleading clinical presentation of active brucellosis has made it a diagnostic puzzle for treating physicians. Clinicians rely greatly on the detection of IgG and IgM anti-Brucella antibodies by ELISA. Different patterns of positivity have been observed for IgG and IgM anti-Brucella antibodies in different cases, which further increases the risk of an erroneous diagnosis. Detailed herein is our two-years data with varied Brucella serology patterns and their clinical interpretation. Between January 2015 to December 2017, 1102 samples were processed in the Immunology Laboratory of KFHU for Brucella serology. 68 samples were positive for both IgG and IgM, 28 samples were positive for IgG and negative for IgM while 15 samples were positive for IgM and negative for IgG antibodies against Brucella. Electronic medical records, history of exposure, signs, symptoms, laboratory data, and the final diagnosis were recorded for all these patients. None of the patients with only positive IgM antibodies was finally diagnosed with brucellosis, while a diagnosis of brucellosis was established for only one patient with IgG antibodies positive in his serum. All the double-positive (IgG- and IgM-positive) serology patterns were diagnosed as having brucellosis. We concluded that determination of single IgM or IgG anti-Brucella-antibodies by ELISA could both be considered as definite and should ideally be interpreted in the context of appropriate clinical scenario and confirmation by other laboratory assays.

Keywords

  • -specific IgG
  • -specific IgM
  • Brucellosis
  • ELISA for
Open Access

In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of Zabofloxacin and Other Fluoroquinolones Against MRSA Isolates from A University Hospital in Egypt

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 59 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

The widespread of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), has necessitated the search for alternative therapies; introduction of new agents being a suggestion. This study compares the in vitro and in vivo activities of zabofloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone, with moxifloxacin, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against clinical isolates of MRSA from patients hospitalized in the Alexandria Main University hospital; a tertiary hospital in Alexandria, Egypt, where zabofloxacin has not been yet introduced. The strains tested showed the highest percentage of susceptibility to zabofloxacin (61.2%) among the tested fluoroquinolones with the most effective MIC50 and MIC90 (0.25 and 2 µg/ml, respectively). Time-kill curve analysis revealed a rapid bactericidal activity of zabofloxacin after 6 h of incubation with a quinolone-resistant isolate and complete killing when tested against a quinolone-sensitive isolate with inhibition of regrowth in both cases. PCR amplification and sequencing of QRDRs in selected strains revealed the following amino acid substitutions: Ser-84→Leu in GyrA, Ser-80→Phe in GrlA and Pro-451→Ser in GrlB. The in vivo studies demonstrated that zabofloxacin possessed the most potent protective effect against systemic infection in mice (ED50: 29.05 mg/kg) with lowest count in the dissected lungs (3.66 log10 CFU/ml). The histopathological examination of lung specimens of mice treated with zabofloxacin displayed least congestion, inflammation, oedema and necrosis with clear alveolar spaces and normal vessels. In conclusion, zabofloxacin was proved to possess high in vitro and in vivo efficacy encompassing its comparators and could be considered as a possible candidate for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the in vitro and in vivo activity of zabofloxacin against Egyptian MRSA clinical isolates.

Keywords

  • MRSA
  • ED50
  • fluoroquinolones
  • quinolone resistance-determining regions
  • zabofloxacin
Open Access

Biodiversity of Bacteria Associated with Eight Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) P. Kumm. Strains from Poland, Japan and the USA

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 71 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

Few publications report the occurrence of bacteria associated with fungal cells. The presence of bacteria associated with one strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) P. Kumm. was described in the literature. We describe the biodiversity of bacteria associated with eight oyster mushroom strains from Japan, Poland, and the USA. The presence of microorganisms associated with all tested P. ostreatus strains was confirmed using fluorescent microscopy. Among 307 sequences, 233 of clones representing 34 genera and 74 sequences were identified as Bacteria. Most of the bacteria associated with the strain PUSAS were related to E. coli and two clones were related to Cupriavidus genus. The biodiversity of clones isolated from fungal strains originating from Japan and Poland ranged from 15 to 32 different bacterial clones. The most often the bacteria related to genus Curvibacter, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Cupriavidus, Pelomonas, and Propionibacterium were associated with the strains of fungi mentioned above. Laccase-like (LMCO) genes were identified in whole bacterial DNA isolated from the associated bacteria but β-glucosidase and β-xylanase genes were not detected.

Keywords

  • biodiversity
  • associated bacteria
  • fluorescent microscopy
  • 16S rRNA PCR
Open Access

Microbiota and Chemical Compounds in Fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma (Banxiaqu) from Different Areas in the Sichuan Province, China

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 83 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

This study focused on the microbiota and chemical compounds of the fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma produced in Longchang (LC), Zizhong (ZZ) and Xindu (XD), in Sichuan Province (China). High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the microbiota. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to detect the compounds produced during the three different Pinelliae Rhizoma fermentation processes. The bacteria and fungi of the three fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma differed substantially, with the bacterial content mainly composed of the Bacillus genus, while the common fungi were only included in four OTUs, which belong to three species of Eurotiomycetes and Aspergillus cibarius. 51 volatile compounds were detected; they varied between LC, XD, and ZZ fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma. C10 and C15 terpenes were most frequently detected, and only curcumene and β-bisabolene were detected in the three fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma. 65 non-volatile compounds were detected by LC-MS, most were of C16, C18, C20, C21 and C22 structures. Cluster analysis showed more similarity between LC and XD fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma with regards to volatile compound content, but more similarity between the XD and ZZ fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma for non-volatiles. Moreover, no correlation between geographical distance and microflora or compounds of fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma was observed. These results showed that hundreds of compounds are produced by the natural mixed fermentation of Pinelliae Rhizoma, and may mostly relate to the microorganisms of five species.

