Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 20 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 19 (2013): Issue 2013 (December 2013)

Volume 18 (2012): Issue 2012 (January 2012)

Volume 17 (2011): Issue 2011 (January 2011)

Volume 16 (2010): Issue 2010 (January 2010)

Volume 15 (2009): Issue 2009 (January 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8717
First Published
25 Jan 2010
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 20 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8717
First Published
25 Jan 2010
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

9 Articles
Open Access

Culture and Rural Development: Voices from Poland

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 5 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

The paper is focused on the issue of culture and its connections to rural developments. It was based on the assumption that the culture has various impacts on rural communities` life, as well as, it has been present in various ways in functioning and changes that might be observed in rural areas. In our opinion, such a perspective should be presented in a more detailed way in order to stress the multiple and various impact of cultural issues on economic and social transformations in rural areas. Therefore, we divided our paper into three consecutive parts. In the first one, we discussed the multi-dimensional image of culture, and its role in human development. In the second one, we discussed some changes in the mechanisms of rural development, perceived as moving from the traditional to the contemporary one. We wanted to stress that culture seems to be an important part of the latter one. The last part of our considerations brought some empirical evidence from Poland focused on the role of culture in rural developments showing, at the same type, some examples of this new mechanism of rural development.

Keywords

  • rural development
  • multi-dimensional image of culture
  • traditional vs. contemporary rural development
Open Access

Women in Local Politics in Russia: Coping with Poverty and Strategies for Development

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 27 - 53

Abstract

Abstract

In historical continuation from the Soviet Union, social policy is predominantly a female responsibility. The present article focuses on women in local politics, who have an important role in local change, and who; among others, cope with poverty and try to solve reasons and consequences of poverty. Based on interviews and observations, the article shows how women’s entrepreneurial skills of handling various shortcomings in the Soviet system are reflected in their present strategies for social development in local contexts in Russia. While the state leadership decides about reforms, setting new formal rules, local politicians develop their own routines and strategies. Being responsible for organising social welfare, interviewed female politicians told about how they use different strategies. This means that adopted practices are likely to be more heterogeneous than before. It seems important to both rely on useful norms inherited from the Soviet time, while also developing strategies based on new possibilities, arising as a result of reforms. The empirical data is based on interviews from three minor communities in one Russian region, conducted in 2002 to 2012.

Keywords

  • Russia
  • women
  • agency
  • strategies
  • local politics
  • poverty
Open Access

Appearance of European employment policy in the rural areas of Hungarian-Croatian border region

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 55 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

The study provides an insight into Interreg and IPA programs achieved so far, having significant impact on the labour market of rural areas. Another objective is the evaluation of the effects of labour market programs, with the help of the interviews with experts coordinating these programs. However, the Croatian- Hungarian cooperation was perfect, went smoothly, which is also due to the similar labour market problems of the cooperative areas. They fight with similar methods, even in the project reports, evaluations, and there are also similar results found. It has become clear that financial resource-intensive elements cooperation programs operated until they were financed. In these cases, the closing of them prevented sustainability. The non financing-intensive programs, especially if there is local demand that is not based on a faulty premise, and no fundamental changes have taken place, prove to be sustainable. The maintenance and expansion collaborations are important tasks after Croatia’s accession to the EU. Croatia, by taking its own path, but with the use of the Hungarian experience, can stabilize the labour market situation in the most underdeveloped areas.

Keywords

  • rural employment
  • EU
  • cross-border
  • Croatia
  • Hungary
Open Access

Problems of functioning of Polish local action groups from the perspective of the social capital concept

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 73 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

The LEADER approach was introduced in Poland as part of the LEADER+ Pilot Programme (implemented in the programming period 2004-2006) and, at present, it is being implemented as Axis 4 of the Rural Development Programme. Many researchers are interested in its progress. In their analyses, they use various concepts of social capital. It may be concluded on the basis of the studies published so far that local action groups are dominated by the public sector, whereas the economic sector is rather marginalised. Having taken into account the available publications, a team of sociologists from the University of Łodź conducted in 2011-2013 research devoted to the level and structure of social capital of local action groups. The study focused on organisations from 6 voivodeships which implemented scheme 2 of the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. The article presents the analyses of the most important problems of these organisations related to the condition of the components of social capital possessed by their members (partners). The researchers used the material from individual surveys completed by 573 respondents from 34 local action groups. It was proven that the surveyed organisations mainly cope with the problem of a low activity level of their members (partners), petrification of their boards and councils, marginalisation of representatives of the economic sector, high level of professionalization and low level of generalised trust among the persons who belong to these groups.

