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Volume 76 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 75 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

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Volume 73 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 72 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 71 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 70 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 68 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 67 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 66 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 65 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 63 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Volume 61 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 60 (2017): Issue 3 (October 2017)

Volume 59 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Volume 57 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 56 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 55 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 54 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 53 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 52 (2015): Issue 3 (December 2015)

Volume 51 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 50 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-0535
First Published
30 Mar 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 53 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2084-0535
First Published
30 Mar 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

7 Articles
Open Access

Stress – an underestimated hazard in water sports

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

Strong wind, low temperature, intense current and poor visibility under water are the most common stress inducing factors in individuals practising water sports. Stress is a state of agitation, which can be caused both by external and internal factors. Its objective is to mobilise one’s physical and psychological capabilities, thus it is a favourable reaction especially in crisis situations when such full mobilisation enables one to cope. Psychological stress is usually evoked by the occurrence of an atypical situation, exceeding one’s handling capacity. It can be induced by seeing real or imagined danger in the surroundings, as well as by external pressure related to a task interpreted as too difficult or exceeding one’s capabilities. Internal pressure appears when a person feels insecure in a given situation, when they cannot solve a problem or they feel discomfort due to their inability to meet the expectations of others, for instance, to perform a particular dive, or because of the money spent on this purpose or the invested time. Physical stress is usually an organism’s response to the environmental impacts. This article presents and discusses factors which have an effect on stress intensification, as well as providing a characterisation of selected psychological and medical theories of stress.

Keywords

  • psychological stress
  • physical stress
  • water sports
  • diving
  • positive emotion
  • stress
  • panic
  • stressor
  • distress
  • eustress
Open Access

The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the nervous system. Systematic review

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is found among the interests of researchers who seek new methods of treatment of diseases of the nervous system. An increase of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood within the appropriate range leads to numerous changes in the cells of the brain tissue. In this paper we analyse the results of selected articles describing HBOT used on pathologies of the nervous system such as stroke, autism, multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy as well as in the course of research on animal models. The results are promising, although some studies struggled with numerous methodological problems and differences in the applied protocols, which resulted in conflicting results in individual interventions. In consequence, the need for further studies in randomised control trials and determination of the protocol by an international group of researchers dedicated to the use of HBOT was emphasised.

Keywords

  • cognitive functioning
  • hyperbaric chamber
  • brain
  • hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Open Access

Pulmonary barotrauma in divers vs procedures initiated by emergency medical personel

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: Pulmonary barotrauma consists in the damage of pulmonary tissues resulting from pressure differences in the body and the surroundings. Barotrauma may occur during diver's ascent with a held breath.

Objective: Presentation of symptoms in divers performing dives at shallow depths. A detailed description of pulmonary barotrauma as a direct hazard to life. Rescue procedure in the case of an occurrence of pulmonary barotrauma, methods of prevention.

Abridged description of the state of knowledge: Proper equipment preparation, systematic diving training, as well as systematic medical control aimed at conducting medical examinations with regard to staying under water, all constitute primary preventive measures. At the moment of an occurrence of pulmonary barotrauma in a diver it is necessary to perform first aid activities by qualified medical personnel and arrange for a quick transportation to the nearest hyperbaric centre.

Summary: Commonly, pulmonary barotrauma concerns individuals diving at depths up to 10 metres. Pulmonary barotrauma is a state of danger to one's health and life. Proper procedures at the scene of an accident as well as quick transportation to a hyperbaric chamber increase the chance of one's recovery and may constitute the necessary condition during rescue activities.

Keywords

  • pulmonary barotrauma
  • medical rescuer
  • arterial gas embolism (AGE)
  • hyperbaric treatment
Open Access

Analysis of the risk of diving accidents in military and recreational diving

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The most common question that arose in the course of the analysis of the data concerned with the number of diving accidents in recreational diving as compared with the authors’ own experiences working with military divers was why the number of accidents in recreational diving is substantially higher than that obtained in military diving. The comparison of factors having a direct effect on diving safety, the scope of depths reached, the manner of conducting decompression and divers’ problems reported after diving completion allow to explain the reasons behind the common incidents occurring among recreational divers. The factors which had a very significant impact on safety level included diving frequency, adaptation to higher pressure conditions and overestimation of one’s skills in undertaking challenges.

Keywords

  • military diving
  • recreational diving
  • diving computers
  • diving accident
Open Access

Effectiveness evaluation of sources of supply and systems filter in production process of breathing air

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The determination of how efficiently filtration systems used for the production of breathing air used in hyperbaric environments are operating is significant both from theoretical and practical points of view. The quality of breathing air and the breathing mixes based on air is crucial with regard to divers' safety. Paradoxically, a change in regulations regarding quality requirements for breathing mixes has imposed the necessity to verify both the technical equipment and laboratory procedures used in their production and verification. The following material, which is a continuation of previous publications, presents results of the conducted research along with the evaluation of effectiveness of the filtration systems used by the Polish Navy.

Keywords

  • underwater works technology
  • marine engineering
  • diving gases
Open Access

The effect of high pressures on the radiological image of the maxillary sinuses in divers

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The study was performed on 38 divers of the navy. The research consisted in an analysis of RTG images of paranasal sinuses performed during control examinations. The authors compared sinus aeration in particular tests and calculated planimetric indices. It was concluded that an exposure to pressure fluctuations caused changes in the image and aeration of maxillary sinuses, which however did not have an effect on the diving capabilities of the tested group. Moreover, it was revealed that in a certain group of the subjects an exposure to hyperbaric conditions did not manifest any detectable lesions in maxillary sinuses.

Keywords

  • diving
  • mucous membrane barotrauma
  • sinus barotrauma
Open Access

Sick boat syndrome

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

Many pathogenic micro-organisms are likely to attack passengers of cruise ships and other vessels or travel between continents as a peculiar type of a “stowaway”. The epidemiological tests conducted since 1987 with regard to watercraft led to the coining of a term known as the Sick Boat Syndrome (SBS). The main illnesses encountered on watercraft include gastrointestinal diseases (foodborne) and Legionellosis. Additionally, the ventilation and airconditioning systems of old commercial ships (the so-called Tramps) constitute a real technical challenge. Conditioned air (with removed undesired odour and micro-organisms) should constitute ca. 25% of circulating air. In practice this situation is not typical for vessels of this class. Unclean air poses a real hazard for the crew.

Keywords

  • Gastrointestinal diseases
  • Norwalk virus
  • Legionella
  • Sick Boat Syndrome
7 Articles
Open Access

Stress – an underestimated hazard in water sports

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

Strong wind, low temperature, intense current and poor visibility under water are the most common stress inducing factors in individuals practising water sports. Stress is a state of agitation, which can be caused both by external and internal factors. Its objective is to mobilise one’s physical and psychological capabilities, thus it is a favourable reaction especially in crisis situations when such full mobilisation enables one to cope. Psychological stress is usually evoked by the occurrence of an atypical situation, exceeding one’s handling capacity. It can be induced by seeing real or imagined danger in the surroundings, as well as by external pressure related to a task interpreted as too difficult or exceeding one’s capabilities. Internal pressure appears when a person feels insecure in a given situation, when they cannot solve a problem or they feel discomfort due to their inability to meet the expectations of others, for instance, to perform a particular dive, or because of the money spent on this purpose or the invested time. Physical stress is usually an organism’s response to the environmental impacts. This article presents and discusses factors which have an effect on stress intensification, as well as providing a characterisation of selected psychological and medical theories of stress.

Keywords

  • psychological stress
  • physical stress
  • water sports
  • diving
  • positive emotion
  • stress
  • panic
  • stressor
  • distress
  • eustress
Open Access

The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the nervous system. Systematic review

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is found among the interests of researchers who seek new methods of treatment of diseases of the nervous system. An increase of the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood within the appropriate range leads to numerous changes in the cells of the brain tissue. In this paper we analyse the results of selected articles describing HBOT used on pathologies of the nervous system such as stroke, autism, multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy as well as in the course of research on animal models. The results are promising, although some studies struggled with numerous methodological problems and differences in the applied protocols, which resulted in conflicting results in individual interventions. In consequence, the need for further studies in randomised control trials and determination of the protocol by an international group of researchers dedicated to the use of HBOT was emphasised.

Keywords

  • cognitive functioning
  • hyperbaric chamber
  • brain
  • hyperbaric oxygen therapy
Open Access

Pulmonary barotrauma in divers vs procedures initiated by emergency medical personel

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction: Pulmonary barotrauma consists in the damage of pulmonary tissues resulting from pressure differences in the body and the surroundings. Barotrauma may occur during diver's ascent with a held breath.

Objective: Presentation of symptoms in divers performing dives at shallow depths. A detailed description of pulmonary barotrauma as a direct hazard to life. Rescue procedure in the case of an occurrence of pulmonary barotrauma, methods of prevention.

Abridged description of the state of knowledge: Proper equipment preparation, systematic diving training, as well as systematic medical control aimed at conducting medical examinations with regard to staying under water, all constitute primary preventive measures. At the moment of an occurrence of pulmonary barotrauma in a diver it is necessary to perform first aid activities by qualified medical personnel and arrange for a quick transportation to the nearest hyperbaric centre.

Summary: Commonly, pulmonary barotrauma concerns individuals diving at depths up to 10 metres. Pulmonary barotrauma is a state of danger to one's health and life. Proper procedures at the scene of an accident as well as quick transportation to a hyperbaric chamber increase the chance of one's recovery and may constitute the necessary condition during rescue activities.

Keywords

  • pulmonary barotrauma
  • medical rescuer
  • arterial gas embolism (AGE)
  • hyperbaric treatment
Open Access

Analysis of the risk of diving accidents in military and recreational diving

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The most common question that arose in the course of the analysis of the data concerned with the number of diving accidents in recreational diving as compared with the authors’ own experiences working with military divers was why the number of accidents in recreational diving is substantially higher than that obtained in military diving. The comparison of factors having a direct effect on diving safety, the scope of depths reached, the manner of conducting decompression and divers’ problems reported after diving completion allow to explain the reasons behind the common incidents occurring among recreational divers. The factors which had a very significant impact on safety level included diving frequency, adaptation to higher pressure conditions and overestimation of one’s skills in undertaking challenges.

Keywords

  • military diving
  • recreational diving
  • diving computers
  • diving accident
Open Access

Effectiveness evaluation of sources of supply and systems filter in production process of breathing air

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The determination of how efficiently filtration systems used for the production of breathing air used in hyperbaric environments are operating is significant both from theoretical and practical points of view. The quality of breathing air and the breathing mixes based on air is crucial with regard to divers' safety. Paradoxically, a change in regulations regarding quality requirements for breathing mixes has imposed the necessity to verify both the technical equipment and laboratory procedures used in their production and verification. The following material, which is a continuation of previous publications, presents results of the conducted research along with the evaluation of effectiveness of the filtration systems used by the Polish Navy.

Keywords

  • underwater works technology
  • marine engineering
  • diving gases
Open Access

The effect of high pressures on the radiological image of the maxillary sinuses in divers

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The study was performed on 38 divers of the navy. The research consisted in an analysis of RTG images of paranasal sinuses performed during control examinations. The authors compared sinus aeration in particular tests and calculated planimetric indices. It was concluded that an exposure to pressure fluctuations caused changes in the image and aeration of maxillary sinuses, which however did not have an effect on the diving capabilities of the tested group. Moreover, it was revealed that in a certain group of the subjects an exposure to hyperbaric conditions did not manifest any detectable lesions in maxillary sinuses.

Keywords

  • diving
  • mucous membrane barotrauma
  • sinus barotrauma
Open Access

Sick boat syndrome

Published Online: 14 Mar 2016
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

Many pathogenic micro-organisms are likely to attack passengers of cruise ships and other vessels or travel between continents as a peculiar type of a “stowaway”. The epidemiological tests conducted since 1987 with regard to watercraft led to the coining of a term known as the Sick Boat Syndrome (SBS). The main illnesses encountered on watercraft include gastrointestinal diseases (foodborne) and Legionellosis. Additionally, the ventilation and airconditioning systems of old commercial ships (the so-called Tramps) constitute a real technical challenge. Conditioned air (with removed undesired odour and micro-organisms) should constitute ca. 25% of circulating air. In practice this situation is not typical for vessels of this class. Unclean air poses a real hazard for the crew.

Keywords

  • Gastrointestinal diseases
  • Norwalk virus
  • Legionella
  • Sick Boat Syndrome

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