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Volume 27 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 24 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 23 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 22 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 21 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 20 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 19 (2013): Issue 2013 (December 2013)

Volume 18 (2012): Issue 2012 (January 2012)

Volume 17 (2011): Issue 2011 (January 2011)

Volume 16 (2010): Issue 2010 (January 2010)

Volume 15 (2009): Issue 2009 (January 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8717
First Published
25 Jan 2010
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 25 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8717
First Published
25 Jan 2010
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

14 Articles
Open Access

Family Farm Succession of the First Post-Socialist Generation in the Czech Republic

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 9 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

The main goal of the paper is to provide insights into the family succession processes in terms of the first inter-generational renewal that has been re-started in the Czech agricultural sector. We want to understand how major transformation processes (i.e., collectivisation, restitution, the post-socialist economic transformation and EU membership) constituted social structures that framed inter-generational change on Czech farms. Such a framework includes the “farm succession gap” that has resulted from the long-term societal changes and that is still reflected in the ongoing succession processes.

Keywords

  • agriculture
  • succession gap
  • qualitative study
  • endogenous factors
  • motivation
Open Access

Unexpected Counter-Movements to Nationalism: the Hidden Potential of Local Food Communities

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 37 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

This article identifies a hitherto understudied element of local food communities, namely their potential as counter-movements to nationalist discourses, practices and policies. This potential should be particularly valuable in Eastern Europe, where European integration has been severely contested over the past years by political elites. We support our argument by a closer qualitative inquiry into two cases; one with urban-rural dimensions in the metropolitan area of Budapest and one in a more sparsely populated cross-border region at the Slovak-Hungarian border. Based on 18 interviews with coordinators, producers and consumers, numerous visits to both sites, and studying the organisations’ documents we conclude that the growth of local food communities contributes to strengthened solidarity in local communities. Although nationalist discourses on buying domestic are rarely contested explicitly, the lack of any reference to national movements and discourses testifies to the primary importance of the local.

Keywords

  • local food
  • food citizenship
  • economic nationalism
  • economic internationalism
  • national branding
  • cross-border cooperation
  • rural development
Open Access

The Role of Local Communities in the Process of Siting of the Unwanted Facilities within the Rural Areas in Poland

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 63 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of this study is the activity of rural communities in the face of plans of locating unwanted projects within their locations of residence, and the influence of the activity on the decision makers and, ultimately, on the final fate of the envisaged projects. The participation of inhabitants and decisions of the authorities, taken in response to these activities, and concerning the respective projects, were analysed on a basis of a questionnaire-based survey which was undertaken in the municipalities, in which conflicts have taken place. In-depth investigations were also carried out in five municipalities. The following activities: preparing a collective petition to decision-maker, organizing local meetings, taking part in meetings organised by the authorities or investor, filing of proposals and remarks to the projects of decisions and documents, entering into cooperation with actors from outside of the municipality were undertaken by groups of residents in more than 65% cases of conflicts. The activity of inhabitants generally exerted an influence on the final outcome from the respective conflicts. In the majority of cases, the unwanted projects, for which the decision making body was the local authority, either were not realised, or were realised with modifications, resulting from the social protests.

Keywords

  • Poland
  • local communities
  • unwanted facilities
  • NIMBY
  • participation
Open Access

Some Experience of the Complex, National Human Resource Development Programmes in the Hungarian Rural Regions

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 95 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

The key objective of this paper is the structural-regional examination of disadvantaged job seekers’ employability in the convergence regions of Hungary. One element of the comparative evaluation of the EU-supported, complex, national employability-enhancing programmes is the exploration of successful and unsuccessful factors and the formulation of recommendations for future projects of this kind. While the evaluation of the previous programme beginning nearly a decade ago was based on document analysis (technical procedures, budget summaries, communications plans, action and progress schedules and reports), in-depth interviews with the employment departments staff provided assistance in the evaluation accomplished five years later. The assessment of interviews was completed by the public, follow-up data about people successfully passing the programme and still being employed half a year after the closing of the programme. This data was the basis for the measurement of regional impact, which necessitated the development of two regional reintegration indicators. The group-specific evaluation pointed to the fact that low-skilled people can be involved with much less efficiency into employability-enhancing programmes. The present study also shows that the expected marginal utility of an employability programme is greater, which is realised in an economic environment driven by labour market demand.

