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Volume 52 (2015): Issue 3 (December 2015)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-0535
First Published
30 Mar 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 52 (2015): Issue 3 (December 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-0535
First Published
30 Mar 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

Factor XII – A Limitation for Divers?

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 7 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

The lack of evidence for the tissue-factor dependent activation of the coagulation system and the release of thrombin on one hand, and a decreased concentration of factor XII after short term air, saturated air and heliox exposures, as well as an increased concentration of the plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP) after short dives indicate that diving and decompression possibly affect fibrinolysis. The aim of our research was to verify the assumption that diving and decompression activate the system of fibrinolysis and the clarification of the pathomechanism of this activation.

The study involved 50 healthy volunteers who were subjected to short-term, air hyperbaric exposures at 400 kPa and 700 kPa, which correspond to 30m and 60m dives. Decompression was applied in accordance with Naval tables of decompression. Before hyperbaric exposition and after decompression the following factors were determined: activity of factor XII, concentration and activity of t-PA, concentration and activity of PAI-1, concentration of alpha2- antiplasmin, concentration of PAP, concentration of neutrophil elastase.

The following observations have been made: a statistically significant increase in the factor XII activity, increase in the PAP complex concentration and a simultaneous significant decline in the α2-AP activity. No measurable t-PA activity or significant changes in t-PA concentration have been observed. In addition, a statistically significant decline in both the activity and concentration of PAI-1 has been observed, which was more pronounced after the expositions that corresponded to 60 m dives. The concentrations of granulocyte elastase did not differ significantly before and after decompression.

Conclusions: People qualified for diving should have the following risk factors examined: risk factors of increased fibrynolytic activity - haemostasis abnormalities that increase the risk of haemorrhage, possibility of parietal blood clots/thrombi.

Keywords

  • diving
  • hyperbaric oxygenation
  • decompression
  • fibrinolysis
  • factor XII
Open Access

Vibration Characteristics of Reciprocating Air Compressors Used For Hyperbaric Purposes

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 17 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents problems related to the diagnostics of vibrations in reciprocating compressors driven by motors of less than 100 kW. None of the currently applicable norms concerning the issues of vibration diagnostics broach this subject, and therefore diagnosticians have no reference levels for measured vibration parameters. The present paper focuses on two types of compressors intended for diving purposes and hyperbaric techniques. The paper contains a suggested course of actions at the time of taking measurements. Further suggestions for developing coherent procedures as regards the diagnostics of reciprocating compressors of less than 100 kW have been indicated.

Keywords

  • Reciprocating compressors
  • vibration diagnostics
Open Access

Methodology of Selecting Strategies for Underwater Exploration Conducted for the Purposes of Litigation – Places and Conditions for the Exploration

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 29 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

This is the first publication from a series of articles devoted to the issues of underwater exploration carried out for litigation purposes. The present paper suggests that an exploration strategy should be defined as: all actions that aim at creating and implementing a plan of exploration, conducted with the application of a defined exploration methodology - here understood to refer to the technical way the task is completed. Such an approach is taken in order to ensure the most adequate involvement of means and resources for the plan’s implementation. Since the choice of strategy affects many aspects that range from the technical to the environmental, this first part focuses on the location of the exploration and the anticipated conditions.

Keywords

  • underwater technology
  • underwater prospecting
  • marine engineering
Open Access

Triangular 3D Laser Scanning in Underwater Photogrammetry

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 35 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

The use of triangular 3D laser scanning may significantly enhance the visual inspection of underwater objects. In these days of high demand for accurate information, exclusively photographic documentation is not enough, as it is geometrically flawed.

The authors of this article are trying to present the rudiments of laser scanning, a modern means of measuring, which is reliable, relatively easy to use and works in accordance with basic good measurement practices. With the use of a laser beam, a point model of the measured object is generated with a resolution that is adapted to the requirements. A well performed scan will cover the entire surface of the measured object with no information gaps, as is often the case with photographic documentation which focuses solely on key details. Photographic documentation is now already being replaced by Structure from Motion technology, the latter being an alternative to laser scanning, which creates a textured 3D model from the collection of photographs of the object with similar accuracy, but with more time required.