Keywords

  • Fermented
  • components
  • microbiota
  • regions
Open Access

New Insight into Genotypic and Phenotypic Relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Human Infections or Animal Reservoirs

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 93 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and livestock opportunistic pathogen, and there is evidence of animal to human transmission. This paper aimed to recognize properties of the isolates from collections of human and livestock S. aureus strains and to estimate compatibility of results based on phenotypic tests, microarrays and the spa typing methods. The second goal was to study differences between human and animal isolates in terms of specificity of their hosts and the strain transmission among various hosts. Most strains showed multi-susceptible profiles and produced enzymes on a high level, and they were phenotypically and genetically similar. However, in contrast to the Polish bovine mastitis strains, the Slovakian strains were multi-resistant. In this research, the strains showed significant differences in terms of their phenotypic manifestations and the presence of hemolysins genes; however, other enzyme-encoding genes correlated to a higher extent with the microarrays results. Interestingly, there was a lack of enterotoxin genes in human Poultry-like protein A+ strains in comparison to other human strains. Our study showed that differences between virulence profiles of the human and animal strains correlated with their origin rather than their hosts, and any trait allowed clearly distinguishing between them based on the microarray results.

Keywords

  • genetic profile
  • infection
  • microarrays
  • phenotype
Open Access

The Influence of Temperature and Nitrogen Source on Cellulolytic Potential of Microbiota Isolated from Natural Environment

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 105 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

Bacteria from the genus Bacillus are a rich source of commercial enzymes, including amylases, proteases, cellulases, glucose isomerase, and pullulanase. Cellulases account for 15% of the global market of industrial enzymes; thus, new microorganisms producing cellulases in a higher concentration and new ingredients, which can enhance the level of enzyme synthesis, are still needed. Many of cellulose-degrading microorganisms have been isolated so far and characterized in various regions of the world. In this study, we were looking for the bacteria isolated from the natural environment with the high cellulolytic potential, which could be used as components of a biopreparation to accelerate decomposition of postharvest leftovers in agriculture. The 214 bacterial strains were isolated from environmental samples rich in cellulose and their ability to synthesize cellulases were examined using the diffusion method. Six strains, which have the highest diameter of clearing zone both for biomass and supernatant, were selected for identification. Optimization of biosynthesis of the cellulose-degrading enzymes indicated that optimal temperature of this process fluctuated in the range of 21–42°C (depending on the strain and carbon source). The highest cellulolytic activity was observed for the isolates designed as 4/7 (identified as Bacillus subtilis) and 4/18 (identified as Bacillus licheniformis) in a temperature of 32°C. With the use of a desirability function methodology, the optimal medium composition to achieve a simple, cost-efficient process of cellulases production was developed for both strains. These experiments show that microorganisms isolated from natural environmental samples have unique properties and potential for commercial applications (e.g. for biopreparations production).

Keywords

  • spp.
  • cellulose-degrading microorganisms
  • nitrogen source
Open Access

Dengue Outbreaks in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan in 2017: An Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System (IDSRS)-Based Report

Published Online: 09 Apr 2019
Page range: 115 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

The current study is a retrospective epidemic report regarding dengue fever (DF) virus infection cases (2017) from fifteen districts of KPK, Pakistan. Medical records of 120 948 patients were reviewed retrospectively for demographic, clinical and laboratory data. The presence of dengue infection was confirmed by NS1-ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. The total positive cases (of suspected DF samples) were 24 938 (20.6%), whereas seventy cases (0.28%) had a fatal outcome. Mean age ± SD of the dengue patients was 26 ± 19.8 years, while; the most affected age group was from 16 to 30 years (Chi-square: 12 820.125, p: 0.00). The infected males were 65.3%, and that of the female was 34.7%. All the dengue-infected patients were observed with symptoms of severe fever (100%), body aches (95%), gums and nose bleeding (5%), skin rashes (30%), vomiting (70%). The highest infection rate was found in district Peshawar and that of the lowest was in Bannu, Hungu and Luki Marwat. A high rate of dengue infection was found in post-monsoon months i.e. October (41%) and September (32%) of the year. The results proved that if the dengue outbreaks reveal further in KPK, it could alarmingly increase the mortality rate. Therefore, the Department of Public Health in KPK, Pakistan may take proper measures to avoid and control dengue epidemics in the future.

Keywords

  • Dengue fever
  • infection
  • IDSRS
  • KPK
  • patients
  • symptoms
  • climate
Open Access

Dependence of Colonization of the Large Intestine by Candida on the Treatment of Crohn’s Disease

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 121 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine if there are quantitative differences in Candida fungi between pediatric patients with Crohn’s disease (before and after exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), and the biologic therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha – (IFX)), and healthy controls. DNA was isolated from fecal samples and PCR was used to determine the number of fungal cells. Both therapeutic interventions resulted in a statistically significant decrease in Pediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index. The numbers of Candida decreased during both therapeutic intervention but the difference was statistically significant for the IFX intervention only (p = 0.045). Moreover, fungi population in both study groups declined during intervention when compared to the control group but the difference was significant before treatment only in the IFX group (p = 0.013). The total distribution of Candida with both IFX and EEN as well as in the control group differed significantly (p = 0.01) before treatment only. No correlation between the numbers of Candida and disease activity as well as the following biochemical parameters: serum iron concentration, protein or glucose level were found. It cannot be ruled out that, in combination with genetic and immunological disorders, fungi can contribute to the initiation of the disease process and perpetuation of active inflammation.