Keywords

  • low-skilled
  • human resource development
  • employability
  • employment
  • adult education
  • Eastern-Europe
  • Hungary
  • rural regions
Open Access

Convergence or Divergence? Analysis of Regional Development Convergence in Hungary

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 121 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

The enlargement of the European Union (EU) led to an increase in regional development differences, challenging the EU structural policy. Whilst there are numerous papers discussing international and cross-EU development convergence, the issue seems under-researched at national level, especially when small territorial units are considered. This paper aims to partially fill this gap by using low aggregation (Local Administrative Unit 1, LAU1) territorial data between 2002 and 2013 a period that comprises Hungary’s EU accession and also the years of the recent Global Financial Crisis. We employ a novel approach to circumvent the lack of income, productivity or competitiveness data at LAU1 level by deriving two Regional Development Indices (RDI) resting on the estimation of internal migration functions. Once the RDIs are estimated, we proceed to a test sigma, beta and unit root convergence. Our results point towards regional divergence with rather bleak consequences for Hungarian and indeed European cohesion aims.

Keywords

  • Regional Development Indicator
  • Hungary
  • Sigma
  • Beta Convergence
Open Access

Uneven Distribution Possibilities of Creative Capital Development in Rural Aareas (Case Study of the Podkarpackie Communes, Poland)

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 145 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the results of the research, which is an attempt to modify the assumptions of R. Florida’s theory regarding the creative class. The measurement is based on indices that are the basis for the measurement of three categories: talent, technology, tolerance is not always possible due to the lack of data.

The purpose of the study was to identify factors determining activation of creative capital in the areas of communes (local level). The objective results from the need to determine whether or not such conditions are present at the local level.

Using the available literature, a questionnaire was prepared. Its results obtained from a survey among the Podkarpackie residents, were presented in the paper. It was found, as in the case of the results of the work of other authors, that in municipal communes there were better conditions for the development of creative capital.

Keywords

  • Creative class
  • creative capital
  • community
  • factors
  • rural areas
Open Access

Community School Model: Is It an Alternative for School Closures in Rural Territories?

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 171 - 194

Abstract

Abstract

In the light of rural depopulation and a decreasing number of schoolchildren, municipalities with rural territories face a question regarding whether to close small rural schools or seek alternatives for school operation. The analysis of a quantitative survey of rural municipalities and rural schools is focused on these main questions: what are the extended functions of rural schools with pupils less than 100, and whether the community school model in rural municipalities may be considered as an alternative to school closures in the context of depopulation of rural territories. The results of quantitative surveys are supplemented and explained by the data of 58 in-depth interviews with different stakeholders, living or working in rural areas. The main findings show that rural schools and municipalities positively evaluate the approach of community schools with extended functions, and partly it is an adaptation strategy for the diminishing number of pupils. However, extended functions and the community school model do not serve as an important argument for keeping a school open, but as a means for attracting pupils from neighbouring municipalities, and is a form of competition between municipalities. The article is prepared with funding from the EEA/Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009–2014 under Project Contract n° NFI/R/2014/014.

Keywords

  • community school
  • rural depopulation
  • small rural schools
  • school closure
  • rural municipalities
Open Access

Horizontal Integration in the Agricultural Sector as a Factor Increasing Its Competitiveness – Experience from Poland

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 195 - 232

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this article is to present the process of the development of horizontal integration in the agricultural sector in Poland in relation to the increase in its competitiveness. The article uses the data of the National Cooperative Council in Poland, The Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture, as well as Central Statistical Office in Poland. The process of formation of agricultural producer groups accelerated considerably when Poland joined the EU, especially due to the possibility to receive support from public funds. In 2013, at the end of the first full financial framework 2007–2013, there were almost 1300 agricultural producer groups in Poland. The most of them functioned in central, western and north-western regions, where larger and specialised farms are prevalent and where farmers understand the need for joint activity and want to gain a possibility to generate both technological and cost and price advantages and to increase the profitability of production. So far Polish producers of cereals, oilseeds, pigs and poultry have been relatively best organised. In 2017 about 45% of all registered groups of agricultural producers had the status of cooperatives. In pigs and beef cattle production the share of cooperatives in the total number of registered groups was even higher and amounted to 70% and 83%, respectively. Such groups are capable of helping farmers to solve the problems of how to sell their products, to ensure the appropriate quality of those products and to increase the cost-effectiveness of production. Cooperatives are often involved in social, educational and cultural activities provided to their members and rural community. Therefore, it can be said that very presence of cooperatives favours the development of agriculture in a particular region and in the entire country.

