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Volume 35 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 35 (2022): Issue 2 (August 2022)

Volume 35 (2022): Issue 1 (July 2022)

Volume 34 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 34 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 34 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 34 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 33 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 33 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 33 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 33 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 32 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 32 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 32 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 32 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 31 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 31 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 31 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 31 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 30 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)
4th International Conference “Advances in Surgical Oncology”: Cytoreductive Surgery & Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Lublin

Volume 30 (2017): Issue 3 (December 2017)

Volume 30 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 30 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 29 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 29 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 29 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 29 (2016): Issue 1 (April 2016)

Volume 28 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 28 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 28 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 28 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 27 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 27 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 27 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 27 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-6676
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 35 (2022): Issue 2 (August 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-6676
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

9 Articles
Open Access

Evaluating the reasons for delays in treatment of oral cavity cancer patients

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 53 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

The growing increase in oral cavity cancer (OSCC) incidence constitutes a severe diagnostic-therapeutic problem – and early diagnosis, as well as medical treatment remain important priorities of maxillofacial oncology. The aim of this paper was to determine the reasons for delays in the diagnostics and treatment of oral cavity cancer patients. The study focused on 248 patients (=56.1 years) post-surgery, in which delays in diagnostics and treatment were reported. As for the causes, most frequently, in 171 cases (69.0%), patient delays were reported, in 56 cases, physician delays were observed, and in 21 cases (8.5%), organizational reasons were to blame. The median time period between the onset of the symptoms and seeking medical attention was 143 days. Time interval between the first contact with a doctor and commencement of oncological treatment was 33.2 days approximately. The majority of the patients were not aware of the oral cavity cancer risk. Misdiagnosis of symptoms as inflammation, as well as prolonged antibiotic therapy and diagnostics constitute main reasons for physician and organization-al/health care system delays. Raising patients’ awareness of cancer risk, as well as educational and promotional programs for physicians are the principal goals of a strategy aiming to enhance oral cancer diagnosis.

Keywords

  • cancer cavi oris
  • oral cavity cancer
  • delays in treatment
Open Access

Thin-layer chromatography of DNS amino acids derivatives in systems with silica gel and silanized silica gel plates

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 58 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

Investigations into separation selectivity of High-Performance Thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) of dansyl (DNS) derivatives of amino acids in silica gel (Silica gel 60 F254s plates) and silanized silica gel (RP-18 W plates) systems are presented. The results have been obtained for mobile phases containing different concentrations of acetonitrile (ACN) in formic acid (FA) water solution (final concentration of FA in the mobile phase was equal to 265 mmol/dm3). The data obtained show differences in separation selectivity of the solutes between employment of HPTLC silica gel and RP-18 W systems.

Keywords

  • thin layer chromatography
  • HPTLC
  • amino acids
  • dansyl derivatives
Open Access

Legal protection of the human genome – excessive or disproportionate?

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 62 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

Throughout the 20th century, life expectancy in developed countries considerably increased from 40 to 70 years. This stemmed mainly from the technological advancements in medicine that have been taking place since the end of the 19th century. Although the development of contemporary clinical medicine is undoubtedly beneficial to public health, it may also entail certain hazards. Hence, both in international and national law systems one can find legal regulations setting the limits of this development and taking into account the principles of public safety in its contemporary understanding. Both the human being as a whole and the human genome are protected de jure. The article attempts to answer the question whether the currently binding genome regulations are excessive or disproportionate. The authors use the dogmatic-legal and the theoretical-legal methods in the study. The article ends with conclusions.

Keywords

  • human genome
  • genome sequencing
  • genome protection
  • genetic engineering
  • genetics
Open Access

Coumarin derivatives against amyloid-beta 40 – 42 peptide and tau protein

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 67 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

In preclinical studies, simple coumarins (scoparone, limettin) and furanocoumarins (imperatorin, xanthotoxin, bergapten) have already found to demonstrate procognitive abilities. This suggests that they hold antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and inhibitory action towards acetylcholinesterase activities. However, little is known about their influence on the amyloidal structure formation, the leading cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In vitro and in cellulo assays were applied to evaluate the effect of selected coumarins on the different stages of Aβ40/42 and tau protein aggregation. Kinetic analyses were performed to evaluate their inhibiting abilities in time. Limettin revealed the most potent inhibiting profile towards Aβ40 aggregation, however, all tested compounds presented low influence on Aβ42 and tau protein aggregation inhibition. Despite the preliminary stage of the project, the promising effects of coumarins on Aβ40 aggregation were shown. This suggests the coumarin scaffold can serve as a potential multitarget agent in AD treatment, but further studies are required to confirm this.