Keywords

  • Crohn’s disease
  • children
  • gut microbiota
  • biological treatment
Open Access

Predominance of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains in Peruvian Amazonian Fruits

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 127 - 137

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this research was the identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Peruvian Amazonian fruits. Thirty-seven isolates were obtained from diverse Amazonian fruits. Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed by ARDRA, 16S-23S ITS RFLP and rep-PCR using GTG5 primers. Identification was carried out by sequencing the 16S rDNA gene. Phenotypic characterization included nutritional, physiological and antimicrobial resistance tests. Molecular characterization by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and 16S-23S ITS RFLP resulted in four restriction profiles while GTG5 analysis showed 14 banding patterns. Based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (75.7%), Weissella cibaria (13.5%), Lactobacillus brevis (8.1%), and Weissella confusa (2.7%). Phenotypic characterization showed that most of the isolates were homofermentative bacilli, able to ferment glucose, maltose, cellobiose, and fructose and grow in a broad range of temperatures and pH. The isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromicyn, penicillin, and tetracycline and showed great resistance to kanamycin, gentamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and vancomycin. No proteolytic or amylolytic activity was detected. L. plantarum strains produce lactic acid in higher concentrations and Weissella strains produce exopolymers only from sucrose. Molecular methods allowed to accurately identify the LAB isolates from the Peruvian Amazonian fruits, while phenotypic methods provided information about their metabolism, physiology and other characteristics that may be useful in future biotechnological processes. Further research will focus especially on the study of L. plantarum strains.

Keywords

  • Peruvian Amazonian fruits
  • ARDRA
  • 16S-23S ITS RFLP
  • GTG

short-communication

Open Access

Comparison of Performance Characteristics of DxN VERIS System versus Qiagen PCR for HBV Genotype D and HCV Genotype 1b Quantification

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 139 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

The Beckman Coulter DxN VERIS system is a fully automated, closed molecular diagnostic instrument for viral load quantification of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. In this study, the analytical performance of this new system was compared to routine diagnostic Qiagen PCR kit by using the same clinical samples. The DxN VERIS system demonstrated a high analytical performance. The DxN VERIS allows random access, which means that samples can be uploaded straight on to the system at any time; so, it provides an improvement of workflow, staff productivity and allows faster turn-around of viral load results.

Keywords

  • Hepatitis B virus
  • hepatitis C virus
  • real-time PCR
  • regression analysis
  • diagnosis
Open Access

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6: A Preliminary Report from Istanbul

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 165 - 171

Abstract

Abstract

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by various serotypes of Enterovirus genus. Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) were known to be the only responsible agents for these epidemics; however, this opinion was challenged after the detection that coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was the responsible species for the outbreak in Finland in 2008. HFMD is frequently seen in Turkey, and no detailed study on its clinical and microbiological epidemiology has previously been reported. The present study addresses this question. Twenty-seven patient samples collected between 2015 and 2017 were included in the study. Typing was conducted by RT-PCR and the sequencing applied directly to patient’s samples and as well as to the viral cultures with pan-enterovirus and serotype-specific primers. The presence of Enterovirus in 12 of 27 HFMD samples was shown with RT-PCR. The causative agent for three of these 12 samples was CV-A16, one of the most frequent two serotypes around the world, and the remaining nine samples was CV-A6. The findings of the study are relevant since it pertains to the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Turkey, a gateway country where different serotypes might be circulating and transmitted. The findings also support the notion that CV-A6 cases are rising in number, which has caused more severe clinical features and widespread rashes in recent outbreaks.

Keywords

  • hand foot and mouth disease
  • HFMD
  • enterovirus
  • coxsackievirus A6
  • coxsackievirus A16
Open Access

Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Isolated from Honeybee Gut as a Potential Live Oral Vaccine Against Lethal Infection of Salmonella Typhimurium

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 173 - 183

Abstract

Abstract

In this research, Salmonella species were isolated from the animal, insect and human enteric sources in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. These species were characterized by different microbiological and molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, sequencing of the amplicons confirmed all ten isolates as Salmonella strains. The antigenic cross-reactivity was found maximum between the HB1 (strain isolated from honeybee) antiserum and its antigen with an antibody titer of 1:128, while the HB1 antiserum showed a cross-reactive titer range of 1:8 to 1:64. On the basis of the highest geometric mean titer (GMT) shown by the antiserum of the HB1 antigen, it was selected as the best candidate for a cross-reactive live Salmonella oral antigen. Moreover, the HB1 antigen was used a live oral antigen (1 × 1010 CFU/ml) in a safety test in rabbits and proved to be avirulent. During the animal trial, three different oral doses of the HB1 live oral antigen were evaluated in four different rabbits’ groups (R1, R2, R3, and R4). The dose number 2 of 0.5 ml (two drops orally and repeated after one week) gave the best GMT measured by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) as compared to the other two doses, while R4 group was kept as control. Results of the challenge protection test also validated the efficacy of the double dose of the HB1 live vaccine, which gave the highest survival percentage. Results of this study lay the foundation for a potential cross-reactive live oral Salmonella vaccine that has proved to be immunogenic in rabbits.