Keywords

  • agricultural producer groups
  • branch cooperatives
  • competitive advantage
  • cost and price advantages
  • agribusiness
Open Access

Central and Eastern Europe. An Opportunity or a Threat to European Integration?

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 233 - 248

Abstract

Open Access

Wisent – Poaching and World Heritage. Review

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 249 - 252

Abstract

Open Access

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of The Polish Peasant in Europe and America

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 253 - 259

Abstract

Abstract

The paper refers to the centennial of The Polish Peasant in Europe and America written by William Isaac Thomas and Florian Znaniecki along with the overview of commemorating events and publications. Moreover, it consists of commentary on the collective work of various scholars published in Contemporary Migrations in the Humanistic Coefficient Perspective.

Keywords

  • migration studies
  • polish peasant
  • humanistic coefficient
  • Florian Znaniecki
Open Access

The International Meeting of Sociologists in Poznań Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of The Polish Peasant in Europe and America

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 261 - 266

Abstract

Open Access

Continuity and Change – One Hundred Years of Polish Countryside. Interdisciplinary Cooperation of Humanities and Social Sciences For Academic Dialogue

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 267 - 272

Abstract

Open Access

In Search of the Vocabulary for Eastern European Food Studies. Conceptual Remarks After the Workshop: Alternative Food Supply Networks in Central and Eastern Europe

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 273 - 279

Abstract

Abstract

The article aims to organise the discussion about the position and role of research on alternative food networks and sustainable food systems in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. It was inspired by a debate that ensued during a meeting of researchers of alternative food systems held in October 2017 in Riga. Based on the meeting, one can conclude that it is necessary to: 1) develop a universal theoretical framework to study food practices which will take into account the specificity of this part of Europe; 2) consider the unique activities and initiatives embedded in the tradition of the region; and 3) establish functional connections among researchers involved in food studies.

Keywords

  • food studies
  • alternative food networks
  • Eastern European Countryside
  • sustainable agriculture
  • sustainable consumption
14 Articles
Open Access

Family Farm Succession of the First Post-Socialist Generation in the Czech Republic

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 9 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

The main goal of the paper is to provide insights into the family succession processes in terms of the first inter-generational renewal that has been re-started in the Czech agricultural sector. We want to understand how major transformation processes (i.e., collectivisation, restitution, the post-socialist economic transformation and EU membership) constituted social structures that framed inter-generational change on Czech farms. Such a framework includes the “farm succession gap” that has resulted from the long-term societal changes and that is still reflected in the ongoing succession processes.

Keywords

  • agriculture
  • succession gap
  • qualitative study
  • endogenous factors
  • motivation
Open Access

Unexpected Counter-Movements to Nationalism: the Hidden Potential of Local Food Communities

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 37 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

This article identifies a hitherto understudied element of local food communities, namely their potential as counter-movements to nationalist discourses, practices and policies. This potential should be particularly valuable in Eastern Europe, where European integration has been severely contested over the past years by political elites. We support our argument by a closer qualitative inquiry into two cases; one with urban-rural dimensions in the metropolitan area of Budapest and one in a more sparsely populated cross-border region at the Slovak-Hungarian border. Based on 18 interviews with coordinators, producers and consumers, numerous visits to both sites, and studying the organisations’ documents we conclude that the growth of local food communities contributes to strengthened solidarity in local communities. Although nationalist discourses on buying domestic are rarely contested explicitly, the lack of any reference to national movements and discourses testifies to the primary importance of the local.