Keywords

  • laser scanning
  • underwater imaging
  • underwater visual inspection
Open Access

Biomonitoring of Inland and Inshore Waters with Use of Dreissena Polymorpha Mussels

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 49 - 53

Abstract

Abstract

The pollution of water that is used for consumption and in agricultural holdings contributes to an increased mortality rate, inhibition of growth and physiological functions, changes in the DNA (genotoxicity), changes within tissues (cytotoxicity) and organs of individuals who are exposed to chemical components. One of the most dangerous toxin classes which have effect on animals and humans who come into contact with contaminated water is the class of cyanobacterial toxins released by dying cyanobacteria. They contribute to very serious health conditions and also to fatalities. Toxins of this type are relatively difficult to detect on account of their seasonal changeability in blooming. One of the most effective methods of detecting water contamination automatically and continuously is biomonitoring with the use of Dreissena polymorpha mussels.

Keywords

  • biomonitoring
  • mussels
  • Dreissena polymorpha
  • cyanobacterial toxins
  • biogenic elements
  • eutrophication
Open Access

The Analysis the Emergency Protection of Water Reservoirs in Olsztyn

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 59 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

Within the administrative boundaries of Olsztyn, there are 16 lakes and several artificial swimming facilities. They provide attractive conditions for water recreation and water sports. But are these conditions completely safe?

The aim of the study is to get familiar with the safety conditions of water reservoirs in Olsztyn in terms of opportunities for water recreation. In order to solve the addressed problem, the analysis of source materials has been performed, the field research has been conducted and the survey has been applied.

The outcome of the research includes the description of the recreational value of these water reservoirs, the identification of potential threats (internal and external) and the evaluation of logistic and emergency protection.

Keywords

  • olsztyn reservoirs
  • water recreation
  • water rescue services
Open Access

Autophagy - Adaptive Molecular Mechanisms in Condition of Starvation

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 71 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

Autophagy is an extremely old process during which long-lived proteins and cellular organelles are removed by means of lysosomes. Autophagy may be caused by cellular stress mechanisms. Research has proven that autophagy plays a key role in obtaining nutrients and adapting to the conditions of starvation. Owing to this, it takes part in maintaining homeostasis in cytoplasm and cell nucleus. This objective may be achieved through a number of ways. Depending on the manner in which a substrate connects with the lysosome, we can talk about macroautophagy and microautophagy. Additionally, some authors also distinguish a chaperone-mediated autophagy. The article presented below describes molecular mechanisms of each type of autophagy and focuses particularly on macroautophagy, which is the best understood of all the autophagy types.

Keywords

  • autophagy
  • cellular starvation
  • lysosome
  • cell death
7 Articles
Open Access

Factor XII – A Limitation for Divers?

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 7 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

The lack of evidence for the tissue-factor dependent activation of the coagulation system and the release of thrombin on one hand, and a decreased concentration of factor XII after short term air, saturated air and heliox exposures, as well as an increased concentration of the plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP) after short dives indicate that diving and decompression possibly affect fibrinolysis. The aim of our research was to verify the assumption that diving and decompression activate the system of fibrinolysis and the clarification of the pathomechanism of this activation.

The study involved 50 healthy volunteers who were subjected to short-term, air hyperbaric exposures at 400 kPa and 700 kPa, which correspond to 30m and 60m dives. Decompression was applied in accordance with Naval tables of decompression. Before hyperbaric exposition and after decompression the following factors were determined: activity of factor XII, concentration and activity of t-PA, concentration and activity of PAI-1, concentration of alpha2- antiplasmin, concentration of PAP, concentration of neutrophil elastase.

The following observations have been made: a statistically significant increase in the factor XII activity, increase in the PAP complex concentration and a simultaneous significant decline in the α2-AP activity. No measurable t-PA activity or significant changes in t-PA concentration have been observed. In addition, a statistically significant decline in both the activity and concentration of PAI-1 has been observed, which was more pronounced after the expositions that corresponded to 60 m dives. The concentrations of granulocyte elastase did not differ significantly before and after decompression.

Conclusions: People qualified for diving should have the following risk factors examined: risk factors of increased fibrynolytic activity - haemostasis abnormalities that increase the risk of haemorrhage, possibility of parietal blood clots/thrombi.

Keywords

  • diving
  • hyperbaric oxygenation
  • decompression
  • fibrinolysis
  • factor XII
Open Access

Vibration Characteristics of Reciprocating Air Compressors Used For Hyperbaric Purposes

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 17 - 25

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents problems related to the diagnostics of vibrations in reciprocating compressors driven by motors of less than 100 kW. None of the currently applicable norms concerning the issues of vibration diagnostics broach this subject, and therefore diagnosticians have no reference levels for measured vibration parameters. The present paper focuses on two types of compressors intended for diving purposes and hyperbaric techniques. The paper contains a suggested course of actions at the time of taking measurements. Further suggestions for developing coherent procedures as regards the diagnostics of reciprocating compressors of less than 100 kW have been indicated.

Keywords

  • Reciprocating compressors
  • vibration diagnostics
Open Access

Methodology of Selecting Strategies for Underwater Exploration Conducted for the Purposes of Litigation – Places and Conditions for the Exploration

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 29 - 31

Abstract

Abstract

This is the first publication from a series of articles devoted to the issues of underwater exploration carried out for litigation purposes. The present paper suggests that an exploration strategy should be defined as: all actions that aim at creating and implementing a plan of exploration, conducted with the application of a defined exploration methodology - here understood to refer to the technical way the task is completed. Such an approach is taken in order to ensure the most adequate involvement of means and resources for the plan’s implementation. Since the choice of strategy affects many aspects that range from the technical to the environmental, this first part focuses on the location of the exploration and the anticipated conditions.

Keywords

  • underwater technology
  • underwater prospecting
  • marine engineering
Open Access

Triangular 3D Laser Scanning in Underwater Photogrammetry

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 35 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

The use of triangular 3D laser scanning may significantly enhance the visual inspection of underwater objects. In these days of high demand for accurate information, exclusively photographic documentation is not enough, as it is geometrically flawed.

The authors of this article are trying to present the rudiments of laser scanning, a modern means of measuring, which is reliable, relatively easy to use and works in accordance with basic good measurement practices. With the use of a laser beam, a point model of the measured object is generated with a resolution that is adapted to the requirements. A well performed scan will cover the entire surface of the measured object with no information gaps, as is often the case with photographic documentation which focuses solely on key details. Photographic documentation is now already being replaced by Structure from Motion technology, the latter being an alternative to laser scanning, which creates a textured 3D model from the collection of photographs of the object with similar accuracy, but with more time required.

Keywords

  • laser scanning
  • underwater imaging
  • underwater visual inspection
Open Access

Biomonitoring of Inland and Inshore Waters with Use of Dreissena Polymorpha Mussels

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 49 - 53

Abstract

Abstract

The pollution of water that is used for consumption and in agricultural holdings contributes to an increased mortality rate, inhibition of growth and physiological functions, changes in the DNA (genotoxicity), changes within tissues (cytotoxicity) and organs of individuals who are exposed to chemical components. One of the most dangerous toxin classes which have effect on animals and humans who come into contact with contaminated water is the class of cyanobacterial toxins released by dying cyanobacteria. They contribute to very serious health conditions and also to fatalities. Toxins of this type are relatively difficult to detect on account of their seasonal changeability in blooming. One of the most effective methods of detecting water contamination automatically and continuously is biomonitoring with the use of Dreissena polymorpha mussels.

Keywords

  • biomonitoring
  • mussels
  • Dreissena polymorpha
  • cyanobacterial toxins
  • biogenic elements
  • eutrophication
Open Access

The Analysis the Emergency Protection of Water Reservoirs in Olsztyn

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 59 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

Within the administrative boundaries of Olsztyn, there are 16 lakes and several artificial swimming facilities. They provide attractive conditions for water recreation and water sports. But are these conditions completely safe?

The aim of the study is to get familiar with the safety conditions of water reservoirs in Olsztyn in terms of opportunities for water recreation. In order to solve the addressed problem, the analysis of source materials has been performed, the field research has been conducted and the survey has been applied.

The outcome of the research includes the description of the recreational value of these water reservoirs, the identification of potential threats (internal and external) and the evaluation of logistic and emergency protection.

Keywords

  • olsztyn reservoirs
  • water recreation
  • water rescue services
Open Access

Autophagy - Adaptive Molecular Mechanisms in Condition of Starvation

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 71 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

Autophagy is an extremely old process during which long-lived proteins and cellular organelles are removed by means of lysosomes. Autophagy may be caused by cellular stress mechanisms. Research has proven that autophagy plays a key role in obtaining nutrients and adapting to the conditions of starvation. Owing to this, it takes part in maintaining homeostasis in cytoplasm and cell nucleus. This objective may be achieved through a number of ways. Depending on the manner in which a substrate connects with the lysosome, we can talk about macroautophagy and microautophagy. Additionally, some authors also distinguish a chaperone-mediated autophagy. The article presented below describes molecular mechanisms of each type of autophagy and focuses particularly on macroautophagy, which is the best understood of all the autophagy types.

Keywords

  • autophagy
  • cellular starvation
  • lysosome
  • cell death

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