Keywords

  • antigen
  • cross-reactivity
  • 16S rRNA gene
  • geometric mean titer
Open Access

Evaluation of The Pathogenic Potential of Insecticidal Serratia marcescens Strains to Humans

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 185 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

We observed the death of insect caterpillars of Spodoptera exigua in the laboratory culture line and identified Serratia marcescens as the bacterial causative agent of the insect death. We confirmed that S. marcescens had insecticidal activity against S. exigua and caused high mortality of larvae. The LC50 values of S. marcescens CFU per 1 cm2 of insect diet surface were similar for all isolates. Our research reports novel strains with high pesticidal activity as candidates for future research on a new bioinsecticide. As bioinsecticides cannot be harmful to non-target organisms, we determined the pathogenic properties of S. marcescens to humans. We proved the ability of S. marcescens to damage mammalian epithelial cells. All strains had cytopathic effects to Vero cells with a cytotoxic index ranging from 51.2% ± 3.8% to 79.2% ± 4.1%. We found that all of the strains excreted catecholate siderophore – enterobactin. All isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin, gentamicin, cefepime, and aztreonam. We did not observe the ESBL phenotype and the integrons’ integrase genes. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole was due to the presence of the sul1 or sul2 gene. The use of resistant S. marcescens strains that are pathogenic to humans in plant protection may cause infections difficult to cure and lead to the spread of resistance genes. The results of our study emphasize the necessity of determination of the safety to vertebrates of the bacteria that are proposed to serve as biocontrol agents. The novelty of our study lies in the demonstration of the indispensability of the bacteria verification towards the lack of hazardous properties to humans.

Keywords

  • bioinsecticide
  • insecticidal activity
  • pathogenicity
  • pesticide safety
18 Articles

original-paper

Open Access

Antibiotic Susceptibility of Cronobacter spp. Isolated from Clinical Samples

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 5 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

Cronobacter spp. have been recognized as causative agents of various severe infections in pre-term or full-term infants as well as elderly adults suffering from serious underlying disease or malignancy. A surveillance study was designed to identify antibiotic resistance among clinical Cronobacter spp. strains, which were isolated from patients of two hospitals between May 2007 and August 2013. Altogether, 52 Cronobacter spp. isolates were analyzed. Although MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry recognized all Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus strains, it could not identify Cronobacter muytjensii strain. Nevertheless, all strains were identified as Cronobacter spp. using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Strains were tested against 17 types of antibiotics, using the standard microdilution method according to the 2018 European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing criteria. Three Cronobacter species were identified as C. sakazakii (n = 33), C. malonaticus (n = 18), and C. muytjensii (n = 1); all isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. All strains were PCR-negative for blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M β-lactamase genes, as well. Even though the results of this study showed that Cronobacter spp. isolates were pan-susceptible, continued antibiotic resistance surveillance is warranted.

Keywords

  • antibiotics
  • antimicrobial susceptibility
  • spp.
  • MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
  • multilocus sequence typing
Open Access

Interferon Gamma Release Assays in Patients with Respiratory Isolates of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria – a Preliminary Study

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 15 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

Interferon gamma releasing assays (IGRAs) are extensively used in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infections. Comparing to tuberculin skin test (TST) they lack false positive results in the populations vaccinated with BCG, and in most non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections. Nevertheless, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium szulgai may induce positive IGRAs due to RD1 homology with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible influence of NTM respiratory isolates on the results of IGRAs. 39 patients (23 females and 16 males) of median age 61 years, with negative medical history concerning tuberculosis, entered the study. Identification of NTM was performed using the niacin test and molecular method GenoType CM test (Hain Lifescience). QFT-Plus was performed in 17 patients, T-SPOT-Tb – in 23 patients. Chest X-rays and a high-resolution computed tomography of the chest have been reviewed by the experienced radiologist blinded to the results of IGRAs, in search of past tuberculosis signs. Positive IGRAs results were obtained in three out of 39 patients (8%): 22% of patients with M. kansasii isolates and 18% of patients with radiological signs on HRCT that might be suggestive of past tuberculosis. Positive IGRAs correlated with radiological signs suggestive of past tuberculosis (r = 0.32, p = 0.04), and on the borderline with isolation of M. kansasii (r = 0.29, p = 0.06). These findings may suggest that a positive IGRAs result, in our material, could depend mostly on asymptomatic past Tb infection. The cross-reactivity of M. kansasii isolates with IGRAs was less probable; nevertheless, it requires further investigations.

Keywords

  • interferon gamma release
  • non-tuberculous mycobacteria
  • latent tuberculosis infection
Open Access

Bioactive Compounds of Pseudoalteromonas sp. IBRL PD4.8 Inhibit Growth of Fouling Bacteria and Attenuate Biofilms of Vibrio alginolyticus FB3

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 21 - 33

Abstract

Abstract

Biofouling is a phenomenon that describes the fouling organisms attached to man-made surfaces immersed in water over a period of time. It has emerged as a chronic problem to the oceanic industries, especially the shipping and aquaculture fields. The metal-containing coatings that have been used for many years to prevent and destroy biofouling are damaging to the ocean and many organisms. Therefore, this calls for the critical need of natural product-based antifoulants as a substitute for its toxic counterparts. In this study, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the bioactive compounds of Pseudoalteromonas sp. IBRL PD4.8 have been investigated against selected fouling bacteria. The crude extract has shown strong antibacterial activity against five fouling bacteria, with inhibition zones ranging from 9.8 to 13.7 mm and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.13 to 8.0 mg/ml. Meanwhile, the antibiofilm study has indicated that the extract has attenuated the initial and pre-formed biofilms of Vibrio alginolyticus FB3 by 45.37 ± 4.88% and 29.85 ± 2.56%, respectively. Moreover, micrographs from light and scanning electron microscope have revealed extensive structural damages on the treated biofilms. The active fraction was fractionated with chromatographic methods and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses has further disclosed the presence of a polyunsaturated fatty acid 4,7,10,13-hexadecatetraenoic acid (C16H24O2). Therefore, this compound was suggested as a potential bioactive compound contributing to the antibacterial property. In conclusion, Pseudoalteromonas sp. IBRL PD4.8 is a promising source as a natural antifouling agent that can suppress the growth of five fouling bacteria and biofilms of V. alginolyticus FB3.