Keywords

  • neurodegeneration
  • A40/42
  • coumarins
Open Access

The epidemiological situation in Ukraine in terms of the implementation of preventive vaccinations according to the Protective Vaccination Program

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 75 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

The level of immunization of children and adolescents under the Protective Vaccination Program in Ukraine is lower than in Poland, and, due to the outbreak of the war in Ukraine, many people now live in conditions that are often unsanitary. Centers for refugees are also places of increased risk of outbreaks of infectious diseases. This risk is increased by the low percentage of the vaccinated, limited access to healthcare (including diagnostics) and overcrowding.

The paper presents the state of vaccination in Ukraine against poliomyelitis, measles, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, the most important problems in the field of infectious diseases, as well as the resulting risks and the need to prevent them.

Keywords

  • Ukraine
  • Vaccination Programm
  • infectious diseases
Open Access

The recent guidelines for pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s Disease

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 80 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is one of the most frequent disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). PD is an age-related disease in that morbidity increases with age. The main symptoms of it are motor symptoms like bradykinesia, rigidity and resting tremor. These symptoms diminish the comfort of the patient’s life and may lead to immobility. Hence, rapid diagnosis and start of treatment are very important.

The pharmacotherapy of PD is difficult. PD involves an imbalance between the dopaminergic and cholinergic systems. Therefore, the mechanisms of action of currently available drugs are highly connected with the pathology of PD, and follow dopaminergic or anticholinergic control strategies. However, long-term use of many PD medications comes with serious side effects. Therefore, the search for new, more effective drugs involving different strategies to that current and having different targets is still on-going.

Keywords

  • Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
  • pharmacotherapy of PD
  • Dopamine Agonists
  • Anticholinergic Drugs
  • future treatment of PD
Open Access

The role of appetite-controlling hormones in the development of eating disorders in diabetic 2 patients

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 86 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

Binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are common eating disorders (EDs) in individuals with diabetes type 2 (DT2). They worsen metabolic control, have a negative impact on physical and mental health and reduce quality of life. The roles of appetite-controlling hormones – leptin and ghrelin – is not clear enough in EDs and need to be investigated in order to establish new approaches and markers of EDs. Aim: To assess the difference in leptin and ghrelin levels in DT2 patients with and without EDs. 57 patients with DT2 were involved in the study. After physical examination and screening for EDs, blood samples for leptin and ghrelin measuring were obtained.

Results: 19 participants (33.3%) were screened positively for ED (BE or NES). Leptin levels were higher in participants with ED (p<0.05). Conversely, ghrelin levels were lower in those with BE or NES (p<0.05).

Leptin level is increased in DT2 individuals with BED and NES, whereas ghrelin is decreased. Leptin and ghrelin alterations maintain emotional eating, increase the frequency of binge and night eating episodes. In screening for EDs, assessing leptin and ghrelin levels will facilitate obesity reduction and improve metabolic control in diabetic patients.

Keywords

  • eating disorders
  • binge eating
  • night eating syndrome
  • diabetes type 2
  • obesity
  • leptin
  • ghrelin
Open Access

Experimental study of the antiulcer effect of cryopreserved placenta extract on a model of acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcerogenesis

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 89 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. The gastrotoxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a leading side effect that significantly limits their clinical use, among other types of their toxicity (nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, etc.). Cryopreserved placenta extract has drawn our attention as a potential modifier of the ulcerogenic action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Aim. To characterize the cytoprotective properties of cryopreserved placenta extract by the condition of the mucous membrane of the proximal (esophagus and stomach) and distal (small and large intestine) parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on the model of ASA-induced ulcerogenesis.

Material and methods. The study was performed using 28 male rats weighing 200-220 g. Subchronic ASA-induced ulcerogenesis of the digestive tract was reproduced by intragastrically administration to rats of ASA in a dose of 150 mg/kg. The effect of the studied drugs on the condition of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract was assessed macroscopically by the following criteria: edema, redness and hemorrhage on the surface of the mucous membrane. The ulcer index for each group of animals was calculated.