Keywords

  • social capital
  • LEADER approach
  • territorial partnerships
  • problems of Polish local action groups
Open Access

Politics in the Balkan countryside: case study in Serbia

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 99 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

Thanks to the field observations conducted on the territory of central Serbia, it was noticed that people in rural environment, beside the optional conversations about weather conditions, most often talk about the politics. The aim of this work was to find out how many people who live in the countryside have the contact with the politics. Hypothesis were made within the communication with several examinees, but they were verified by the poll in which more than 100 persons took part. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, using T-test, one-factor analysis of ANOVA variance, and also they were checked by Post-hoc Tukey test. The work task was to find out if gender, age, as well as, professional and regional differences exist in relation to the countryside inhabitants considerations about certain political issues they have been talking about. The importance of this work is to discover whether the distance from urban environments and, life in nature can make a man less interested in and indifferent to the politics.

Keywords

  • Balkan countryside
  • politics
  • Serbia
Open Access

Rural Youth in Russia: Their Status and Prospects for Development

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 125 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

This article analysed the place of rural youth in the socio-structural processes taking place in the Russian countryside, using the findings of Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of the population’s economic condition and health (RLMSHSU); conducted between 1994 and 2011, and of the Integrated Survey of the Living Conditions of the Population carried out in all 86 Russian regions in 2011. Rural youth (15 to 30 year-olds) are the first generation socialized in the period of cardinal institutional changes and market economy formation. They make up a great part of the rural population. This investigation showed that; in spite of the rise in the educational level, the share of the unemployed and occupied in the informal sector of the economy is great in the rural youth employment structure, which leads to the growth of poverty and migration. The material and financial status of young countrymen’s households and rural youth’s marital behaviour were also examined.

Keywords

  • rural youth
  • employment
  • education
  • occupational structure
  • unemployment
  • income
  • household
  • marital behaviour
Open Access

Residents’ Attitudes and Perception towards Tourism Development: A Case Study of Rural Tourism in Dragacevo, Serbia

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 151 - 165

Abstract

Abstract

This research examined the residents’ profile, attitudes, and perception towards tourism development based on 176 respondents interviewed. Residents’ attitudes toward tourism were measured by adapting 24 items from the Tourism Impact Attitude Scale developed by Lankford and Howard (1994). This study aimed at identifying the relationships between residents’ socio-economic and demographic attributes and their attitudes toward tourism by focusing on villages where tourism is in the development stage.

Keywords

  • rural tourism
  • development
  • residents’ attitudes
  • TIAS scale
  • Dragacevo
  • Serbia
Open Access

Socio-cultural and Language Changes in a „Cultural Island”: Vershina – A Polish Village in Siberia

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 167 - 188

Abstract

Abstract

The present article attempts to describe the social evolution of the community of Vershina, a village founded in the beginning of the 20th century by voluntary settlers from Little Poland, from a cultural island to the stage of assimilation. The social, economic, cultural, political and language situation of the community changed several times. The most significant historical moments of Russia and the Soviet Union set the borders of three main periods in Vershina’s history. During its first two-three decades Vershina consisted a homogenous Polish cultural and language island. The migrants preserved the Roman Catholic religion, Polish language and traditions as well as farming methods and machines. Collectivization and the communist system with its repressions made the Polish village assimilate to its surroundings. With the flow of time, the generation of first settlers died and some of the traditions of Little Poland vanished or got modified by the elements of the Soviet, Russian or Buryat culture. After the Perestroika the minorities gained some rights, which strengthened in the 1990s. Thanks, to the political changes and the collapse of the SU the inhabitants of Vershina can found cultural organisations, cultivate their religion, and learn Polish in local schools. However, in spite of the regained rights, over the decades of mass sovietization and ateization, the culture and customs of the Polish community became similar to other Siberian villages. Young people from the group of our interest abandon their mother language and are not eager to leave Russia and move to Poland. The process of assimilation is intensifying while there are practically no factors protecting the local culture and language.

Keywords

  • language and cultural island
  • minority
  • assimilation
  • Polishness
  • identity
  • Polish migrants
  • Siberia
  • rural community
Open Access

Everyday activity of rural employees in Siberia

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 189 - 210

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the results of the fifth bi-seasonal survey conducted in 2004- 2005 within the framework of the longitudinal study of the time use, everyday activity and living conditions of the rural population. The study is conducted on a sample group of villages representative of the south of Siberia in rather different historical periods. The emphasis is made on changes that have taken place in the rural everyday life and on the use of time during the last two decades; in particular, in the beginning of the new century. It presents the results of the analysis of the time budgets of working women and working men and their answers to questions concerning the facts of reality, their assessments and values. In the early 2000s the working time of men increased, while their time spent on private plot production and housework decreased. Similar situation was observed in the case of women; however, the time spent on household production increased. More pronounced changes were observed among agricultural workers, especially men (increasing working time and decreasing time of housework, sleep and leisure). On the whole, there was a noticeable redistribution of time between work in the house and household production and work in the agricultural enterprise being the source of the material well-being of the rural family. The male-female difference in the total work load and leisure time has decreased.