Keywords

  • sp.
  • antibiofilm
  • biofouling
  • liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy
  • scanning electron microscope
Open Access

Mycosynthesis of Size-Controlled Silver Nanoparticles through Optimization of Process Variables by Response Surface Methodology

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 35 - 42

Abstract

Abstract

The present study was carried out to reduce the size of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by optimizing physico-chemical conditions of the Aspergillus fumigatus BTCB10 growth based on central composite design (CCD) through response surface methodology (RSM). Variables such as a concentration of silver nitrate (mM), NaCl (%) and the wet weight of biomass (g) were controlled to produce spherical, monodispersed particles of 33.23 nm size, observing 78.7% reduction in size as compared to the initially obtained size that was equal to 356 nm. The obtained AgNPs exhibited negative zeta potential of –9.91 mV with a peak at 420 nm in the UV-Vis range whereas Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis identified O–H, C = C, C ≡ C, C–Br and C–Cl groups attached as capping agents. After conducting RSM experiments, a high nitrate reductase activity value of 179.15 nmol/h/ml was obtained; thus indicating a likely correlation between enzyme production and AgNPs synthesis. The F-value (significant at 3.91), non-significant lack of fit and determination coefficient (R2 = 0.7786) is representative of the good relation between the predicted values of response. We conclude that CCD is an effective tool in obtaining significant results of high quality and efficiency.

Keywords

  • and AgNPs
  • Central Composite Design (CCD) for AgNPs synthesis
  • green synthesis of AgNPs
  • nitrate reductase activity for AgNPs synthesis
Open Access

Thermoregulation of Prodigiosin Biosynthesis by Serratia marcescens is Controlled at the Transcriptional Level and Requires HexS

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 43 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Several biotypes of the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens produce the tri-pyrole pigment and secondary metabolite prodigiosin. The biological activities of this pigment have therapeutic potential. For over half a century it has been known that biosynthesis of prodi giosin is inhibited when bacteria are grown at elevated temperatures, yet the fundamental mechanism underlying this thermoregulation has not been characterized. In this study, chromosomal and plasmid-borne luxCDABE transcriptional reporters revealed reduced transcription of the prodigiosin biosynthetic operon at 37°C compared to 30°C indicating transcriptional control of pigment production. Moreover, induced expression of the prodigiosin biosynthetic operon at 37°C was able to produce pigmented colonies and cultures demonstrating that physiological conditions at 37°C allow prodigiosin production and indicating that post-transcriptional control is not a major contributor to the thermoregulation of prodigiosin pigmentation. Genetic experiments support the model that the HexS transcription factor is a key contributor to thermoregulation of pigmentation, whereas CRP plays a minor role, and a clear role for EepR and PigP was not observed. Together, these data indicate that thermoregulation of prodigiosin production at elevated temperatures is controlled largely, if not exclusively, at the transcriptional level.

Keywords

  • secondary metabolite
  • regulation
  • pigment
  • prodigiosin
  • bacteria
  • transcription factor
Open Access

Clinical Interpretation of Detection of IgM Anti-Brucella Antibody in the Absence of IgG and Vice Versa; a Diagnostic Challenge for Clinicians

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 51 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

Non-specific and often misleading clinical presentation of active brucellosis has made it a diagnostic puzzle for treating physicians. Clinicians rely greatly on the detection of IgG and IgM anti-Brucella antibodies by ELISA. Different patterns of positivity have been observed for IgG and IgM anti-Brucella antibodies in different cases, which further increases the risk of an erroneous diagnosis. Detailed herein is our two-years data with varied Brucella serology patterns and their clinical interpretation. Between January 2015 to December 2017, 1102 samples were processed in the Immunology Laboratory of KFHU for Brucella serology. 68 samples were positive for both IgG and IgM, 28 samples were positive for IgG and negative for IgM while 15 samples were positive for IgM and negative for IgG antibodies against Brucella. Electronic medical records, history of exposure, signs, symptoms, laboratory data, and the final diagnosis were recorded for all these patients. None of the patients with only positive IgM antibodies was finally diagnosed with brucellosis, while a diagnosis of brucellosis was established for only one patient with IgG antibodies positive in his serum. All the double-positive (IgG- and IgM-positive) serology patterns were diagnosed as having brucellosis. We concluded that determination of single IgM or IgG anti-Brucella-antibodies by ELISA could both be considered as definite and should ideally be interpreted in the context of appropriate clinical scenario and confirmation by other laboratory assays.

Keywords

  • -specific IgG
  • -specific IgM
  • Brucellosis
  • ELISA for
Open Access

In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of Zabofloxacin and Other Fluoroquinolones Against MRSA Isolates from A University Hospital in Egypt

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 59 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

The widespread of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), has necessitated the search for alternative therapies; introduction of new agents being a suggestion. This study compares the in vitro and in vivo activities of zabofloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone, with moxifloxacin, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against clinical isolates of MRSA from patients hospitalized in the Alexandria Main University hospital; a tertiary hospital in Alexandria, Egypt, where zabofloxacin has not been yet introduced. The strains tested showed the highest percentage of susceptibility to zabofloxacin (61.2%) among the tested fluoroquinolones with the most effective MIC50 and MIC90 (0.25 and 2 µg/ml, respectively). Time-kill curve analysis revealed a rapid bactericidal activity of zabofloxacin after 6 h of incubation with a quinolone-resistant isolate and complete killing when tested against a quinolone-sensitive isolate with inhibition of regrowth in both cases. PCR amplification and sequencing of QRDRs in selected strains revealed the following amino acid substitutions: Ser-84→Leu in GyrA, Ser-80→Phe in GrlA and Pro-451→Ser in GrlB. The in vivo studies demonstrated that zabofloxacin possessed the most potent protective effect against systemic infection in mice (ED50: 29.05 mg/kg) with lowest count in the dissected lungs (3.66 log10 CFU/ml). The histopathological examination of lung specimens of mice treated with zabofloxacin displayed least congestion, inflammation, oedema and necrosis with clear alveolar spaces and normal vessels. In conclusion, zabofloxacin was proved to possess high in vitro and in vivo efficacy encompassing its comparators and could be considered as a possible candidate for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the in vitro and in vivo activity of zabofloxacin against Egyptian MRSA clinical isolates.

Keywords

  • MRSA
  • ED50
  • fluoroquinolones
  • quinolone resistance-determining regions
  • zabofloxacin
Open Access

Biodiversity of Bacteria Associated with Eight Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) P. Kumm. Strains from Poland, Japan and the USA

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 71 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

Few publications report the occurrence of bacteria associated with fungal cells. The presence of bacteria associated with one strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) P. Kumm. was described in the literature. We describe the biodiversity of bacteria associated with eight oyster mushroom strains from Japan, Poland, and the USA. The presence of microorganisms associated with all tested P. ostreatus strains was confirmed using fluorescent microscopy. Among 307 sequences, 233 of clones representing 34 genera and 74 sequences were identified as Bacteria. Most of the bacteria associated with the strain PUSAS were related to E. coli and two clones were related to Cupriavidus genus. The biodiversity of clones isolated from fungal strains originating from Japan and Poland ranged from 15 to 32 different bacterial clones. The most often the bacteria related to genus Curvibacter, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Cupriavidus, Pelomonas, and Propionibacterium were associated with the strains of fungi mentioned above. Laccase-like (LMCO) genes were identified in whole bacterial DNA isolated from the associated bacteria but β-glucosidase and β-xylanase genes were not detected.

Keywords

  • biodiversity
  • associated bacteria
  • fluorescent microscopy
  • 16S rRNA PCR
Open Access

Microbiota and Chemical Compounds in Fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma (Banxiaqu) from Different Areas in the Sichuan Province, China

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 83 - 92

Abstract

Abstract

This study focused on the microbiota and chemical compounds of the fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma produced in Longchang (LC), Zizhong (ZZ) and Xindu (XD), in Sichuan Province (China). High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the microbiota. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to detect the compounds produced during the three different Pinelliae Rhizoma fermentation processes. The bacteria and fungi of the three fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma differed substantially, with the bacterial content mainly composed of the Bacillus genus, while the common fungi were only included in four OTUs, which belong to three species of Eurotiomycetes and Aspergillus cibarius. 51 volatile compounds were detected; they varied between LC, XD, and ZZ fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma. C10 and C15 terpenes were most frequently detected, and only curcumene and β-bisabolene were detected in the three fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma. 65 non-volatile compounds were detected by LC-MS, most were of C16, C18, C20, C21 and C22 structures. Cluster analysis showed more similarity between LC and XD fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma with regards to volatile compound content, but more similarity between the XD and ZZ fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma for non-volatiles. Moreover, no correlation between geographical distance and microflora or compounds of fermented Pinelliae Rhizoma was observed. These results showed that hundreds of compounds are produced by the natural mixed fermentation of Pinelliae Rhizoma, and may mostly relate to the microorganisms of five species.

Keywords

  • Fermented
  • components
  • microbiota
  • regions
Open Access

New Insight into Genotypic and Phenotypic Relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Human Infections or Animal Reservoirs

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 93 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and livestock opportunistic pathogen, and there is evidence of animal to human transmission. This paper aimed to recognize properties of the isolates from collections of human and livestock S. aureus strains and to estimate compatibility of results based on phenotypic tests, microarrays and the spa typing methods. The second goal was to study differences between human and animal isolates in terms of specificity of their hosts and the strain transmission among various hosts. Most strains showed multi-susceptible profiles and produced enzymes on a high level, and they were phenotypically and genetically similar. However, in contrast to the Polish bovine mastitis strains, the Slovakian strains were multi-resistant. In this research, the strains showed significant differences in terms of their phenotypic manifestations and the presence of hemolysins genes; however, other enzyme-encoding genes correlated to a higher extent with the microarrays results. Interestingly, there was a lack of enterotoxin genes in human Poultry-like protein A+ strains in comparison to other human strains. Our study showed that differences between virulence profiles of the human and animal strains correlated with their origin rather than their hosts, and any trait allowed clearly distinguishing between them based on the microarray results.

Keywords

  • genetic profile
  • infection
  • microarrays
  • phenotype
Open Access

The Influence of Temperature and Nitrogen Source on Cellulolytic Potential of Microbiota Isolated from Natural Environment

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 105 - 114

Abstract

Abstract

Bacteria from the genus Bacillus are a rich source of commercial enzymes, including amylases, proteases, cellulases, glucose isomerase, and pullulanase. Cellulases account for 15% of the global market of industrial enzymes; thus, new microorganisms producing cellulases in a higher concentration and new ingredients, which can enhance the level of enzyme synthesis, are still needed. Many of cellulose-degrading microorganisms have been isolated so far and characterized in various regions of the world. In this study, we were looking for the bacteria isolated from the natural environment with the high cellulolytic potential, which could be used as components of a biopreparation to accelerate decomposition of postharvest leftovers in agriculture. The 214 bacterial strains were isolated from environmental samples rich in cellulose and their ability to synthesize cellulases were examined using the diffusion method. Six strains, which have the highest diameter of clearing zone both for biomass and supernatant, were selected for identification. Optimization of biosynthesis of the cellulose-degrading enzymes indicated that optimal temperature of this process fluctuated in the range of 21–42°C (depending on the strain and carbon source). The highest cellulolytic activity was observed for the isolates designed as 4/7 (identified as Bacillus subtilis) and 4/18 (identified as Bacillus licheniformis) in a temperature of 32°C. With the use of a desirability function methodology, the optimal medium composition to achieve a simple, cost-efficient process of cellulases production was developed for both strains. These experiments show that microorganisms isolated from natural environmental samples have unique properties and potential for commercial applications (e.g. for biopreparations production).

Keywords

  • spp.
  • cellulose-degrading microorganisms
  • nitrogen source
Open Access

Dengue Outbreaks in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan in 2017: An Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System (IDSRS)-Based Report

Published Online: 09 Apr 2019
Page range: 115 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

The current study is a retrospective epidemic report regarding dengue fever (DF) virus infection cases (2017) from fifteen districts of KPK, Pakistan. Medical records of 120 948 patients were reviewed retrospectively for demographic, clinical and laboratory data. The presence of dengue infection was confirmed by NS1-ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. The total positive cases (of suspected DF samples) were 24 938 (20.6%), whereas seventy cases (0.28%) had a fatal outcome. Mean age ± SD of the dengue patients was 26 ± 19.8 years, while; the most affected age group was from 16 to 30 years (Chi-square: 12 820.125, p: 0.00). The infected males were 65.3%, and that of the female was 34.7%. All the dengue-infected patients were observed with symptoms of severe fever (100%), body aches (95%), gums and nose bleeding (5%), skin rashes (30%), vomiting (70%). The highest infection rate was found in district Peshawar and that of the lowest was in Bannu, Hungu and Luki Marwat. A high rate of dengue infection was found in post-monsoon months i.e. October (41%) and September (32%) of the year. The results proved that if the dengue outbreaks reveal further in KPK, it could alarmingly increase the mortality rate. Therefore, the Department of Public Health in KPK, Pakistan may take proper measures to avoid and control dengue epidemics in the future.

Keywords

  • Dengue fever
  • infection
  • IDSRS
  • KPK
  • patients
  • symptoms
  • climate
Open Access

Dependence of Colonization of the Large Intestine by Candida on the Treatment of Crohn’s Disease

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 121 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine if there are quantitative differences in Candida fungi between pediatric patients with Crohn’s disease (before and after exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), and the biologic therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha – (IFX)), and healthy controls. DNA was isolated from fecal samples and PCR was used to determine the number of fungal cells. Both therapeutic interventions resulted in a statistically significant decrease in Pediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index. The numbers of Candida decreased during both therapeutic intervention but the difference was statistically significant for the IFX intervention only (p = 0.045). Moreover, fungi population in both study groups declined during intervention when compared to the control group but the difference was significant before treatment only in the IFX group (p = 0.013). The total distribution of Candida with both IFX and EEN as well as in the control group differed significantly (p = 0.01) before treatment only. No correlation between the numbers of Candida and disease activity as well as the following biochemical parameters: serum iron concentration, protein or glucose level were found. It cannot be ruled out that, in combination with genetic and immunological disorders, fungi can contribute to the initiation of the disease process and perpetuation of active inflammation.

Keywords

  • Crohn’s disease
  • children
  • gut microbiota
  • biological treatment
Open Access

Predominance of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains in Peruvian Amazonian Fruits

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 127 - 137

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this research was the identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Peruvian Amazonian fruits. Thirty-seven isolates were obtained from diverse Amazonian fruits. Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed by ARDRA, 16S-23S ITS RFLP and rep-PCR using GTG5 primers. Identification was carried out by sequencing the 16S rDNA gene. Phenotypic characterization included nutritional, physiological and antimicrobial resistance tests. Molecular characterization by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and 16S-23S ITS RFLP resulted in four restriction profiles while GTG5 analysis showed 14 banding patterns. Based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (75.7%), Weissella cibaria (13.5%), Lactobacillus brevis (8.1%), and Weissella confusa (2.7%). Phenotypic characterization showed that most of the isolates were homofermentative bacilli, able to ferment glucose, maltose, cellobiose, and fructose and grow in a broad range of temperatures and pH. The isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromicyn, penicillin, and tetracycline and showed great resistance to kanamycin, gentamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and vancomycin. No proteolytic or amylolytic activity was detected. L. plantarum strains produce lactic acid in higher concentrations and Weissella strains produce exopolymers only from sucrose. Molecular methods allowed to accurately identify the LAB isolates from the Peruvian Amazonian fruits, while phenotypic methods provided information about their metabolism, physiology and other characteristics that may be useful in future biotechnological processes. Further research will focus especially on the study of L. plantarum strains.