Results and discussion. Five doses of ASA 150 mg/kg cause damage to the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines in all of the rats. The use of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole has pronounced gastrocytoprotective properties, but does not affect the ulcerogenic effect in the small intestine, and in the colon, it enhances it. This is indicated by ulcerative lesions of the colon in 57.1% of all rats administered ASA and esomeprazole, as well as in the folding of the gastric mucosa. In contrast, mild hyperemia of the gastric mucosa was seen in 28.6% of all rats and moderate hemorrhage in 57.1% of all rats due to the combined use of ASA and cryoextract placenta.

Conclusions. The use of cryopreserved placenta extract is statistically significantly (p <0.05) inferior to the antiulcer activity of esomeprazole in the stomach. Thus, the ulcer index on the background of the use of ASA and cryopreserved placenta extract was 0.97, and on the background of the use of ASA and esomeprazole – 0.39. In the distal parts of the GI tract cryoextract placenta showed cytoprotective properties against the background of induced ASA ulcerogenesis, in contrast to esomeprazole.

Keywords

  • cryopreserved placenta extract
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • ulcerogenicity
Open Access

Study and determination of fructan-type polysaccharide content in Erigeron annuus L

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 95 - 98

Abstract

Abstract

Fructan-type polysaccharidescomes from natural sources and occur in a large variety of plants, where they play important biological roles as reserve carbohydrate. One of the most commonly distributed compound from this group – inulin has been part of human daily diet for hundreds of years, as it is found in many fruits and vegetables, among others, bananas, onions and wheat. The inulin-type fructans: inulin and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are considered to be functional food elements, the consumption of which brings about health benefits. Indeed, inulin can be consumed to increase the dietary fiber content. Fructan compounds, inulin and fructooligosaccharides have a strong bifidogenic effect, and have a positive action on the gut microbiota. In this work, we preformed gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Erigeron annuus L. herb. The GC-MS analysis of carbohydrate composition confirmed the presence of free (arabinose, glucose, fructose 1, fructose 2) and fermented (arabinose, glucose, fructose 1, fructose 2, sucrose) carbohydrates at the quantity of 69.83 and 91.70 mg/g d.w., respectively.

Keywords

  • inulin
  • fructooligosaccharides
  • fructan
  • GC-MS methods
  • L
9 Articles
Open Access

Evaluating the reasons for delays in treatment of oral cavity cancer patients

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 53 - 57

Abstract

Abstract

The growing increase in oral cavity cancer (OSCC) incidence constitutes a severe diagnostic-therapeutic problem – and early diagnosis, as well as medical treatment remain important priorities of maxillofacial oncology. The aim of this paper was to determine the reasons for delays in the diagnostics and treatment of oral cavity cancer patients. The study focused on 248 patients (=56.1 years) post-surgery, in which delays in diagnostics and treatment were reported. As for the causes, most frequently, in 171 cases (69.0%), patient delays were reported, in 56 cases, physician delays were observed, and in 21 cases (8.5%), organizational reasons were to blame. The median time period between the onset of the symptoms and seeking medical attention was 143 days. Time interval between the first contact with a doctor and commencement of oncological treatment was 33.2 days approximately. The majority of the patients were not aware of the oral cavity cancer risk. Misdiagnosis of symptoms as inflammation, as well as prolonged antibiotic therapy and diagnostics constitute main reasons for physician and organization-al/health care system delays. Raising patients’ awareness of cancer risk, as well as educational and promotional programs for physicians are the principal goals of a strategy aiming to enhance oral cancer diagnosis.

Keywords

  • cancer cavi oris
  • oral cavity cancer
  • delays in treatment
Open Access

Thin-layer chromatography of DNS amino acids derivatives in systems with silica gel and silanized silica gel plates

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 58 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

Investigations into separation selectivity of High-Performance Thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) of dansyl (DNS) derivatives of amino acids in silica gel (Silica gel 60 F254s plates) and silanized silica gel (RP-18 W plates) systems are presented. The results have been obtained for mobile phases containing different concentrations of acetonitrile (ACN) in formic acid (FA) water solution (final concentration of FA in the mobile phase was equal to 265 mmol/dm3). The data obtained show differences in separation selectivity of the solutes between employment of HPTLC silica gel and RP-18 W systems.

Keywords

  • thin layer chromatography
  • HPTLC
  • amino acids
  • dansyl derivatives
Open Access

Legal protection of the human genome – excessive or disproportionate?

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 62 - 66

Abstract

Abstract

Throughout the 20th century, life expectancy in developed countries considerably increased from 40 to 70 years. This stemmed mainly from the technological advancements in medicine that have been taking place since the end of the 19th century. Although the development of contemporary clinical medicine is undoubtedly beneficial to public health, it may also entail certain hazards. Hence, both in international and national law systems one can find legal regulations setting the limits of this development and taking into account the principles of public safety in its contemporary understanding. Both the human being as a whole and the human genome are protected de jure. The article attempts to answer the question whether the currently binding genome regulations are excessive or disproportionate. The authors use the dogmatic-legal and the theoretical-legal methods in the study. The article ends with conclusions.

Keywords

  • human genome
  • genome sequencing
  • genome protection
  • genetic engineering
  • genetics
Open Access

Coumarin derivatives against amyloid-beta 40 – 42 peptide and tau protein

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 67 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

In preclinical studies, simple coumarins (scoparone, limettin) and furanocoumarins (imperatorin, xanthotoxin, bergapten) have already found to demonstrate procognitive abilities. This suggests that they hold antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and inhibitory action towards acetylcholinesterase activities. However, little is known about their influence on the amyloidal structure formation, the leading cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In vitro and in cellulo assays were applied to evaluate the effect of selected coumarins on the different stages of Aβ40/42 and tau protein aggregation. Kinetic analyses were performed to evaluate their inhibiting abilities in time. Limettin revealed the most potent inhibiting profile towards Aβ40 aggregation, however, all tested compounds presented low influence on Aβ42 and tau protein aggregation inhibition. Despite the preliminary stage of the project, the promising effects of coumarins on Aβ40 aggregation were shown. This suggests the coumarin scaffold can serve as a potential multitarget agent in AD treatment, but further studies are required to confirm this.

Keywords

  • neurodegeneration
  • A40/42
  • coumarins
Open Access

The epidemiological situation in Ukraine in terms of the implementation of preventive vaccinations according to the Protective Vaccination Program

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 75 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

The level of immunization of children and adolescents under the Protective Vaccination Program in Ukraine is lower than in Poland, and, due to the outbreak of the war in Ukraine, many people now live in conditions that are often unsanitary. Centers for refugees are also places of increased risk of outbreaks of infectious diseases. This risk is increased by the low percentage of the vaccinated, limited access to healthcare (including diagnostics) and overcrowding.

The paper presents the state of vaccination in Ukraine against poliomyelitis, measles, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, the most important problems in the field of infectious diseases, as well as the resulting risks and the need to prevent them.

Keywords

  • Ukraine
  • Vaccination Programm
  • infectious diseases
Open Access

The recent guidelines for pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s Disease

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 80 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is one of the most frequent disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). PD is an age-related disease in that morbidity increases with age. The main symptoms of it are motor symptoms like bradykinesia, rigidity and resting tremor. These symptoms diminish the comfort of the patient’s life and may lead to immobility. Hence, rapid diagnosis and start of treatment are very important.

The pharmacotherapy of PD is difficult. PD involves an imbalance between the dopaminergic and cholinergic systems. Therefore, the mechanisms of action of currently available drugs are highly connected with the pathology of PD, and follow dopaminergic or anticholinergic control strategies. However, long-term use of many PD medications comes with serious side effects. Therefore, the search for new, more effective drugs involving different strategies to that current and having different targets is still on-going.

Keywords

  • Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
  • pharmacotherapy of PD
  • Dopamine Agonists
  • Anticholinergic Drugs
  • future treatment of PD
Open Access

The role of appetite-controlling hormones in the development of eating disorders in diabetic 2 patients

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 86 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

Binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) are common eating disorders (EDs) in individuals with diabetes type 2 (DT2). They worsen metabolic control, have a negative impact on physical and mental health and reduce quality of life. The roles of appetite-controlling hormones – leptin and ghrelin – is not clear enough in EDs and need to be investigated in order to establish new approaches and markers of EDs. Aim: To assess the difference in leptin and ghrelin levels in DT2 patients with and without EDs. 57 patients with DT2 were involved in the study. After physical examination and screening for EDs, blood samples for leptin and ghrelin measuring were obtained.

Results: 19 participants (33.3%) were screened positively for ED (BE or NES). Leptin levels were higher in participants with ED (p<0.05). Conversely, ghrelin levels were lower in those with BE or NES (p<0.05).

Leptin level is increased in DT2 individuals with BED and NES, whereas ghrelin is decreased. Leptin and ghrelin alterations maintain emotional eating, increase the frequency of binge and night eating episodes. In screening for EDs, assessing leptin and ghrelin levels will facilitate obesity reduction and improve metabolic control in diabetic patients.

Keywords

  • eating disorders
  • binge eating
  • night eating syndrome
  • diabetes type 2
  • obesity
  • leptin
  • ghrelin
Open Access

Experimental study of the antiulcer effect of cryopreserved placenta extract on a model of acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcerogenesis

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 89 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. The gastrotoxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a leading side effect that significantly limits their clinical use, among other types of their toxicity (nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, etc.). Cryopreserved placenta extract has drawn our attention as a potential modifier of the ulcerogenic action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Aim. To characterize the cytoprotective properties of cryopreserved placenta extract by the condition of the mucous membrane of the proximal (esophagus and stomach) and distal (small and large intestine) parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on the model of ASA-induced ulcerogenesis.

Material and methods. The study was performed using 28 male rats weighing 200-220 g. Subchronic ASA-induced ulcerogenesis of the digestive tract was reproduced by intragastrically administration to rats of ASA in a dose of 150 mg/kg. The effect of the studied drugs on the condition of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract was assessed macroscopically by the following criteria: edema, redness and hemorrhage on the surface of the mucous membrane. The ulcer index for each group of animals was calculated.

Results and discussion. Five doses of ASA 150 mg/kg cause damage to the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines in all of the rats. The use of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole has pronounced gastrocytoprotective properties, but does not affect the ulcerogenic effect in the small intestine, and in the colon, it enhances it. This is indicated by ulcerative lesions of the colon in 57.1% of all rats administered ASA and esomeprazole, as well as in the folding of the gastric mucosa. In contrast, mild hyperemia of the gastric mucosa was seen in 28.6% of all rats and moderate hemorrhage in 57.1% of all rats due to the combined use of ASA and cryoextract placenta.

Conclusions. The use of cryopreserved placenta extract is statistically significantly (p <0.05) inferior to the antiulcer activity of esomeprazole in the stomach. Thus, the ulcer index on the background of the use of ASA and cryopreserved placenta extract was 0.97, and on the background of the use of ASA and esomeprazole – 0.39. In the distal parts of the GI tract cryoextract placenta showed cytoprotective properties against the background of induced ASA ulcerogenesis, in contrast to esomeprazole.

Keywords

  • cryopreserved placenta extract
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  • ulcerogenicity
Open Access

Study and determination of fructan-type polysaccharide content in Erigeron annuus L

Published Online: 02 Sep 2022
Page range: 95 - 98

Abstract

Abstract

Fructan-type polysaccharidescomes from natural sources and occur in a large variety of plants, where they play important biological roles as reserve carbohydrate. One of the most commonly distributed compound from this group – inulin has been part of human daily diet for hundreds of years, as it is found in many fruits and vegetables, among others, bananas, onions and wheat. The inulin-type fructans: inulin and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are considered to be functional food elements, the consumption of which brings about health benefits. Indeed, inulin can be consumed to increase the dietary fiber content. Fructan compounds, inulin and fructooligosaccharides have a strong bifidogenic effect, and have a positive action on the gut microbiota. In this work, we preformed gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Erigeron annuus L. herb. The GC-MS analysis of carbohydrate composition confirmed the presence of free (arabinose, glucose, fructose 1, fructose 2) and fermented (arabinose, glucose, fructose 1, fructose 2, sucrose) carbohydrates at the quantity of 69.83 and 91.70 mg/g d.w., respectively.

Keywords

  • inulin
  • fructooligosaccharides
  • fructan
  • GC-MS methods
  • L

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