Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 20 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 19 (2013): Issue 2013 (December 2013)

Volume 18 (2012): Issue 2012 (January 2012)

Volume 17 (2011): Issue 2011 (January 2011)

Volume 16 (2010): Issue 2010 (January 2010)

Volume 15 (2009): Issue 2009 (January 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8717
First Published
25 Jan 2010
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8717
First Published
25 Jan 2010
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

11 Articles
Open Access

Spatial mobility as a carrier of cultural capital: an analysis based on a longitudinal study of generations

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 7 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

For many years international migrations have been the primary focus of spatial mobility research, whereas internal migrations – occurring within one state – have aroused significantly less interest. However, the latter are not only an important complement to the former, but they also seem to have a much greater impact on the domestic affairs of the state. For example, internal migrations engage the resources (intellectual, cultural, social) of much wider cohorts of people who therefore become, with varying degrees of significance, agents of social changes. This article presents an analysis of the spatial mobility of two generations monitored during a 45-year-long longitudinal research project. Its broad time perspective makes it possible to analyse not only the net changes with regard to the place of residence, a typical focus of migration studies, but also gross changes (migration flows). The aim of this article is to determine the scale and the social embeddedness of the migration flows in both generations.

It is assumed that, due to differences in generational biographies and resources, as well as changes in the quality of life in rural areas compared to urban areas, migrations in both generations, even though occurring at the same stages of life, are different. As a result, the resources contributed by migrants to their new places of residence also carry a different quality.

Keywords

  • spatial mobility
  • internal migrations
  • longitudinal studies
  • generations
Open Access

A possible new direction for employment strategies in rural areas: theoretical foundation for the assessment of employability

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 37 - 63

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring an important segment of labour economics, namely the spatial structure of employability, especially for disadvantaged groups and regions. Based on secondary sources, it summarises the main factors of employability, providing a starting point for researchers working on the econometric branch of social sciences to develop an employability index using this conceptual background. The base of the primary research is the complex questionnaire survey administered to a group of the most disadvantaged job seekers. The study evaluates the factors hindering the employability of human resources that can be activated in the most disadvantaged districts. The research results are useful for those who are interested in increasing employment and reducing the impact of employability-limiting factors.

Keywords

  • employability
  • labour market
  • disadvantaged groups
  • rural
  • Hungary
Open Access

On Financial Bubbles and Earthworms: Lessons from Hungary’s Rural Pyramid during its Economic Transition

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 65 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

In the early 1990s, Former Eastern Bloc countries, including Hungary, experienced a broad transition from centrally-planned economies, managed by party-state bureaucracies, to privatised economies. Throughout the market liberalisation process, the Hungarian market embraced entrepreneurship as a mechanism for generating both private wealth and economic growth, despite a lack of experience and know-how in business management and financial education, made largely unavailable by the communist regime for more than 40 years. On these grounds, several Eastern European countries experienced the rise of Ponzi schemes. The Hungarian earthworm pyramid can serve as an interesting example of the financial pyramids that evolved during the transition of economies. However, some of the characteristics of the Hungarian earthworm pyramid suggest that it was a rather unique case when compared to other Eastern European pyramids during the economic transition period of post-communist nations. Our study concludes that, under different political and economic circumstances, the Hungarian bio-humus production by earthworms could potentially become a profitable venture, rather than a source for financial and societal damages.

Keywords

  • Hungary
  • financial pyramids
  • Ponzi scheme
  • transition economy
  • earthworms
Open Access

Efficiency of using individual biogas digesters for processing biowaste of rural households in Ukraine

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 89 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

Biogas production is a promising area for the development of alternative energy sources in Ukraine and in the world. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibilities of implementing individual biogas digesters in rural households in Ukraine and to determine the energy, economic and environmental benefits of biogas production from organic waste. As part of the study, an analysis of the main characteristics of households in Ukraine was carried out and the prerequisites for organising biogas production by households were determined. Household incomes were analysed, and it was determined that the costs of housing and communal services tend to grow. It was determined that the price of natural gas for the population over the past years has increased by almost 10 times, and thus replacing natural gas with biogas becomes especially relevant. The positive economic and environmental factors of using individual biogas plants in rural areas were characterised, and the theoretically possible potential of biogas production from household waste in Ukraine was calculated. Following this, a number of government measures to promote the proliferation of individual biogas plants were proposed. The economic benefits from the use of biogas were determined, including energy autonomy, the possibility of using organic fertilisers, and additional profit from the sale of surplus products. The ecological effect of using individual biogas plants will include the possibility of recycling organic waste and waste water, thus improving the hygiene situation for individual users.

Individual biogas digesters constitute a promising direction in Ukraine in terms of energy (production of biogas) and ecological areas (household waste management and production of organic fertilisers). At present, the sector of individual biogas production from biowaste is not widely spread in Ukraine, due to the lack of state support and insufficient awareness among rural residents about the benefits of biogas technology. In this research we determined the economic efficiency of the construction and operation of an individual biogas plant. Considering the average price of natural gas in Ukraine (229.9 USD per 1000 m3), the use of a biogas plant would save 144.1 USD annually on the purchase of natural gas. Given that the cost of building an individual biogas digester is 825.6 USD, its payback period would be 4.7 years.

Keywords

  • renewable energy
  • biogas
  • individual biogas plants
  • anaerobic digestion
  • efficiency
  • households
  • biowaste
  • rural areas
  • efficiency
Open Access

Green Care in Poland. Essence, limitations and development opportunities with the kujawsko-pomorskie province as an example

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 113 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

An ageing society has triggered the development of new intervention mechanisms and the engagement of both state and non-governmental institutions. It can be said that, for each group of persons, place-of-residence and social-structure-specific social security models must be designed. In Poland, such innovative actions include the initiative of launching care farms, known as green care. This article presents the results of the current study and observations of the operation of such farms in the kujawsko-pomorskie province. The study mostly involved the use of qualitative methods: interviews with carers, a covert participant observation and the analysis of the opinions of the psychologist coordinating the care farm therapy. The study shows that the idea of green care is quite easily implemented in the rural areas of Poland, with plenty of potential clients and farms which, with sometimes inconsiderable investment inputs, can be adapted to welcome that specific group of guests. However, one must note many barriers, especially a lack of permanent sources of green care financing, in many places a profound distrust of the local community for changes and innovations, and uncertainty regarding the continued care prospect, which can result in an even greater social withdrawal of the clients and an abandoning of the efforts by the carers and farm owners for a further operation to be continued.

Keywords

  • green care
  • care farming
  • social exclusion
Open Access

Investigation of conceptual networks related to climate change among inhabitants: A case study in Eastern Hungarian settlements with word association method

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 147 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, the word association method was applied in relation to municipalities in Eastern Hungary (Hajdú-Bihar county), where the Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan (SECAP) already exists, and where the SECAP has not yet been introduced. In addition to the six municipalities examined, Debrecen, a county seat with the SECAP, was also included in the survey. The aim was to explore the conceptual networks related to climate change and the strength of the relationship between the stimulus word and the associated concepts. The associations representing a common meaning were categorised. The results show that the distribution of conceptual networks and that of categories related to climate change exhibit a similar picture in the group of municipalities with (3 villages) and without the SECAP (3 villages), although significant differences were found when the settlements were examined separately (7 municipalities). Studying the distribution of categories by demographic groups, it was found that educational attainment determines, to the greatest extent, the answers.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • questionnaire survey
  • conceptual network
  • word associations
  • SECAP
  • Hajdú-Bihar County
  • demography
  • educational level
Open Access

Disrupted Market Relations in Agriculture in North Macedonia: the COVID-19 Crisis

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 179 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

The COVID-19 crisis has stressed the importance of, and need for, a stable and functional food system, able to provide consumers with a continuous supply of quality food at affordable prices. The pandemic has also highlighted the role of agricultural producers in the food supply chain, with small farmers being the most vulnerable category. This global crisis has actually deepened the problems faced by farmers, especially those on the verge of sustainability. The purpose of this analysis was to provide an overview of the disrupted links in agriculture, as a result of the initial COVID-19 crisis. A survey was carried out with 91 farmers in North Macedonia. Moreover, in-depth interviews were conducted with selected traders and processors. In general, farmers assessed that the crisis negatively affected their economic operations. The critical parts of the supply chain derive from the disrupted link between farmers and traders/processors, lack of field technical support resulting from the mobility restrictions, uncertainty in cooperation, lower production quantities, and varying quality of the agricultural products. Availability and cost of seasonal workforce was also pronounced as an issue. The dominant family farms small-scale structure and lack of aggregation in the sector challenged the resilience and effective response to the crisis. From buyers’ and processors’ perspective, the crisis effect was marked through the disrupted communication with farmers, low awareness of the need for change, and drastic decline in the HORECA channel sales. The agricultural and rural policy is designed to address measures adjusted to the needs of the key actors in the sector. The priority set of measures should support the food supply chain, enhancing farmers’ networking and aggregation, and on-farm and off-farm diversification, along with improved communication, information systems and digitalisation. Improving productivity and competitiveness remains an effective strategy for sustainable operations, greater resilience and risk adaptation in crises such as the pandemic.

Keywords

  • agri-food supply chains
  • COVID-19
  • market distortions
  • North Macedonia
Open Access

Possibilities for paranormal tourism development in Serbia

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 203 - 233

Abstract

Abstract

This paper aims to identify possibilities for paranormal tourism development in Serbia and to determine domestic tourists’ interest in participating in paranormal tourism. Paranormal places and bizarre rituals have been defined as potential paranormal tourism localities and events. Paranormal tourism is one of the new forms of special interest tourism. It is evident that paranormal tourism is a result of the expansion of other related types of tourism, such as dark tourism, ghost tourism, spiritual tourism, cultural tourism, ethnological tourism, new age tourism and pilgrimage tourism. It is defined by tourists’ interest in topics which challenge realist ontologies and representational epistemologies. The present study examines responses from 405 Serbia residents (potential tourists). After using descriptive statistics, Independent Samples T-Test and ANOVA, the study finds that potential tourists are interested in visiting certain paranormal places, and there is a possibility to develop this type of tourism in Serbia. The current work is the first study of paranormal tourism in Serbia and one of the few studies in the world.

Keywords

  • paranormal tourism
  • tourism development
  • possibility for tourism
  • domestic tourists’ perception
  • tourists’ attitudes
  • Serbia
Open Access

In search of inspiration: Pioneers and promoters of rural sociology

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 235 - 246

Abstract

Abstract

This article refers to Gerd Vonderach’s publications showing the relevance of discovering and (re)using the existing output of the social sciences. With reference to the terms Pioniere and Ideengeber, this paper introduces selected classic figures of the social sciences in German-speaking countries and the discussions and controversies that have arisen in the course of analysing their work.

Keywords

  • rural sociology
  • classics of rural sociology in German-speaking countries
  • institutionalisation of rural sociology and agriculture
  • rural social research
Open Access

Between autonomy and submission

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 247 - 253

Abstract

Open Access

Think locally, act globally: Polish farmers in the global era of sustainability and resilience

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 255 - 258

Abstract

11 Articles
Open Access

Spatial mobility as a carrier of cultural capital: an analysis based on a longitudinal study of generations

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 7 - 36

Abstract

Abstract

For many years international migrations have been the primary focus of spatial mobility research, whereas internal migrations – occurring within one state – have aroused significantly less interest. However, the latter are not only an important complement to the former, but they also seem to have a much greater impact on the domestic affairs of the state. For example, internal migrations engage the resources (intellectual, cultural, social) of much wider cohorts of people who therefore become, with varying degrees of significance, agents of social changes. This article presents an analysis of the spatial mobility of two generations monitored during a 45-year-long longitudinal research project. Its broad time perspective makes it possible to analyse not only the net changes with regard to the place of residence, a typical focus of migration studies, but also gross changes (migration flows). The aim of this article is to determine the scale and the social embeddedness of the migration flows in both generations.

It is assumed that, due to differences in generational biographies and resources, as well as changes in the quality of life in rural areas compared to urban areas, migrations in both generations, even though occurring at the same stages of life, are different. As a result, the resources contributed by migrants to their new places of residence also carry a different quality.

Keywords

  • spatial mobility
  • internal migrations
  • longitudinal studies
  • generations
Open Access

A possible new direction for employment strategies in rural areas: theoretical foundation for the assessment of employability

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 37 - 63

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring an important segment of labour economics, namely the spatial structure of employability, especially for disadvantaged groups and regions. Based on secondary sources, it summarises the main factors of employability, providing a starting point for researchers working on the econometric branch of social sciences to develop an employability index using this conceptual background. The base of the primary research is the complex questionnaire survey administered to a group of the most disadvantaged job seekers. The study evaluates the factors hindering the employability of human resources that can be activated in the most disadvantaged districts. The research results are useful for those who are interested in increasing employment and reducing the impact of employability-limiting factors.

Keywords

  • employability
  • labour market
  • disadvantaged groups
  • rural
  • Hungary
Open Access

On Financial Bubbles and Earthworms: Lessons from Hungary’s Rural Pyramid during its Economic Transition

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 65 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

In the early 1990s, Former Eastern Bloc countries, including Hungary, experienced a broad transition from centrally-planned economies, managed by party-state bureaucracies, to privatised economies. Throughout the market liberalisation process, the Hungarian market embraced entrepreneurship as a mechanism for generating both private wealth and economic growth, despite a lack of experience and know-how in business management and financial education, made largely unavailable by the communist regime for more than 40 years. On these grounds, several Eastern European countries experienced the rise of Ponzi schemes. The Hungarian earthworm pyramid can serve as an interesting example of the financial pyramids that evolved during the transition of economies. However, some of the characteristics of the Hungarian earthworm pyramid suggest that it was a rather unique case when compared to other Eastern European pyramids during the economic transition period of post-communist nations. Our study concludes that, under different political and economic circumstances, the Hungarian bio-humus production by earthworms could potentially become a profitable venture, rather than a source for financial and societal damages.

Keywords

  • Hungary
  • financial pyramids
  • Ponzi scheme
  • transition economy
  • earthworms
Open Access

Efficiency of using individual biogas digesters for processing biowaste of rural households in Ukraine

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 89 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

Biogas production is a promising area for the development of alternative energy sources in Ukraine and in the world. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibilities of implementing individual biogas digesters in rural households in Ukraine and to determine the energy, economic and environmental benefits of biogas production from organic waste. As part of the study, an analysis of the main characteristics of households in Ukraine was carried out and the prerequisites for organising biogas production by households were determined. Household incomes were analysed, and it was determined that the costs of housing and communal services tend to grow. It was determined that the price of natural gas for the population over the past years has increased by almost 10 times, and thus replacing natural gas with biogas becomes especially relevant. The positive economic and environmental factors of using individual biogas plants in rural areas were characterised, and the theoretically possible potential of biogas production from household waste in Ukraine was calculated. Following this, a number of government measures to promote the proliferation of individual biogas plants were proposed. The economic benefits from the use of biogas were determined, including energy autonomy, the possibility of using organic fertilisers, and additional profit from the sale of surplus products. The ecological effect of using individual biogas plants will include the possibility of recycling organic waste and waste water, thus improving the hygiene situation for individual users.

Individual biogas digesters constitute a promising direction in Ukraine in terms of energy (production of biogas) and ecological areas (household waste management and production of organic fertilisers). At present, the sector of individual biogas production from biowaste is not widely spread in Ukraine, due to the lack of state support and insufficient awareness among rural residents about the benefits of biogas technology. In this research we determined the economic efficiency of the construction and operation of an individual biogas plant. Considering the average price of natural gas in Ukraine (229.9 USD per 1000 m3), the use of a biogas plant would save 144.1 USD annually on the purchase of natural gas. Given that the cost of building an individual biogas digester is 825.6 USD, its payback period would be 4.7 years.

Keywords

  • renewable energy
  • biogas
  • individual biogas plants
  • anaerobic digestion
  • efficiency
  • households
  • biowaste
  • rural areas
  • efficiency
Open Access

Green Care in Poland. Essence, limitations and development opportunities with the kujawsko-pomorskie province as an example

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 113 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

An ageing society has triggered the development of new intervention mechanisms and the engagement of both state and non-governmental institutions. It can be said that, for each group of persons, place-of-residence and social-structure-specific social security models must be designed. In Poland, such innovative actions include the initiative of launching care farms, known as green care. This article presents the results of the current study and observations of the operation of such farms in the kujawsko-pomorskie province. The study mostly involved the use of qualitative methods: interviews with carers, a covert participant observation and the analysis of the opinions of the psychologist coordinating the care farm therapy. The study shows that the idea of green care is quite easily implemented in the rural areas of Poland, with plenty of potential clients and farms which, with sometimes inconsiderable investment inputs, can be adapted to welcome that specific group of guests. However, one must note many barriers, especially a lack of permanent sources of green care financing, in many places a profound distrust of the local community for changes and innovations, and uncertainty regarding the continued care prospect, which can result in an even greater social withdrawal of the clients and an abandoning of the efforts by the carers and farm owners for a further operation to be continued.

Keywords

  • green care
  • care farming
  • social exclusion
Open Access

Investigation of conceptual networks related to climate change among inhabitants: A case study in Eastern Hungarian settlements with word association method

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 147 - 178

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, the word association method was applied in relation to municipalities in Eastern Hungary (Hajdú-Bihar county), where the Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan (SECAP) already exists, and where the SECAP has not yet been introduced. In addition to the six municipalities examined, Debrecen, a county seat with the SECAP, was also included in the survey. The aim was to explore the conceptual networks related to climate change and the strength of the relationship between the stimulus word and the associated concepts. The associations representing a common meaning were categorised. The results show that the distribution of conceptual networks and that of categories related to climate change exhibit a similar picture in the group of municipalities with (3 villages) and without the SECAP (3 villages), although significant differences were found when the settlements were examined separately (7 municipalities). Studying the distribution of categories by demographic groups, it was found that educational attainment determines, to the greatest extent, the answers.

Keywords

  • climate change
  • questionnaire survey
  • conceptual network
  • word associations
  • SECAP
  • Hajdú-Bihar County
  • demography
  • educational level
Open Access

Disrupted Market Relations in Agriculture in North Macedonia: the COVID-19 Crisis

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 179 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

The COVID-19 crisis has stressed the importance of, and need for, a stable and functional food system, able to provide consumers with a continuous supply of quality food at affordable prices. The pandemic has also highlighted the role of agricultural producers in the food supply chain, with small farmers being the most vulnerable category. This global crisis has actually deepened the problems faced by farmers, especially those on the verge of sustainability. The purpose of this analysis was to provide an overview of the disrupted links in agriculture, as a result of the initial COVID-19 crisis. A survey was carried out with 91 farmers in North Macedonia. Moreover, in-depth interviews were conducted with selected traders and processors. In general, farmers assessed that the crisis negatively affected their economic operations. The critical parts of the supply chain derive from the disrupted link between farmers and traders/processors, lack of field technical support resulting from the mobility restrictions, uncertainty in cooperation, lower production quantities, and varying quality of the agricultural products. Availability and cost of seasonal workforce was also pronounced as an issue. The dominant family farms small-scale structure and lack of aggregation in the sector challenged the resilience and effective response to the crisis. From buyers’ and processors’ perspective, the crisis effect was marked through the disrupted communication with farmers, low awareness of the need for change, and drastic decline in the HORECA channel sales. The agricultural and rural policy is designed to address measures adjusted to the needs of the key actors in the sector. The priority set of measures should support the food supply chain, enhancing farmers’ networking and aggregation, and on-farm and off-farm diversification, along with improved communication, information systems and digitalisation. Improving productivity and competitiveness remains an effective strategy for sustainable operations, greater resilience and risk adaptation in crises such as the pandemic.

Keywords

  • agri-food supply chains
  • COVID-19
  • market distortions
  • North Macedonia
Open Access

Possibilities for paranormal tourism development in Serbia

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 203 - 233

Abstract

Abstract

This paper aims to identify possibilities for paranormal tourism development in Serbia and to determine domestic tourists’ interest in participating in paranormal tourism. Paranormal places and bizarre rituals have been defined as potential paranormal tourism localities and events. Paranormal tourism is one of the new forms of special interest tourism. It is evident that paranormal tourism is a result of the expansion of other related types of tourism, such as dark tourism, ghost tourism, spiritual tourism, cultural tourism, ethnological tourism, new age tourism and pilgrimage tourism. It is defined by tourists’ interest in topics which challenge realist ontologies and representational epistemologies. The present study examines responses from 405 Serbia residents (potential tourists). After using descriptive statistics, Independent Samples T-Test and ANOVA, the study finds that potential tourists are interested in visiting certain paranormal places, and there is a possibility to develop this type of tourism in Serbia. The current work is the first study of paranormal tourism in Serbia and one of the few studies in the world.

Keywords

  • paranormal tourism
  • tourism development
  • possibility for tourism
  • domestic tourists’ perception
  • tourists’ attitudes
  • Serbia
Open Access

In search of inspiration: Pioneers and promoters of rural sociology

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 235 - 246

Abstract

Abstract

This article refers to Gerd Vonderach’s publications showing the relevance of discovering and (re)using the existing output of the social sciences. With reference to the terms Pioniere and Ideengeber, this paper introduces selected classic figures of the social sciences in German-speaking countries and the discussions and controversies that have arisen in the course of analysing their work.

Keywords

  • rural sociology
  • classics of rural sociology in German-speaking countries
  • institutionalisation of rural sociology and agriculture
  • rural social research
Open Access

Between autonomy and submission

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 247 - 253

Abstract

Open Access

Think locally, act globally: Polish farmers in the global era of sustainability and resilience

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 255 - 258

Abstract

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