Keywords

  • Peruvian Amazonian fruits
  • ARDRA
  • 16S-23S ITS RFLP
  • GTG

short-communication

Open Access

Comparison of Performance Characteristics of DxN VERIS System versus Qiagen PCR for HBV Genotype D and HCV Genotype 1b Quantification

Published Online: 27 Mar 2019
Page range: 139 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

The Beckman Coulter DxN VERIS system is a fully automated, closed molecular diagnostic instrument for viral load quantification of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. In this study, the analytical performance of this new system was compared to routine diagnostic Qiagen PCR kit by using the same clinical samples. The DxN VERIS system demonstrated a high analytical performance. The DxN VERIS allows random access, which means that samples can be uploaded straight on to the system at any time; so, it provides an improvement of workflow, staff productivity and allows faster turn-around of viral load results.

Keywords

  • Hepatitis B virus
  • hepatitis C virus
  • real-time PCR
  • regression analysis
  • diagnosis
Open Access

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6: A Preliminary Report from Istanbul

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 165 - 171

Abstract

Abstract

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by various serotypes of Enterovirus genus. Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) were known to be the only responsible agents for these epidemics; however, this opinion was challenged after the detection that coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was the responsible species for the outbreak in Finland in 2008. HFMD is frequently seen in Turkey, and no detailed study on its clinical and microbiological epidemiology has previously been reported. The present study addresses this question. Twenty-seven patient samples collected between 2015 and 2017 were included in the study. Typing was conducted by RT-PCR and the sequencing applied directly to patient’s samples and as well as to the viral cultures with pan-enterovirus and serotype-specific primers. The presence of Enterovirus in 12 of 27 HFMD samples was shown with RT-PCR. The causative agent for three of these 12 samples was CV-A16, one of the most frequent two serotypes around the world, and the remaining nine samples was CV-A6. The findings of the study are relevant since it pertains to the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Turkey, a gateway country where different serotypes might be circulating and transmitted. The findings also support the notion that CV-A6 cases are rising in number, which has caused more severe clinical features and widespread rashes in recent outbreaks.

Keywords

  • hand foot and mouth disease
  • HFMD
  • enterovirus
  • coxsackievirus A6
  • coxsackievirus A16
Open Access

Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Isolated from Honeybee Gut as a Potential Live Oral Vaccine Against Lethal Infection of Salmonella Typhimurium

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 173 - 183

Abstract

Abstract

In this research, Salmonella species were isolated from the animal, insect and human enteric sources in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. These species were characterized by different microbiological and molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, sequencing of the amplicons confirmed all ten isolates as Salmonella strains. The antigenic cross-reactivity was found maximum between the HB1 (strain isolated from honeybee) antiserum and its antigen with an antibody titer of 1:128, while the HB1 antiserum showed a cross-reactive titer range of 1:8 to 1:64. On the basis of the highest geometric mean titer (GMT) shown by the antiserum of the HB1 antigen, it was selected as the best candidate for a cross-reactive live Salmonella oral antigen. Moreover, the HB1 antigen was used a live oral antigen (1 × 1010 CFU/ml) in a safety test in rabbits and proved to be avirulent. During the animal trial, three different oral doses of the HB1 live oral antigen were evaluated in four different rabbits’ groups (R1, R2, R3, and R4). The dose number 2 of 0.5 ml (two drops orally and repeated after one week) gave the best GMT measured by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) as compared to the other two doses, while R4 group was kept as control. Results of the challenge protection test also validated the efficacy of the double dose of the HB1 live vaccine, which gave the highest survival percentage. Results of this study lay the foundation for a potential cross-reactive live oral Salmonella vaccine that has proved to be immunogenic in rabbits.

Keywords

  • antigen
  • cross-reactivity
  • 16S rRNA gene
  • geometric mean titer
Open Access

Evaluation of The Pathogenic Potential of Insecticidal Serratia marcescens Strains to Humans

Published Online: 28 Mar 2019
Page range: 185 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

We observed the death of insect caterpillars of Spodoptera exigua in the laboratory culture line and identified Serratia marcescens as the bacterial causative agent of the insect death. We confirmed that S. marcescens had insecticidal activity against S. exigua and caused high mortality of larvae. The LC50 values of S. marcescens CFU per 1 cm2 of insect diet surface were similar for all isolates. Our research reports novel strains with high pesticidal activity as candidates for future research on a new bioinsecticide. As bioinsecticides cannot be harmful to non-target organisms, we determined the pathogenic properties of S. marcescens to humans. We proved the ability of S. marcescens to damage mammalian epithelial cells. All strains had cytopathic effects to Vero cells with a cytotoxic index ranging from 51.2% ± 3.8% to 79.2% ± 4.1%. We found that all of the strains excreted catecholate siderophore – enterobactin. All isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, tobramycin, gentamicin, cefepime, and aztreonam. We did not observe the ESBL phenotype and the integrons’ integrase genes. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole was due to the presence of the sul1 or sul2 gene. The use of resistant S. marcescens strains that are pathogenic to humans in plant protection may cause infections difficult to cure and lead to the spread of resistance genes. The results of our study emphasize the necessity of determination of the safety to vertebrates of the bacteria that are proposed to serve as biocontrol agents. The novelty of our study lies in the demonstration of the indispensability of the bacteria verification towards the lack of hazardous properties to humans.

Keywords

  • bioinsecticide
  • insecticidal activity
  • pathogenicity
  • pesticide safety

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