Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 20 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 19 (2013): Issue 2013 (December 2013)

Volume 18 (2012): Issue 2012 (January 2012)

Volume 17 (2011): Issue 2011 (January 2011)

Volume 16 (2010): Issue 2010 (January 2010)

Volume 15 (2009): Issue 2009 (January 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8717
ISSN
1232-8855
First Published
25 Jan 2010
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 15 (2009): Issue 2009 (January 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8717
ISSN
1232-8855
First Published
25 Jan 2010
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles
Open Access

Polish Migrating - from Globetrotting to See-sawing

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 5 - 22

Abstract

Polish Migrating - from Globetrotting to See-sawing

Polish rural migrations are a permanent phenomenon with specific features. They are a temporary yet indefinite type of departure from the social and topographic ‘peripheries’ to similar ‘peripheries’ of the receiving country, a group rather than an individual process of nominating migrants, their mutual movement to a chosen country and staying in ethnic cliques ("ghettoes"), finally the lack of a clear innovative effect and even the stagnation and retraditionalism of the environment they return to. These phenomena were described in detail by Polish rural sociologists during the inter-war years and current research confirms the constancy of the pattern established at that time. The similar behaviour of migrants and social consequences of toing and froing to earn money suggest the constancy of their conditions (particularly the peripheral situation of Poland in Europe and the dual development of Polish society and economy).

Keywords

  • Polish migrating
  • the family-neighbourly pattern
  • the family-parish pattern
  • stagnation
  • re-traditionalism
  • costs of migrating
Open Access

Public Perceptions of Population Changes in Hungary

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 23 - 36

Abstract

Public Perceptions of Population Changes in Hungary

This study examines the public perceptions of population dynamics in Hungary. Based on a representative national sample survey from 2005, we discuss how the general public perceives demographic trends and attitudes people have towards the possible reasons behind these trends and solutions they believe are appropriate to contend with the trends. Rural populations were expected to have poorer knowledge of current population trends and changes and more conservative attitudes toward controversial demographic issues, but this expectation was not supported by the data. Since relatively little research has been conducted on population literacy, this study contributes to a better understanding of how public perceptions on population are formed and how this knowledge and attitudes may affect public policy addressing demographic trends.

Keywords

  • Population change
  • Hungary
  • demography
  • public opinion
  • population literacy
Open Access

Failure as a Precondition for Success - the Transformation of East German Agriculture Revisited

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 37 - 60

Abstract

Failure as a Precondition for Success - the Transformation of East German Agriculture Revisited

This paper asks why the transformation of the East German agricultural sector did not occur as politically intended: decollectivisation and a change to small family farms did not take place. In order to answer this question the two dominant sociological concepts of transformation, transfer of institutions and delayed modernisation, are first considered. Afterwards the theoretical and methodological approaches and results of socio-agricultural studies are presented. Based on the interpretation of the findings of these studies the main characteristics of the agricultural transformation are identified. The paper ends with the thesis that, as was typical for the German reading of the transformation process was its interpretation within the "order of time". This implied a devaluation and ignorance of whatever was not in line with the concept of modernisation.

Keywords

  • Agricultural transformation
  • institutional transfer
  • delayed modernisation
  • East Germany LPG
  • collectivisation
  • decollectivisation
  • social and functional differentiation
  • order of time
Open Access

Differences in Fertility Behaviour among the Farm, Rural and Urban Populations in Slovenia

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 61 - 74

Abstract

Differences in Fertility Behaviour among the Farm, Rural and Urban Populations in Slovenia

Below replacement fertility in almost all European countries and lowest low fertility in a large part of the continent are significant demographic issues that concern contemporary policy makers and social scientists. Statistical data for Slovenia show that, with the exception of the farm population, all social groups have fertility levels that are below reproduction. This paper attempts to find out which factors are the most accountable for these differences and intends to contribute to broader scientific and public debates about the reasons for very low fertility in the ‘industrialized world’. The results of the analysis based on the survey "Generations and Gender Relationships on Slovenian Farms" (2007) indicate that differences in fertility behaviour among the farm and other parts of the Slovenian population are more related to the structural than cultural characteristics of the people.