Keywords

  • everyday activity
  • social change
  • longitudinal study
  • working population
  • time use
9 Articles
Open Access

Culture and Rural Development: Voices from Poland

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 5 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

The paper is focused on the issue of culture and its connections to rural developments. It was based on the assumption that the culture has various impacts on rural communities` life, as well as, it has been present in various ways in functioning and changes that might be observed in rural areas. In our opinion, such a perspective should be presented in a more detailed way in order to stress the multiple and various impact of cultural issues on economic and social transformations in rural areas. Therefore, we divided our paper into three consecutive parts. In the first one, we discussed the multi-dimensional image of culture, and its role in human development. In the second one, we discussed some changes in the mechanisms of rural development, perceived as moving from the traditional to the contemporary one. We wanted to stress that culture seems to be an important part of the latter one. The last part of our considerations brought some empirical evidence from Poland focused on the role of culture in rural developments showing, at the same type, some examples of this new mechanism of rural development.

Keywords

  • rural development
  • multi-dimensional image of culture
  • traditional vs. contemporary rural development
Open Access

Women in Local Politics in Russia: Coping with Poverty and Strategies for Development

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 27 - 53

Abstract

Abstract

In historical continuation from the Soviet Union, social policy is predominantly a female responsibility. The present article focuses on women in local politics, who have an important role in local change, and who; among others, cope with poverty and try to solve reasons and consequences of poverty. Based on interviews and observations, the article shows how women’s entrepreneurial skills of handling various shortcomings in the Soviet system are reflected in their present strategies for social development in local contexts in Russia. While the state leadership decides about reforms, setting new formal rules, local politicians develop their own routines and strategies. Being responsible for organising social welfare, interviewed female politicians told about how they use different strategies. This means that adopted practices are likely to be more heterogeneous than before. It seems important to both rely on useful norms inherited from the Soviet time, while also developing strategies based on new possibilities, arising as a result of reforms. The empirical data is based on interviews from three minor communities in one Russian region, conducted in 2002 to 2012.

Keywords

  • Russia
  • women
  • agency
  • strategies
  • local politics
  • poverty
Open Access

Appearance of European employment policy in the rural areas of Hungarian-Croatian border region

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 55 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

The study provides an insight into Interreg and IPA programs achieved so far, having significant impact on the labour market of rural areas. Another objective is the evaluation of the effects of labour market programs, with the help of the interviews with experts coordinating these programs. However, the Croatian- Hungarian cooperation was perfect, went smoothly, which is also due to the similar labour market problems of the cooperative areas. They fight with similar methods, even in the project reports, evaluations, and there are also similar results found. It has become clear that financial resource-intensive elements cooperation programs operated until they were financed. In these cases, the closing of them prevented sustainability. The non financing-intensive programs, especially if there is local demand that is not based on a faulty premise, and no fundamental changes have taken place, prove to be sustainable. The maintenance and expansion collaborations are important tasks after Croatia’s accession to the EU. Croatia, by taking its own path, but with the use of the Hungarian experience, can stabilize the labour market situation in the most underdeveloped areas.

Keywords

  • rural employment
  • EU
  • cross-border
  • Croatia
  • Hungary
Open Access

Problems of functioning of Polish local action groups from the perspective of the social capital concept

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 73 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

The LEADER approach was introduced in Poland as part of the LEADER+ Pilot Programme (implemented in the programming period 2004-2006) and, at present, it is being implemented as Axis 4 of the Rural Development Programme. Many researchers are interested in its progress. In their analyses, they use various concepts of social capital. It may be concluded on the basis of the studies published so far that local action groups are dominated by the public sector, whereas the economic sector is rather marginalised. Having taken into account the available publications, a team of sociologists from the University of Łodź conducted in 2011-2013 research devoted to the level and structure of social capital of local action groups. The study focused on organisations from 6 voivodeships which implemented scheme 2 of the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. The article presents the analyses of the most important problems of these organisations related to the condition of the components of social capital possessed by their members (partners). The researchers used the material from individual surveys completed by 573 respondents from 34 local action groups. It was proven that the surveyed organisations mainly cope with the problem of a low activity level of their members (partners), petrification of their boards and councils, marginalisation of representatives of the economic sector, high level of professionalization and low level of generalised trust among the persons who belong to these groups.

Keywords

  • social capital
  • LEADER approach
  • territorial partnerships
  • problems of Polish local action groups
Open Access

Politics in the Balkan countryside: case study in Serbia

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 99 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

Thanks to the field observations conducted on the territory of central Serbia, it was noticed that people in rural environment, beside the optional conversations about weather conditions, most often talk about the politics. The aim of this work was to find out how many people who live in the countryside have the contact with the politics. Hypothesis were made within the communication with several examinees, but they were verified by the poll in which more than 100 persons took part. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, using T-test, one-factor analysis of ANOVA variance, and also they were checked by Post-hoc Tukey test. The work task was to find out if gender, age, as well as, professional and regional differences exist in relation to the countryside inhabitants considerations about certain political issues they have been talking about. The importance of this work is to discover whether the distance from urban environments and, life in nature can make a man less interested in and indifferent to the politics.