Keywords

  • local food
  • food citizenship
  • economic nationalism
  • economic internationalism
  • national branding
  • cross-border cooperation
  • rural development
Open Access

The Role of Local Communities in the Process of Siting of the Unwanted Facilities within the Rural Areas in Poland

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 63 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

The subject of this study is the activity of rural communities in the face of plans of locating unwanted projects within their locations of residence, and the influence of the activity on the decision makers and, ultimately, on the final fate of the envisaged projects. The participation of inhabitants and decisions of the authorities, taken in response to these activities, and concerning the respective projects, were analysed on a basis of a questionnaire-based survey which was undertaken in the municipalities, in which conflicts have taken place. In-depth investigations were also carried out in five municipalities. The following activities: preparing a collective petition to decision-maker, organizing local meetings, taking part in meetings organised by the authorities or investor, filing of proposals and remarks to the projects of decisions and documents, entering into cooperation with actors from outside of the municipality were undertaken by groups of residents in more than 65% cases of conflicts. The activity of inhabitants generally exerted an influence on the final outcome from the respective conflicts. In the majority of cases, the unwanted projects, for which the decision making body was the local authority, either were not realised, or were realised with modifications, resulting from the social protests.

Keywords

  • Poland
  • local communities
  • unwanted facilities
  • NIMBY
  • participation
Open Access

Some Experience of the Complex, National Human Resource Development Programmes in the Hungarian Rural Regions

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 95 - 119

Abstract

Abstract

The key objective of this paper is the structural-regional examination of disadvantaged job seekers’ employability in the convergence regions of Hungary. One element of the comparative evaluation of the EU-supported, complex, national employability-enhancing programmes is the exploration of successful and unsuccessful factors and the formulation of recommendations for future projects of this kind. While the evaluation of the previous programme beginning nearly a decade ago was based on document analysis (technical procedures, budget summaries, communications plans, action and progress schedules and reports), in-depth interviews with the employment departments staff provided assistance in the evaluation accomplished five years later. The assessment of interviews was completed by the public, follow-up data about people successfully passing the programme and still being employed half a year after the closing of the programme. This data was the basis for the measurement of regional impact, which necessitated the development of two regional reintegration indicators. The group-specific evaluation pointed to the fact that low-skilled people can be involved with much less efficiency into employability-enhancing programmes. The present study also shows that the expected marginal utility of an employability programme is greater, which is realised in an economic environment driven by labour market demand.

Keywords

  • low-skilled
  • human resource development
  • employability
  • employment
  • adult education
  • Eastern-Europe
  • Hungary
  • rural regions
Open Access

Convergence or Divergence? Analysis of Regional Development Convergence in Hungary

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 121 - 143

Abstract

Abstract

The enlargement of the European Union (EU) led to an increase in regional development differences, challenging the EU structural policy. Whilst there are numerous papers discussing international and cross-EU development convergence, the issue seems under-researched at national level, especially when small territorial units are considered. This paper aims to partially fill this gap by using low aggregation (Local Administrative Unit 1, LAU1) territorial data between 2002 and 2013 a period that comprises Hungary’s EU accession and also the years of the recent Global Financial Crisis. We employ a novel approach to circumvent the lack of income, productivity or competitiveness data at LAU1 level by deriving two Regional Development Indices (RDI) resting on the estimation of internal migration functions. Once the RDIs are estimated, we proceed to a test sigma, beta and unit root convergence. Our results point towards regional divergence with rather bleak consequences for Hungarian and indeed European cohesion aims.

Keywords

  • Regional Development Indicator
  • Hungary
  • Sigma
  • Beta Convergence
Open Access

Uneven Distribution Possibilities of Creative Capital Development in Rural Aareas (Case Study of the Podkarpackie Communes, Poland)

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 145 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the results of the research, which is an attempt to modify the assumptions of R. Florida’s theory regarding the creative class. The measurement is based on indices that are the basis for the measurement of three categories: talent, technology, tolerance is not always possible due to the lack of data.

The purpose of the study was to identify factors determining activation of creative capital in the areas of communes (local level). The objective results from the need to determine whether or not such conditions are present at the local level.

Using the available literature, a questionnaire was prepared. Its results obtained from a survey among the Podkarpackie residents, were presented in the paper. It was found, as in the case of the results of the work of other authors, that in municipal communes there were better conditions for the development of creative capital.

Keywords

  • Creative class
  • creative capital
  • community
  • factors
  • rural areas
Open Access

Community School Model: Is It an Alternative for School Closures in Rural Territories?

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 171 - 194

Abstract

Abstract

In the light of rural depopulation and a decreasing number of schoolchildren, municipalities with rural territories face a question regarding whether to close small rural schools or seek alternatives for school operation. The analysis of a quantitative survey of rural municipalities and rural schools is focused on these main questions: what are the extended functions of rural schools with pupils less than 100, and whether the community school model in rural municipalities may be considered as an alternative to school closures in the context of depopulation of rural territories. The results of quantitative surveys are supplemented and explained by the data of 58 in-depth interviews with different stakeholders, living or working in rural areas. The main findings show that rural schools and municipalities positively evaluate the approach of community schools with extended functions, and partly it is an adaptation strategy for the diminishing number of pupils. However, extended functions and the community school model do not serve as an important argument for keeping a school open, but as a means for attracting pupils from neighbouring municipalities, and is a form of competition between municipalities. The article is prepared with funding from the EEA/Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009–2014 under Project Contract n° NFI/R/2014/014.

Keywords

  • community school
  • rural depopulation
  • small rural schools
  • school closure
  • rural municipalities
Open Access

Horizontal Integration in the Agricultural Sector as a Factor Increasing Its Competitiveness – Experience from Poland

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 195 - 232

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this article is to present the process of the development of horizontal integration in the agricultural sector in Poland in relation to the increase in its competitiveness. The article uses the data of the National Cooperative Council in Poland, The Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture, as well as Central Statistical Office in Poland. The process of formation of agricultural producer groups accelerated considerably when Poland joined the EU, especially due to the possibility to receive support from public funds. In 2013, at the end of the first full financial framework 2007–2013, there were almost 1300 agricultural producer groups in Poland. The most of them functioned in central, western and north-western regions, where larger and specialised farms are prevalent and where farmers understand the need for joint activity and want to gain a possibility to generate both technological and cost and price advantages and to increase the profitability of production. So far Polish producers of cereals, oilseeds, pigs and poultry have been relatively best organised. In 2017 about 45% of all registered groups of agricultural producers had the status of cooperatives. In pigs and beef cattle production the share of cooperatives in the total number of registered groups was even higher and amounted to 70% and 83%, respectively. Such groups are capable of helping farmers to solve the problems of how to sell their products, to ensure the appropriate quality of those products and to increase the cost-effectiveness of production. Cooperatives are often involved in social, educational and cultural activities provided to their members and rural community. Therefore, it can be said that very presence of cooperatives favours the development of agriculture in a particular region and in the entire country.

Keywords

  • agricultural producer groups
  • branch cooperatives
  • competitive advantage
  • cost and price advantages
  • agribusiness
Open Access

Central and Eastern Europe. An Opportunity or a Threat to European Integration?

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 233 - 248

Abstract

Open Access

Wisent – Poaching and World Heritage. Review

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 249 - 252

Abstract

Open Access

Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of The Polish Peasant in Europe and America

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 253 - 259

Abstract

Abstract

The paper refers to the centennial of The Polish Peasant in Europe and America written by William Isaac Thomas and Florian Znaniecki along with the overview of commemorating events and publications. Moreover, it consists of commentary on the collective work of various scholars published in Contemporary Migrations in the Humanistic Coefficient Perspective.

Keywords

  • migration studies
  • polish peasant
  • humanistic coefficient
  • Florian Znaniecki
Open Access

The International Meeting of Sociologists in Poznań Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of The Polish Peasant in Europe and America

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 261 - 266

Abstract

Open Access

Continuity and Change – One Hundred Years of Polish Countryside. Interdisciplinary Cooperation of Humanities and Social Sciences For Academic Dialogue

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 267 - 272

Abstract

Open Access

In Search of the Vocabulary for Eastern European Food Studies. Conceptual Remarks After the Workshop: Alternative Food Supply Networks in Central and Eastern Europe

Published Online: 31 Dec 2019
Page range: 273 - 279

Abstract

Abstract

The article aims to organise the discussion about the position and role of research on alternative food networks and sustainable food systems in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. It was inspired by a debate that ensued during a meeting of researchers of alternative food systems held in October 2017 in Riga. Based on the meeting, one can conclude that it is necessary to: 1) develop a universal theoretical framework to study food practices which will take into account the specificity of this part of Europe; 2) consider the unique activities and initiatives embedded in the tradition of the region; and 3) establish functional connections among researchers involved in food studies.

Keywords

  • food studies
  • alternative food networks
  • Eastern European Countryside
  • sustainable agriculture
  • sustainable consumption

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