Keywords

  • fertility
  • farm/rural/urban population
  • structural/cultural characteristics
  • Slovenia
Open Access

Women's Contribution to Rural Development in Croatia: Roles, Participation and Obstacles

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 75 - 90

Abstract

Women's Contribution to Rural Development in Croatia: Roles, Participation and Obstacles

Unequal access to formal employment, decision-making power and social prestige can lead to vulnerabilities and social exclusion especially in rural areas. Feminist researchers and advocates for women assert that the preservation of agriculture, family farming and diverse rural culture in particular depend on the empowerment and participation of women (Hoff 1992, p. 79). In this paper, I attempt to evaluate rural/farm women's position and the extent of their vulnerability and social exclusion in an area of Slavonia in the eastern part of Croatia. Specifically, I use interview and fieldwork data to identify and elaborate their roles, participation in decision-making, and the obstacles/constraints that rural women face in these rural communities to evaluate the extent of their contribution to rural development. Further, it is my intention to explore if rural women represent an untapped resource in rural spaces that would contribute to rural development and raise the quality of life in these areas.

Keywords

  • rural women
  • development
  • roles
  • participation
  • obstacles
Open Access

The Formation and Destruction of Social Capital - Lessons from East German Rural Restructuring

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 91 - 110

Abstract

The Formation and Destruction of Social Capital - Lessons from East German Rural Restructuring

Twenty years after German unification, rural East Germany still remains in deep economic crisis. The fact that the physical, social and private infrastructure have improved significantly, but with seemingly little effect on the economic performance and negative demographic trends, raises the question of alternative, institutional and social explanations for the current crisis. In this context this paper explores the concept of social capital and its relation to rural development in order to understand the current rural crisis in East Germany. It describes the process of agricultural restructuring after unification and analyses the processes of formation and destruction of different forms of social capital in this process.

It is argued that social capital is connected with particular institutions and activities. In the case of Rural East Germany it was difficult for many actors to draw on network relations, simply because those networks vanished after having lost their meaning, institutional and physical basis. However, the new institutional framework, which has been transferred from the West, does not offer suitable incentives for the formation of other, new forms of social capital that are necessary to overcome the rural crisis.

A generalization from the East German experience is that it is important to identify the base of social capital and thereby its likely durability in times of change. If an economic, social or cultural function is lost, it is likely that social capital related to this function will also be destroyed. However, this also gives room for careful optimism, due to the fact that new economic, social or cultural activities may serve as a basis for new social capital.

Keywords

  • social capital
  • paternalism
  • east germany
  • agricultural employment
  • farm structures
  • agricultural restructuring
  • rural crisis
Open Access

Rural Social Capital versus European and Global Challenges (About "good" and "bad" Social Capital)

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 111 - 126

Abstract

Rural Social Capital versus European and Global Challenges (About "good" and "bad" Social Capital)

This text has two aims - to relate the results of research carried out in IRWiR PAN (Institute for Rural and Agricultural Development Polish Academy of Sciences) on rural social capital and achieve a useful social interpretation of those results referring to the theory of social capital. Social capital is nowadays becoming a very important element in academic and political discourse. It is seen as having the potential for greater efficiency in levelling social differences, improving the opportunities of rural inhabitants. No matter how popular and positive, social capital can be understood in various ways due to its various theoretical sources, it is also possible to point out its negative aspects. This text is an attempt at showing the nuances of how social capital works. The first part presents the basic understanding of the category discussed here. The second part is a presentation of the results of empirical research where interpretation was carried out in the light of earlier outlined concepts.

Keywords

  • social capital
  • rural development potential
  • civic society
Open Access

Local Initiatives Functioning as a Condition of Rural Development of the Czech Countryside

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 127 - 149

Abstract

Local Initiatives Functioning as a Condition of Rural Development of the Czech Countryside

Rural development is closely connected with the development possibilities of residential locations. Broken social ties are projected into its earlier development. The socialist way of life (from the end of the WW II until the end of the eighties) was ideologically formed by collectivist models. Social organisations were highly formalised and controlled from above. Thousands of new social organisations have emerged in the villages and in towns since 1989, mostly involving cultural, sports and social activities. Civil initiatives were slow in winning recognition in rural areas and some types of initiatives are still missing. A new impulse for their progress was the accession of the Czech Republic into the EU in 2004. Information is drawn from the sociological research projects of the Sociological Laboratory, Czech University of Life Sciences.

Keywords

  • Czech countryside
  • rural development
  • civil society
  • local initiatives
8 Articles
Open Access

Polish Migrating - from Globetrotting to See-sawing

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 5 - 22

Abstract

Polish Migrating - from Globetrotting to See-sawing

Polish rural migrations are a permanent phenomenon with specific features. They are a temporary yet indefinite type of departure from the social and topographic ‘peripheries’ to similar ‘peripheries’ of the receiving country, a group rather than an individual process of nominating migrants, their mutual movement to a chosen country and staying in ethnic cliques ("ghettoes"), finally the lack of a clear innovative effect and even the stagnation and retraditionalism of the environment they return to. These phenomena were described in detail by Polish rural sociologists during the inter-war years and current research confirms the constancy of the pattern established at that time. The similar behaviour of migrants and social consequences of toing and froing to earn money suggest the constancy of their conditions (particularly the peripheral situation of Poland in Europe and the dual development of Polish society and economy).

Keywords

  • Polish migrating
  • the family-neighbourly pattern
  • the family-parish pattern
  • stagnation
  • re-traditionalism
  • costs of migrating
Open Access

Public Perceptions of Population Changes in Hungary

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 23 - 36

Abstract

Public Perceptions of Population Changes in Hungary

This study examines the public perceptions of population dynamics in Hungary. Based on a representative national sample survey from 2005, we discuss how the general public perceives demographic trends and attitudes people have towards the possible reasons behind these trends and solutions they believe are appropriate to contend with the trends. Rural populations were expected to have poorer knowledge of current population trends and changes and more conservative attitudes toward controversial demographic issues, but this expectation was not supported by the data. Since relatively little research has been conducted on population literacy, this study contributes to a better understanding of how public perceptions on population are formed and how this knowledge and attitudes may affect public policy addressing demographic trends.

Keywords

  • Population change
  • Hungary
  • demography
  • public opinion
  • population literacy
Open Access

Failure as a Precondition for Success - the Transformation of East German Agriculture Revisited

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 37 - 60

Abstract

Failure as a Precondition for Success - the Transformation of East German Agriculture Revisited

This paper asks why the transformation of the East German agricultural sector did not occur as politically intended: decollectivisation and a change to small family farms did not take place. In order to answer this question the two dominant sociological concepts of transformation, transfer of institutions and delayed modernisation, are first considered. Afterwards the theoretical and methodological approaches and results of socio-agricultural studies are presented. Based on the interpretation of the findings of these studies the main characteristics of the agricultural transformation are identified. The paper ends with the thesis that, as was typical for the German reading of the transformation process was its interpretation within the "order of time". This implied a devaluation and ignorance of whatever was not in line with the concept of modernisation.

Keywords

  • Agricultural transformation
  • institutional transfer
  • delayed modernisation
  • East Germany LPG
  • collectivisation
  • decollectivisation
  • social and functional differentiation
  • order of time
Open Access

Differences in Fertility Behaviour among the Farm, Rural and Urban Populations in Slovenia

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 61 - 74

Abstract

Differences in Fertility Behaviour among the Farm, Rural and Urban Populations in Slovenia

Below replacement fertility in almost all European countries and lowest low fertility in a large part of the continent are significant demographic issues that concern contemporary policy makers and social scientists. Statistical data for Slovenia show that, with the exception of the farm population, all social groups have fertility levels that are below reproduction. This paper attempts to find out which factors are the most accountable for these differences and intends to contribute to broader scientific and public debates about the reasons for very low fertility in the ‘industrialized world’. The results of the analysis based on the survey "Generations and Gender Relationships on Slovenian Farms" (2007) indicate that differences in fertility behaviour among the farm and other parts of the Slovenian population are more related to the structural than cultural characteristics of the people.