Keywords

  • Balkan countryside
  • politics
  • Serbia
Open Access

Rural Youth in Russia: Their Status and Prospects for Development

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 125 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

This article analysed the place of rural youth in the socio-structural processes taking place in the Russian countryside, using the findings of Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of the population’s economic condition and health (RLMSHSU); conducted between 1994 and 2011, and of the Integrated Survey of the Living Conditions of the Population carried out in all 86 Russian regions in 2011. Rural youth (15 to 30 year-olds) are the first generation socialized in the period of cardinal institutional changes and market economy formation. They make up a great part of the rural population. This investigation showed that; in spite of the rise in the educational level, the share of the unemployed and occupied in the informal sector of the economy is great in the rural youth employment structure, which leads to the growth of poverty and migration. The material and financial status of young countrymen’s households and rural youth’s marital behaviour were also examined.

Keywords

  • rural youth
  • employment
  • education
  • occupational structure
  • unemployment
  • income
  • household
  • marital behaviour
Open Access

Residents’ Attitudes and Perception towards Tourism Development: A Case Study of Rural Tourism in Dragacevo, Serbia

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 151 - 165

Abstract

Abstract

This research examined the residents’ profile, attitudes, and perception towards tourism development based on 176 respondents interviewed. Residents’ attitudes toward tourism were measured by adapting 24 items from the Tourism Impact Attitude Scale developed by Lankford and Howard (1994). This study aimed at identifying the relationships between residents’ socio-economic and demographic attributes and their attitudes toward tourism by focusing on villages where tourism is in the development stage.

Keywords

  • rural tourism
  • development
  • residents’ attitudes
  • TIAS scale
  • Dragacevo
  • Serbia
Open Access

Socio-cultural and Language Changes in a „Cultural Island”: Vershina – A Polish Village in Siberia

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 167 - 188

Abstract

Abstract

The present article attempts to describe the social evolution of the community of Vershina, a village founded in the beginning of the 20th century by voluntary settlers from Little Poland, from a cultural island to the stage of assimilation. The social, economic, cultural, political and language situation of the community changed several times. The most significant historical moments of Russia and the Soviet Union set the borders of three main periods in Vershina’s history. During its first two-three decades Vershina consisted a homogenous Polish cultural and language island. The migrants preserved the Roman Catholic religion, Polish language and traditions as well as farming methods and machines. Collectivization and the communist system with its repressions made the Polish village assimilate to its surroundings. With the flow of time, the generation of first settlers died and some of the traditions of Little Poland vanished or got modified by the elements of the Soviet, Russian or Buryat culture. After the Perestroika the minorities gained some rights, which strengthened in the 1990s. Thanks, to the political changes and the collapse of the SU the inhabitants of Vershina can found cultural organisations, cultivate their religion, and learn Polish in local schools. However, in spite of the regained rights, over the decades of mass sovietization and ateization, the culture and customs of the Polish community became similar to other Siberian villages. Young people from the group of our interest abandon their mother language and are not eager to leave Russia and move to Poland. The process of assimilation is intensifying while there are practically no factors protecting the local culture and language.

Keywords

  • language and cultural island
  • minority
  • assimilation
  • Polishness
  • identity
  • Polish migrants
  • Siberia
  • rural community
Open Access

Everyday activity of rural employees in Siberia

Published Online: 20 Dec 2014
Page range: 189 - 210

Abstract

Abstract

The article presents the results of the fifth bi-seasonal survey conducted in 2004- 2005 within the framework of the longitudinal study of the time use, everyday activity and living conditions of the rural population. The study is conducted on a sample group of villages representative of the south of Siberia in rather different historical periods. The emphasis is made on changes that have taken place in the rural everyday life and on the use of time during the last two decades; in particular, in the beginning of the new century. It presents the results of the analysis of the time budgets of working women and working men and their answers to questions concerning the facts of reality, their assessments and values. In the early 2000s the working time of men increased, while their time spent on private plot production and housework decreased. Similar situation was observed in the case of women; however, the time spent on household production increased. More pronounced changes were observed among agricultural workers, especially men (increasing working time and decreasing time of housework, sleep and leisure). On the whole, there was a noticeable redistribution of time between work in the house and household production and work in the agricultural enterprise being the source of the material well-being of the rural family. The male-female difference in the total work load and leisure time has decreased.

Keywords

  • everyday activity
  • social change
  • longitudinal study
  • working population
  • time use

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo