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Volume 55 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 54 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

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Volume 52 (2015): Issue 3 (December 2015)

Volume 51 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 50 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-0535
First Published
30 Mar 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 55 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-0535
First Published
30 Mar 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

Trends in the development of unmanned marine technology

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 7 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

The article constitutes an attempt to identify current tendencies regarding the development of unmanned marine technologies such as unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. The analyses were performed on the basis of available literature, databases on research projects and internet sources. The material has been divided with regard to the location the research was conducted, the following groups being identified: the European Union, the United States of America and Poland. On the basis of the review of objectives and final effects of projects, tendencies in the development of the discussed marine technology have been identified. An interesting result of the review consists in an observation that Polish R&D works in this area are placed within the main identified developmental trends. Unfortunately, their effects are incomparable due to the minuteness of national funds allocated to R&D as opposed to other countries.

Keywords

  • underwater work technology
  • marine engineering
Open Access

Clinical aspect of naval crews combat stress

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 29 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

Stress among naval mariners is caused by a new environment in the form of climate, noise, defective food, diseases or injuries, and others. Stress is aggravated by the lack of information, conflicts between mariners, changing decisions of superiors. The strongest stressor military action is the fear of losing life or health.

The stress leads to disturbances in the neuronal transmission and reduction in CNS cells, weakening the processes of neurogenesis. Its complications are a social problem for soldiers returning from humanitarian and military missions and their families.

Mariners cope with stress individually in the area of operations of the armed forces. When difficult situations overwhelm the possibility of compensating psyche, there are algorithms for psychological support. The basis for coping with stress is permanent, social support. The next level concerns support group sessions, involving soldiers after a traumatic event or completing a task. Sessions take place in a quiet place, after the cessation of activities. We are talking about defusing and debriefing technique. The highest level of coping with stress refers to psychotherapy. At first, in the field conditions, and then in the form of hospitalization in the country. Clinical forms of combat stress is post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress syndrome, personality change as a result of the disaster experience, dissociative disorders, operational fatigue, DESNOS. The treatment of these disorders involves cognitive behavioral oriented trauma therapy and medical therapy with the use of SSRIs, SNRIs, and antipsychotics.

In the twenty-first century a inquiry into combat stress creates a tight prevention of its complications.

Keywords

  • combat stress
  • posttraumatic stress disorders
  • acute stress syndrome
  • operational fatigue
  • coping with stress
Open Access

The diving mouthpiece and the conditions of the temporomandibular joints. Preliminary study

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 39 - 46

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the results of research on the effects of a long-term exposure to non-physiological location of anatomical elements of the masticatory organ in the course of diving. The said exposure is connected with the utilisation of various types of diving mouthpieces.

The study was conducted on 186 professional divers manifesting various conditions occurring immediately upon diving completion and connected with the temporomandibular joints and muscles lifting the mandible. The most frequently reported pain affected the areas of cervical spine and shoulder ring, earache and reflex pain, an exhausting gritting of teeth.

Keywords

  • masticatory dysfunctions
  • diving mouthpiece
  • bruxism
Open Access

The significance of health selection among divers and its effect on diving safety

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 47 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

Diving is a kind of human activity that requires special health predispositions due to the nature of an aquatic environment. The environment of an increased atmospheric pressure imposes a significantly greater burden on the respiratory and circulatory system as compared with normobaric conditions. Due to their health status, not everyone among those that wish to take up diving should undergo diving training, as diving can have an adverse effect on their condition while staying under water and considerably raise the risk of an occurrence of a diving accident. As regards diving activities performed within the Armed Forces, individuals with particular health burdens are eliminated via the medical checks conducted at the time of recruitment to the diving service. The checks, based on detailed parameters and described in legal acts, minimise the risk of an occurrence of a diving accident. This problem is quite different when it comes to recreational diving, where quite often, by presenting a health certificate, an interested diver candidate begins a training course and further individual diving activities while being aware of a medical condition that may affect their future safety under water. An analysis of the effect of health selection on the level of diving safety was performed.

Keywords

  • health selection
  • medical assessment
  • health burden
Open Access

Severe decompression sickness in a diver in the course of a training dive

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 61 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes the case of a neurological form of decompression sickness, which occurred in the course of a short training dive to the medium depth using the air as the breathing mix. The subject was treated according to the 3rd air recompression table. Despite an immediate hyperbaric treatment followed by hospitalisation residual neurological symptoms remained throughout the entire observation period.

Keywords

  • decompression sickness
  • neurological form
  • alcohol
  • case study
Open Access

The connections between postural reactions, scoliosis postures and scoliosis in girls aged 12-15 years old examined using the Spearman’s Rank OrderCorrelation

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 67 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the research was to analyse the Spearman's Rank Order Correlation between the postural reactions, scoliosis postures and scoliosis in girls aged 12-15 years old. Throughout the whole group of girls, positive correlations between attitude parameters in the frontal plane and the postural reactions were observed: The angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed with which eyes closed, angle of primary curvature /average speed with which eyes closed, angle of primary curvature /path length eyes closed, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X eyes closed, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/lateral speed eyes closed. Negative correlations occurred in cases: absolute value angle of secondary curvature/ mean loading point X eyes open, depth of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes open, length of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes open, angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes closed. Statistically significant correlations occurred more frequent when the Romberg’s test was held with eyes closed (CE): angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed, torso inclination angle/mean loading point X, angle of primary curvature/average speed, angle of primary curvature/path length, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/ lateral speed, angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point Y. Among the correlations with eyes closed six were positive: angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed, torso inclination angle/mean loading point X, angle of primary curvature/ average speed, angle of primary curvature/ path length, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/lateral speed, and one was negative: angle of secondary curvature/ mean loading point Y. Among the correlations with eyes open (OE) only three negative correlations occurred: absolute value angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point X, depth of secondary curvature/ mean loading point X, length of secondary curvature/mean loading point X.

Keywords

  • postural reactions
  • scoliosis postures
  • scoliosis
  • Spearman’s Rank Order Correlations
Open Access

The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I): The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 79 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

Keywords

  • body temperature
  • circadian rhythms
  • telemetric measurement
7 Articles
Open Access

Trends in the development of unmanned marine technology

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 7 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

The article constitutes an attempt to identify current tendencies regarding the development of unmanned marine technologies such as unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. The analyses were performed on the basis of available literature, databases on research projects and internet sources. The material has been divided with regard to the location the research was conducted, the following groups being identified: the European Union, the United States of America and Poland. On the basis of the review of objectives and final effects of projects, tendencies in the development of the discussed marine technology have been identified. An interesting result of the review consists in an observation that Polish R&D works in this area are placed within the main identified developmental trends. Unfortunately, their effects are incomparable due to the minuteness of national funds allocated to R&D as opposed to other countries.

Keywords

  • underwater work technology
  • marine engineering
Open Access

Clinical aspect of naval crews combat stress

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 29 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

Stress among naval mariners is caused by a new environment in the form of climate, noise, defective food, diseases or injuries, and others. Stress is aggravated by the lack of information, conflicts between mariners, changing decisions of superiors. The strongest stressor military action is the fear of losing life or health.

The stress leads to disturbances in the neuronal transmission and reduction in CNS cells, weakening the processes of neurogenesis. Its complications are a social problem for soldiers returning from humanitarian and military missions and their families.

Mariners cope with stress individually in the area of operations of the armed forces. When difficult situations overwhelm the possibility of compensating psyche, there are algorithms for psychological support. The basis for coping with stress is permanent, social support. The next level concerns support group sessions, involving soldiers after a traumatic event or completing a task. Sessions take place in a quiet place, after the cessation of activities. We are talking about defusing and debriefing technique. The highest level of coping with stress refers to psychotherapy. At first, in the field conditions, and then in the form of hospitalization in the country. Clinical forms of combat stress is post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress syndrome, personality change as a result of the disaster experience, dissociative disorders, operational fatigue, DESNOS. The treatment of these disorders involves cognitive behavioral oriented trauma therapy and medical therapy with the use of SSRIs, SNRIs, and antipsychotics.

In the twenty-first century a inquiry into combat stress creates a tight prevention of its complications.

Keywords

  • combat stress
  • posttraumatic stress disorders
  • acute stress syndrome
  • operational fatigue
  • coping with stress
Open Access

The diving mouthpiece and the conditions of the temporomandibular joints. Preliminary study

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 39 - 46

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the results of research on the effects of a long-term exposure to non-physiological location of anatomical elements of the masticatory organ in the course of diving. The said exposure is connected with the utilisation of various types of diving mouthpieces.

The study was conducted on 186 professional divers manifesting various conditions occurring immediately upon diving completion and connected with the temporomandibular joints and muscles lifting the mandible. The most frequently reported pain affected the areas of cervical spine and shoulder ring, earache and reflex pain, an exhausting gritting of teeth.

Keywords

  • masticatory dysfunctions
  • diving mouthpiece
  • bruxism
Open Access

The significance of health selection among divers and its effect on diving safety

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 47 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

Diving is a kind of human activity that requires special health predispositions due to the nature of an aquatic environment. The environment of an increased atmospheric pressure imposes a significantly greater burden on the respiratory and circulatory system as compared with normobaric conditions. Due to their health status, not everyone among those that wish to take up diving should undergo diving training, as diving can have an adverse effect on their condition while staying under water and considerably raise the risk of an occurrence of a diving accident. As regards diving activities performed within the Armed Forces, individuals with particular health burdens are eliminated via the medical checks conducted at the time of recruitment to the diving service. The checks, based on detailed parameters and described in legal acts, minimise the risk of an occurrence of a diving accident. This problem is quite different when it comes to recreational diving, where quite often, by presenting a health certificate, an interested diver candidate begins a training course and further individual diving activities while being aware of a medical condition that may affect their future safety under water. An analysis of the effect of health selection on the level of diving safety was performed.

Keywords

  • health selection
  • medical assessment
  • health burden
Open Access

Severe decompression sickness in a diver in the course of a training dive

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 61 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

The article describes the case of a neurological form of decompression sickness, which occurred in the course of a short training dive to the medium depth using the air as the breathing mix. The subject was treated according to the 3rd air recompression table. Despite an immediate hyperbaric treatment followed by hospitalisation residual neurological symptoms remained throughout the entire observation period.

Keywords

  • decompression sickness
  • neurological form
  • alcohol
  • case study
Open Access

The connections between postural reactions, scoliosis postures and scoliosis in girls aged 12-15 years old examined using the Spearman’s Rank OrderCorrelation

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 67 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the research was to analyse the Spearman's Rank Order Correlation between the postural reactions, scoliosis postures and scoliosis in girls aged 12-15 years old. Throughout the whole group of girls, positive correlations between attitude parameters in the frontal plane and the postural reactions were observed: The angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed with which eyes closed, angle of primary curvature /average speed with which eyes closed, angle of primary curvature /path length eyes closed, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X eyes closed, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/lateral speed eyes closed. Negative correlations occurred in cases: absolute value angle of secondary curvature/ mean loading point X eyes open, depth of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes open, length of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes open, angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point X eyes closed. Statistically significant correlations occurred more frequent when the Romberg’s test was held with eyes closed (CE): angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed, torso inclination angle/mean loading point X, angle of primary curvature/average speed, angle of primary curvature/path length, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/ lateral speed, angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point Y. Among the correlations with eyes closed six were positive: angle of primary curvature/anteroposterior speed, torso inclination angle/mean loading point X, angle of primary curvature/ average speed, angle of primary curvature/ path length, absolute value shoulders angle line/mean loading point X, absolute value pelvic inclination angle/lateral speed, and one was negative: angle of secondary curvature/ mean loading point Y. Among the correlations with eyes open (OE) only three negative correlations occurred: absolute value angle of secondary curvature/mean loading point X, depth of secondary curvature/ mean loading point X, length of secondary curvature/mean loading point X.

Keywords

  • postural reactions
  • scoliosis postures
  • scoliosis
  • Spearman’s Rank Order Correlations
Open Access

The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I): The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

Published Online: 19 Aug 2016
Page range: 79 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

Keywords

  • body temperature
  • circadian rhythms
  • telemetric measurement

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