Keywords

  • fertility
  • farm/rural/urban population
  • structural/cultural characteristics
  • Slovenia
Open Access

Women's Contribution to Rural Development in Croatia: Roles, Participation and Obstacles

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 75 - 90

Abstract

Women's Contribution to Rural Development in Croatia: Roles, Participation and Obstacles

Unequal access to formal employment, decision-making power and social prestige can lead to vulnerabilities and social exclusion especially in rural areas. Feminist researchers and advocates for women assert that the preservation of agriculture, family farming and diverse rural culture in particular depend on the empowerment and participation of women (Hoff 1992, p. 79). In this paper, I attempt to evaluate rural/farm women's position and the extent of their vulnerability and social exclusion in an area of Slavonia in the eastern part of Croatia. Specifically, I use interview and fieldwork data to identify and elaborate their roles, participation in decision-making, and the obstacles/constraints that rural women face in these rural communities to evaluate the extent of their contribution to rural development. Further, it is my intention to explore if rural women represent an untapped resource in rural spaces that would contribute to rural development and raise the quality of life in these areas.

Keywords

  • rural women
  • development
  • roles
  • participation
  • obstacles
Open Access

The Formation and Destruction of Social Capital - Lessons from East German Rural Restructuring

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 91 - 110

Abstract

The Formation and Destruction of Social Capital - Lessons from East German Rural Restructuring

Twenty years after German unification, rural East Germany still remains in deep economic crisis. The fact that the physical, social and private infrastructure have improved significantly, but with seemingly little effect on the economic performance and negative demographic trends, raises the question of alternative, institutional and social explanations for the current crisis. In this context this paper explores the concept of social capital and its relation to rural development in order to understand the current rural crisis in East Germany. It describes the process of agricultural restructuring after unification and analyses the processes of formation and destruction of different forms of social capital in this process.

It is argued that social capital is connected with particular institutions and activities. In the case of Rural East Germany it was difficult for many actors to draw on network relations, simply because those networks vanished after having lost their meaning, institutional and physical basis. However, the new institutional framework, which has been transferred from the West, does not offer suitable incentives for the formation of other, new forms of social capital that are necessary to overcome the rural crisis.

A generalization from the East German experience is that it is important to identify the base of social capital and thereby its likely durability in times of change. If an economic, social or cultural function is lost, it is likely that social capital related to this function will also be destroyed. However, this also gives room for careful optimism, due to the fact that new economic, social or cultural activities may serve as a basis for new social capital.

Keywords

  • social capital
  • paternalism
  • east germany
  • agricultural employment
  • farm structures
  • agricultural restructuring
  • rural crisis
Open Access

Rural Social Capital versus European and Global Challenges (About "good" and "bad" Social Capital)

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 111 - 126

Abstract

Rural Social Capital versus European and Global Challenges (About "good" and "bad" Social Capital)

This text has two aims - to relate the results of research carried out in IRWiR PAN (Institute for Rural and Agricultural Development Polish Academy of Sciences) on rural social capital and achieve a useful social interpretation of those results referring to the theory of social capital. Social capital is nowadays becoming a very important element in academic and political discourse. It is seen as having the potential for greater efficiency in levelling social differences, improving the opportunities of rural inhabitants. No matter how popular and positive, social capital can be understood in various ways due to its various theoretical sources, it is also possible to point out its negative aspects. This text is an attempt at showing the nuances of how social capital works. The first part presents the basic understanding of the category discussed here. The second part is a presentation of the results of empirical research where interpretation was carried out in the light of earlier outlined concepts.

Keywords

  • social capital
  • rural development potential
  • civic society
Open Access

Local Initiatives Functioning as a Condition of Rural Development of the Czech Countryside

Published Online: 25 Jan 2010
Page range: 127 - 149

Abstract

Local Initiatives Functioning as a Condition of Rural Development of the Czech Countryside

Rural development is closely connected with the development possibilities of residential locations. Broken social ties are projected into its earlier development. The socialist way of life (from the end of the WW II until the end of the eighties) was ideologically formed by collectivist models. Social organisations were highly formalised and controlled from above. Thousands of new social organisations have emerged in the villages and in towns since 1989, mostly involving cultural, sports and social activities. Civil initiatives were slow in winning recognition in rural areas and some types of initiatives are still missing. A new impulse for their progress was the accession of the Czech Republic into the EU in 2004. Information is drawn from the sociological research projects of the Sociological Laboratory, Czech University of Life Sciences.

Keywords

  • Czech countryside
  • rural development
  • civil society
  • local initiatives

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo