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4th International Conference “Advances in Surgical Oncology”: Cytoreductive Surgery & Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Lublin

Volume 30 (2017): Issue 3 (December 2017)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-6676
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 28 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-6676
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

Xanthogranulomatous urethritis and cystitis: a rare clinical and pathological entity

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 149 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the urethra and the urinary bladder is a very rare pathological condition characterized by a chronic inflammatory infiltration composed mainly of foamy macrophages, with the presence of multinucleated giant cells. In a clinical examination, it can mimic urinary bladder carcinoma. This report presents the extremely rare case of a co-existing xanthogranulomatous urethritis and cystitis in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent dysuria, and with the suspicion of malignancy - as indicated on the basis of a cystoscopic examination. The standard treatment of this disorder is surgical resection, but in the presented case, only a diagnostic biopsy was performed. Because of the persistence of clinical symptoms, a cystoscopic examination and biopsy was repeated three times in a two year period. There was no malignancy seen in the repeated biopsies.

Keywords

  • xanthogranulomatous cystitis
  • xanthogranulomatous urethritis
Open Access

A botanical and pharmacological description of petasites species

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 151 - 154

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this review was to evaluate the botanical and pharmacological description of Petasites species. Petasides (butterbur) as a perennial shrub which was found in Europe and also in a parts of Asia and North America, has been widely used medicinally for centuries. At present, the main phytopharmacology uses for Petasides extracts are for prophylactic treatment of migraines, as well as an antispasmodic agent for bronchial asthma and pertussis. Furthermore, it has been used effectively in preventing gastric ulcers, and in urinary tract spasms and treating patients with irritable bladder. But still, there is a need for more studies on the potential applications of butterbur extract in medicine.

Keywords

  • butterbur
  • pharmacological studies
  • clinical trials
  • migraine
  • asthma
  • gastroenteritis
Open Access

Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 155 - 158

Abstract

Abstract

The kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism. In normal physiological conditions, the glucose that filters through the renal glomeruli is subsequently nearly totally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules. Two transporters are engaged in this process: sodium-glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1), and sodium-glucose co-transporter type type 2 (SGLT2) - this being located in the luminal membrane of the renal tubular epithelial cells. It was found that the administration of dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes, is associated with the reduction of HbA1c concentration by 0.45-1.11%. Additional benefits from the treatment with dapagliflozin are the reduction of arterial blood pressure and a permanent reduction of body weight. This outcome is related to the effect of osmotic diuresis and to the considerable loss of the glucose load by way of urine excretion. Dapagliflozin may be successfully applied in type 2 diabetes monotherapy, as well as in combined therapy (including insulin), where it is equally effective as other oral anti-diabetic drugs. Of note: serious adverse effects of dapagliflozin administration are rarely observed. What is more, episodes of severe hypoglycaemia related with the treatment occur only sporadically, most often in the course of diabetes polytherapy. The most frequent effects of the SGLT2 inhibitors are inseparably associated with the mechanism of their action (the glucuretic effect), and cover urogenital infections with a mild clinical course. At present, clinical trials are being continued of the administration of several subsequent drugs from this group, the most advanced of these being the use of canagliflozin and empagliflozin.

Keywords

  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • pharmacotherapy
  • flozins
Open Access

Designing primers potentially specific to Entamoeba gingivalis genes

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 159 - 163

Abstract

Abstract

Entamoeba gingivalis normally exists in the human oral cavity, namely in the gums, and brings about some specific diseases. However, it can also trigger some more serious illnesses. Among these are infections of the genital tract, acute osteomyelitis of the mandible and pulmonary abscess. Entamoeba gingivalis identification by light microscopy is difficult, hence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used. The contemporary primers for PCR are complement to 18S rRNA. This article informs the reader of the process that was involved in designing new primers for three genes which were thought to be present on the Entamoeba gingivalis genome, but their sequences were unknown. The newly obtained sequences of primers have better properties for identification purposes, compared to these which are currently used.

Keywords

  • actin
  • cysteine proteinase
  • Entamoeba gingivalis
  • 18S-rRNA
  • 5.8S-rRNA
  • PCR primers
Open Access

The significance of the adenosinergic system in morphine dependence

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 164 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

Addiction is a chronic and recurrent disease. In its pathology, neuroadaptive changes within the dopaminergic pathways inside the mesolimbic system play a predominant role. Of note, the manner in which various neurotransmitters act on their receptors, may modulate the addictive process. Adenosine, an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system, is able to modify the opioid dependence, doing so mainly by its activity on the adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. In the present manuscript, the actual state of knowledge on the relationships between adenosinergic receptors and opioid dependence has been described. Various literature data on the involvement of adenosine ligands, mainly in the signs of morphine withdrawal, as well as morphine-induced sensitization, were also collected. Additionally, in this paper, some important interactions between adenosine and other neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine, glutamate) are described. It is put forward that these connections are the major mechanism of involvement of the adenosinergic system in morphine addiction. The repeatedly confirmed effectiveness of adenosine ligands in morphine dependence, as seen in various experimental protocols, suggests that adenosine ligands may be useful tools for developing new strategies for attenuating morphine dependence.

Keywords

  • adenosine
  • morphine
  • dependence
Open Access

The influence of montelukast on the autonomic nervous system activity in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 170 - 175

Abstract

Abstract

The complex pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis involves arachidonic acid-derived inflammatory mediators, among them leukotrienes. Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, is reported to exert an alleviatory effect in the course of cystitis associated with overactive bladder symptoms. The aim of this study was to verify whether the effect of montelukast is also associated with its influence on autonomic activity. The experiment included 20 rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (75 mg/kg, four doses every second day), among them, 10 treated with oral montelukast (10 mg/kg for 8 days) and 10 controls. Time and frequency domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were conducted in all the rats as an indirect measure of their autonomic activity. The montelukast-treated animals showed an increase in root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD), as well as an increase in HRV spectrum total power (TP) and power of very low (VLF) spectral component. This suggests that due to its anti-inflammatory and its anti-leukotriene effect, montelukast improves overall autonomic activity, with no preferential influence on either the sympathetic or parasympathetic part. Furthermore, the increase in VLF corresponds to attenuation of inflammatory response. In conclusion, this study showed that aside from its antagonistic effect on leukotriene receptors, montelukast can also modulate autonomic activity.

Keywords

  • heart rate variability
  • autonomic nervous system
  • cystitis
  • montelukast
Open Access

Omentin - a new adipokine with many roles to play

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 176 - 180

Abstract

Abstract

Adipose tissue is at a point of high interest in medical research, not only as an energy depot, but also because it secretes nearly more than 600 cytokines. These are termed‚ adipokines’. Human adipokines are involved in numerous metabolic processes, including the regulation of appetite, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, inflammation and cardiovascular activity. Thus, these could be clinically important as a markers of adipose tissue function and increased metabolic risk. The search for novel adipokines linking obesity to related co-morbidities has become a major topic in obesity research. In such work, there is an increasing need to define their function, their molecular targets and their potential clinical relevance as biomarkers or in the treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases.

Omentin (34 kDa) is a recently identified fat deposition-specific adipokine with multiple interactions. Concentrations of omentin have been shown to be decreased in patients with obesity and impaired glucose regulation, in patients afflicted with diabetes type 1 and 2, and in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. These are all diseases commonly associated with insulin resistance and obesity. The aim of this study was to show and compare the latest information about omentin and its relationships with obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS), inflammation, cardiac problems, sex hormone imbalances and cancer.

The association of omentin with particular metabolic indexes may suggest that an elevation in omentin level may be seen as being a marker for leanness, while a decreased level will underline possible situations of overweight and obesity along with their comorbidities (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and even cancer). However, a challenge for the future is to fully understand the multiple role played by omentin. Thus, more studies in these matter are required.

Keywords

  • omentin
  • obesity
  • cardiovascular disease
  • diabetes
  • inflammation
  • metabolic syndrome
Open Access

Desloratadine analysis: as a pharmaceutical preparation and after accelerating ageing

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 181 - 185

Abstract

Abstract

Desloratadine is a biologically active compound that is not described in the Polish Pharmacopoeia IX, hence, its study is particular important. The aim of this work was to establish a procedure for desloratadine analysis by way of HPTLC in combination with densitometry, so as to be able to ascertain its presence and degree of presence within pharmaceutical preparations. In our work, a mixture of ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ammonia and methanol was used as the mobile phase. Moreover, HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 were also employed. The proposed method was tested and subsequently validated. Spectrodensitometric analysis was then performed to determine the optimal wavelength for the quantitative determination (λ=276 nm), and following this, a quantitative analysis of desloratadine within certain pharmaceutical preparations was performed. Our research also took into consideration an analysis of the products of desloratadine decomposition that come about as a result of the accelerated aging of its solutions. The employed procedure for accelerating the aging of such desloratadine solutions consisted of heating these at 40℃ and then irradiating the solution surfaces with UV light. The changing color of these solutions after 2 hours of exposure served to indicate that degradation had occurred. Of note: as a result of irradiation with UV light, desloratadine content was seen to decrease with time, declining to almost zero after 30 hours. However, heating a solution of desloratadine alone did not induce a change in its content. Solutions of desloratadine that had previously undergone irradiation and heating were also analyzed to ascertain whether new substances were present. For this purpose, the GC-MS process was employed. As a result of this procedure, the spectrum of the solution after aging showed the presence of several new peaks that displayed retention several times larger and smaller than the normal desloratadine peak.

Keywords

  • desloratadine
  • densitometry
  • HPTLC
  • GC-MS
  • accelerating ageing
Open Access

TLC-densitometric analysis of α-escin in bulk drug substance and in pharmaceutical dosage forms

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 186 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

A quite simple and rapid TLC-densitometric method for the identification of α-escin (Aescin) in bulk drug substances was developed. In so doing, different chromatographic conditions, including various mobile and stationary phases, were tested. A TLC densitometric determination of the examined compound was performed without using visualizing reagent, yet with the use of appropriate dipping reagents, in order to obtain reliable UV-densitometric measurements of α-escin - a substance which has weak chromophore groups. Herein, the application of a mobile phase containing n-butanolacetic acid-water in volume composition 30:7:13, the use of silica gel 60F254 plates with concentrating zone, and subsequent application of 10% sulphuric acid in ethanol or 5% vanillin in methanol/sulphuric acid, respectively, provided the best results in a TLCdensitometric study of α-escin. The described method was successfully employed to identify α-escin in commercial samples that were in an oral dosage form (tablets) and also in the form of gel containing 20 mg of α-escin.

Keywords

  • α-escin
  • TLC
  • densitometry
  • triterpene compounds
Open Access

The use of gold and gold alloys in prosthetic dentistry – a literature review

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 192 - 195

Abstract

Abstract

Gold is a noble metal with very good chemical resistance. It also does not become oxidized in water or air. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and shine, and it is a heavy, but soft metal with huge plasticity and ductility. For many years, gold and its alloys have been recognized as being great prosthetic material in dental practice. In current dentistry, the progress in materials science and galvanoforming techniques have made it possible to create precise restorations utilizing this metal. This pertains both to fixed and removable dentures. Galvanized gold has a range of advantages, among these being biocompatibility, proper marginal tightness, endurance, its esthetic design and the fact that it boasts bacteriostatic features.

Keywords

  • gold alloys
  • galvanoforming technique
  • crowns
  • dowels
Open Access

A comparison of the traditional casting method and the galvanoforming technique in gold alloy prosthetic restorations

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 196 - 199

Abstract

Abstract

Gold is a dental material with very good mechanical properties. It is also aesthetic and biocompatible with the tissues of the oral cavity even at 100% purity. Prosthetic restorations made of pure gold or its alloys can be practiced either through a normal casting, as well as through using the galvanoforming technique. The electrolytic method was first introduced into dentistry about 20 years ago and it allows for producing “pure” gold (which means 99.99% Au). The lack of additions of other metals improves the properties of dental prostheses, such as marginal tightness, esthetics, biocompatibility, and it helps in eliminating any allergic reactions. The literature review presented in this paper is a comparison of the traditional casting method with the newer galvanoforming technique.

Keywords

  • gold
  • gold alloys
  • galvanoforming technique
  • biocompatibility
  • fixed dentures
Open Access

Organ and prenatal toxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 200 - 203

Abstract

Abstract

Non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, commonly referred to as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), are among the most taken pharmaceuticals. In adults, they can have a series of side effects, including especially gastroenterotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, chondrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity, and they can induce allergic reactions. Any exacerbation of symptoms depends on the chemical structure of the drug, its dosage and duration of exposure, individual sensitivity, comorbidities and the degree of inhibition of basic COX isoenzymes - the constitutive (COX-2) and induced (COX-1) expressions. However, data on prenatal toxicity are inconsistent. Classic nonselective COX inhibitors do not result in an increase in the risk of developing significant congenital defects; however, if used in the late-pregnancy period, they can have an adverse effect on the foetus, by inducing the premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and by producing a tocolytic effect. Individual reports also indicate the increased risk of developing heart and anterior abdominal wall defects, as well as hypospadias.

Keywords

  • NSAIDs
  • organ toxicity
  • developmental toxicity
  • reproductive toxicity
Open Access

Synergistic interaction of levetiracetam with gabapentin in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model – a type II isobolographic analysis

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 204 - 207

Abstract

Abstract

This study was aimed at characterizing the anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam in combination with gabapentin, in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. Herein, psychomotor seizures were evoked in male albino Swiss mice by a current (32 mA, 6 Hz, 3 s stimulus duration) delivered via ocular electrodes. Type II isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the anticonvulsant interactions between the drugs in combination, for fixed-ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10. The type II isobolographic analysis revealed that the combinations of levetiracetam with gabapentin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 were supra-additive (synergistic; P<0.05) in terms of seizure suppression, while the combinations for the fixed-ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 were additive in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. We conclude that, as the combinations of levetiracetam with gabapentin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 exerted supra-additive (synergistic) interaction in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model, this may be considered as particularly favorable combinations in further clinical practice.

Keywords

  • 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model
  • antiepileptic drugs
  • drug interactions
  • gabapentin
  • levetiracetam
  • isobolographic analysis
Open Access

Temporomandibular joint assessment in patients with articular disc displacement by way of computed tomography - radiological parameters of shape, size and location of mandibular heads

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 208 - 211

Abstract

Abstract

Conventional and modern methods of radiological imaging are often used in the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, and the CT technique is particularly characterized by an excellent visualization of bony structures. The aim of the study was to show the importance and role of CT in the evaluation of TMJ bone structures in both patients with articular disc displacement and in a group of healthy subjects. Both study groups were assessed with the use of the transverse plane. Herein, multi-slice spiral computed tomography was performed in 47 subjects. These individuals were qualified for CT by way of magnetic resonance imaging, due to their being diagnosed with a displacement of their temporomandibular joint disc. The product of our study is presented as a set of tables. These are comparisons of radiological parameters based on the shape, size and location of the mandibular head, in the examined patients, in a control group, and with regard to sex. The results of our work indicate that CT can be successfully used in the imaging of TMJ bone structures, specifically, the condylar process of the mandibular head and the joint socket. However, statistically significant differences of the utilized parameters between patients with articular disc displacement and controls, warrant further analysis of this issue.

Keywords

  • multi-slice computed tomography
  • temporomandibular joint
  • functional disorders
Open Access

The influence of the viscosity of the ointment vehicles magisterial topical preparations, on the speed transfer of biologically active substances

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 212 - 218

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological parameters (viscosity, viscous elasticity and the rate of volatile component loss) of salicylic and boric acid-containing magisterial formulae (ointments). Moreover, the effects of these parameters on the diffusion rate of a therapeutic agent (salicylic acid) to an in vitro external compartment were analyzed. Finally, the applicatory properties of the ointments prepared by way of a conventional technique (in a mortar) and with the aid of an unguator, were compared. The rheological parameters of the analyzed ointments suggest that the preparations made with an aid of an unguator, irrespective of the physicochemical characteristics of their vehicles, are characterized by higher values of diffusion coefficient (D). In addition, conventionally-prepared formulae containing salicylic were shown to be characterized by better viscous elasticity. Surprisingly, irrespective of the preparation technique, the ointments based on an absorptive vehicle (containing lanolin) were characterized by similar viscous elasticity. The rate of volatile (water) component loss from ointments containing a 3% solution of boric acid suggests that such formulae lose no more than 2.3% of their mass when exposed at 37℃. Therefore, the viscosity of such ointments applied onto a patient’s skin should remain relatively stable.

Keywords

  • ointments
  • viscosity
  • viscous elasticity
  • volatile component loss
15 Articles
Open Access

Xanthogranulomatous urethritis and cystitis: a rare clinical and pathological entity

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 149 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the urethra and the urinary bladder is a very rare pathological condition characterized by a chronic inflammatory infiltration composed mainly of foamy macrophages, with the presence of multinucleated giant cells. In a clinical examination, it can mimic urinary bladder carcinoma. This report presents the extremely rare case of a co-existing xanthogranulomatous urethritis and cystitis in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent dysuria, and with the suspicion of malignancy - as indicated on the basis of a cystoscopic examination. The standard treatment of this disorder is surgical resection, but in the presented case, only a diagnostic biopsy was performed. Because of the persistence of clinical symptoms, a cystoscopic examination and biopsy was repeated three times in a two year period. There was no malignancy seen in the repeated biopsies.

Keywords

  • xanthogranulomatous cystitis
  • xanthogranulomatous urethritis
Open Access

A botanical and pharmacological description of petasites species

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 151 - 154

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this review was to evaluate the botanical and pharmacological description of Petasites species. Petasides (butterbur) as a perennial shrub which was found in Europe and also in a parts of Asia and North America, has been widely used medicinally for centuries. At present, the main phytopharmacology uses for Petasides extracts are for prophylactic treatment of migraines, as well as an antispasmodic agent for bronchial asthma and pertussis. Furthermore, it has been used effectively in preventing gastric ulcers, and in urinary tract spasms and treating patients with irritable bladder. But still, there is a need for more studies on the potential applications of butterbur extract in medicine.

Keywords

  • butterbur
  • pharmacological studies
  • clinical trials
  • migraine
  • asthma
  • gastroenteritis
Open Access

Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 155 - 158

Abstract

Abstract

The kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism. In normal physiological conditions, the glucose that filters through the renal glomeruli is subsequently nearly totally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules. Two transporters are engaged in this process: sodium-glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1), and sodium-glucose co-transporter type type 2 (SGLT2) - this being located in the luminal membrane of the renal tubular epithelial cells. It was found that the administration of dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes, is associated with the reduction of HbA1c concentration by 0.45-1.11%. Additional benefits from the treatment with dapagliflozin are the reduction of arterial blood pressure and a permanent reduction of body weight. This outcome is related to the effect of osmotic diuresis and to the considerable loss of the glucose load by way of urine excretion. Dapagliflozin may be successfully applied in type 2 diabetes monotherapy, as well as in combined therapy (including insulin), where it is equally effective as other oral anti-diabetic drugs. Of note: serious adverse effects of dapagliflozin administration are rarely observed. What is more, episodes of severe hypoglycaemia related with the treatment occur only sporadically, most often in the course of diabetes polytherapy. The most frequent effects of the SGLT2 inhibitors are inseparably associated with the mechanism of their action (the glucuretic effect), and cover urogenital infections with a mild clinical course. At present, clinical trials are being continued of the administration of several subsequent drugs from this group, the most advanced of these being the use of canagliflozin and empagliflozin.

Keywords

  • type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • pharmacotherapy
  • flozins
Open Access

Designing primers potentially specific to Entamoeba gingivalis genes

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 159 - 163

Abstract

Abstract

Entamoeba gingivalis normally exists in the human oral cavity, namely in the gums, and brings about some specific diseases. However, it can also trigger some more serious illnesses. Among these are infections of the genital tract, acute osteomyelitis of the mandible and pulmonary abscess. Entamoeba gingivalis identification by light microscopy is difficult, hence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used. The contemporary primers for PCR are complement to 18S rRNA. This article informs the reader of the process that was involved in designing new primers for three genes which were thought to be present on the Entamoeba gingivalis genome, but their sequences were unknown. The newly obtained sequences of primers have better properties for identification purposes, compared to these which are currently used.

Keywords

  • actin
  • cysteine proteinase
  • Entamoeba gingivalis
  • 18S-rRNA
  • 5.8S-rRNA
  • PCR primers
Open Access

The significance of the adenosinergic system in morphine dependence

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 164 - 169

Abstract

Abstract

Addiction is a chronic and recurrent disease. In its pathology, neuroadaptive changes within the dopaminergic pathways inside the mesolimbic system play a predominant role. Of note, the manner in which various neurotransmitters act on their receptors, may modulate the addictive process. Adenosine, an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system, is able to modify the opioid dependence, doing so mainly by its activity on the adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. In the present manuscript, the actual state of knowledge on the relationships between adenosinergic receptors and opioid dependence has been described. Various literature data on the involvement of adenosine ligands, mainly in the signs of morphine withdrawal, as well as morphine-induced sensitization, were also collected. Additionally, in this paper, some important interactions between adenosine and other neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine, glutamate) are described. It is put forward that these connections are the major mechanism of involvement of the adenosinergic system in morphine addiction. The repeatedly confirmed effectiveness of adenosine ligands in morphine dependence, as seen in various experimental protocols, suggests that adenosine ligands may be useful tools for developing new strategies for attenuating morphine dependence.

Keywords

  • adenosine
  • morphine
  • dependence
Open Access

The influence of montelukast on the autonomic nervous system activity in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 170 - 175

Abstract

Abstract

The complex pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis involves arachidonic acid-derived inflammatory mediators, among them leukotrienes. Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, is reported to exert an alleviatory effect in the course of cystitis associated with overactive bladder symptoms. The aim of this study was to verify whether the effect of montelukast is also associated with its influence on autonomic activity. The experiment included 20 rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (75 mg/kg, four doses every second day), among them, 10 treated with oral montelukast (10 mg/kg for 8 days) and 10 controls. Time and frequency domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were conducted in all the rats as an indirect measure of their autonomic activity. The montelukast-treated animals showed an increase in root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD), as well as an increase in HRV spectrum total power (TP) and power of very low (VLF) spectral component. This suggests that due to its anti-inflammatory and its anti-leukotriene effect, montelukast improves overall autonomic activity, with no preferential influence on either the sympathetic or parasympathetic part. Furthermore, the increase in VLF corresponds to attenuation of inflammatory response. In conclusion, this study showed that aside from its antagonistic effect on leukotriene receptors, montelukast can also modulate autonomic activity.

Keywords

  • heart rate variability
  • autonomic nervous system
  • cystitis
  • montelukast
Open Access

Omentin - a new adipokine with many roles to play

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 176 - 180

Abstract

Abstract

Adipose tissue is at a point of high interest in medical research, not only as an energy depot, but also because it secretes nearly more than 600 cytokines. These are termed‚ adipokines’. Human adipokines are involved in numerous metabolic processes, including the regulation of appetite, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, inflammation and cardiovascular activity. Thus, these could be clinically important as a markers of adipose tissue function and increased metabolic risk. The search for novel adipokines linking obesity to related co-morbidities has become a major topic in obesity research. In such work, there is an increasing need to define their function, their molecular targets and their potential clinical relevance as biomarkers or in the treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases.

Omentin (34 kDa) is a recently identified fat deposition-specific adipokine with multiple interactions. Concentrations of omentin have been shown to be decreased in patients with obesity and impaired glucose regulation, in patients afflicted with diabetes type 1 and 2, and in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. These are all diseases commonly associated with insulin resistance and obesity. The aim of this study was to show and compare the latest information about omentin and its relationships with obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS), inflammation, cardiac problems, sex hormone imbalances and cancer.

The association of omentin with particular metabolic indexes may suggest that an elevation in omentin level may be seen as being a marker for leanness, while a decreased level will underline possible situations of overweight and obesity along with their comorbidities (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and even cancer). However, a challenge for the future is to fully understand the multiple role played by omentin. Thus, more studies in these matter are required.

Keywords

  • omentin
  • obesity
  • cardiovascular disease
  • diabetes
  • inflammation
  • metabolic syndrome
Open Access

Desloratadine analysis: as a pharmaceutical preparation and after accelerating ageing

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 181 - 185

Abstract

Abstract

Desloratadine is a biologically active compound that is not described in the Polish Pharmacopoeia IX, hence, its study is particular important. The aim of this work was to establish a procedure for desloratadine analysis by way of HPTLC in combination with densitometry, so as to be able to ascertain its presence and degree of presence within pharmaceutical preparations. In our work, a mixture of ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ammonia and methanol was used as the mobile phase. Moreover, HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 were also employed. The proposed method was tested and subsequently validated. Spectrodensitometric analysis was then performed to determine the optimal wavelength for the quantitative determination (λ=276 nm), and following this, a quantitative analysis of desloratadine within certain pharmaceutical preparations was performed. Our research also took into consideration an analysis of the products of desloratadine decomposition that come about as a result of the accelerated aging of its solutions. The employed procedure for accelerating the aging of such desloratadine solutions consisted of heating these at 40℃ and then irradiating the solution surfaces with UV light. The changing color of these solutions after 2 hours of exposure served to indicate that degradation had occurred. Of note: as a result of irradiation with UV light, desloratadine content was seen to decrease with time, declining to almost zero after 30 hours. However, heating a solution of desloratadine alone did not induce a change in its content. Solutions of desloratadine that had previously undergone irradiation and heating were also analyzed to ascertain whether new substances were present. For this purpose, the GC-MS process was employed. As a result of this procedure, the spectrum of the solution after aging showed the presence of several new peaks that displayed retention several times larger and smaller than the normal desloratadine peak.

Keywords

  • desloratadine
  • densitometry
  • HPTLC
  • GC-MS
  • accelerating ageing
Open Access

TLC-densitometric analysis of α-escin in bulk drug substance and in pharmaceutical dosage forms

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 186 - 191

Abstract

Abstract

A quite simple and rapid TLC-densitometric method for the identification of α-escin (Aescin) in bulk drug substances was developed. In so doing, different chromatographic conditions, including various mobile and stationary phases, were tested. A TLC densitometric determination of the examined compound was performed without using visualizing reagent, yet with the use of appropriate dipping reagents, in order to obtain reliable UV-densitometric measurements of α-escin - a substance which has weak chromophore groups. Herein, the application of a mobile phase containing n-butanolacetic acid-water in volume composition 30:7:13, the use of silica gel 60F254 plates with concentrating zone, and subsequent application of 10% sulphuric acid in ethanol or 5% vanillin in methanol/sulphuric acid, respectively, provided the best results in a TLCdensitometric study of α-escin. The described method was successfully employed to identify α-escin in commercial samples that were in an oral dosage form (tablets) and also in the form of gel containing 20 mg of α-escin.

Keywords

  • α-escin
  • TLC
  • densitometry
  • triterpene compounds
Open Access

The use of gold and gold alloys in prosthetic dentistry – a literature review

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 192 - 195

Abstract

Abstract

Gold is a noble metal with very good chemical resistance. It also does not become oxidized in water or air. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and shine, and it is a heavy, but soft metal with huge plasticity and ductility. For many years, gold and its alloys have been recognized as being great prosthetic material in dental practice. In current dentistry, the progress in materials science and galvanoforming techniques have made it possible to create precise restorations utilizing this metal. This pertains both to fixed and removable dentures. Galvanized gold has a range of advantages, among these being biocompatibility, proper marginal tightness, endurance, its esthetic design and the fact that it boasts bacteriostatic features.

Keywords

  • gold alloys
  • galvanoforming technique
  • crowns
  • dowels
Open Access

A comparison of the traditional casting method and the galvanoforming technique in gold alloy prosthetic restorations

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 196 - 199

Abstract

Abstract

Gold is a dental material with very good mechanical properties. It is also aesthetic and biocompatible with the tissues of the oral cavity even at 100% purity. Prosthetic restorations made of pure gold or its alloys can be practiced either through a normal casting, as well as through using the galvanoforming technique. The electrolytic method was first introduced into dentistry about 20 years ago and it allows for producing “pure” gold (which means 99.99% Au). The lack of additions of other metals improves the properties of dental prostheses, such as marginal tightness, esthetics, biocompatibility, and it helps in eliminating any allergic reactions. The literature review presented in this paper is a comparison of the traditional casting method with the newer galvanoforming technique.

Keywords

  • gold
  • gold alloys
  • galvanoforming technique
  • biocompatibility
  • fixed dentures
Open Access

Organ and prenatal toxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 200 - 203

Abstract

Abstract

Non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, commonly referred to as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), are among the most taken pharmaceuticals. In adults, they can have a series of side effects, including especially gastroenterotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, chondrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity, and they can induce allergic reactions. Any exacerbation of symptoms depends on the chemical structure of the drug, its dosage and duration of exposure, individual sensitivity, comorbidities and the degree of inhibition of basic COX isoenzymes - the constitutive (COX-2) and induced (COX-1) expressions. However, data on prenatal toxicity are inconsistent. Classic nonselective COX inhibitors do not result in an increase in the risk of developing significant congenital defects; however, if used in the late-pregnancy period, they can have an adverse effect on the foetus, by inducing the premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and by producing a tocolytic effect. Individual reports also indicate the increased risk of developing heart and anterior abdominal wall defects, as well as hypospadias.

Keywords

  • NSAIDs
  • organ toxicity
  • developmental toxicity
  • reproductive toxicity
Open Access

Synergistic interaction of levetiracetam with gabapentin in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model – a type II isobolographic analysis

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 204 - 207

Abstract

Abstract

This study was aimed at characterizing the anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam in combination with gabapentin, in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. Herein, psychomotor seizures were evoked in male albino Swiss mice by a current (32 mA, 6 Hz, 3 s stimulus duration) delivered via ocular electrodes. Type II isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the anticonvulsant interactions between the drugs in combination, for fixed-ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10. The type II isobolographic analysis revealed that the combinations of levetiracetam with gabapentin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 were supra-additive (synergistic; P<0.05) in terms of seizure suppression, while the combinations for the fixed-ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 were additive in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. We conclude that, as the combinations of levetiracetam with gabapentin for the fixed-ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 exerted supra-additive (synergistic) interaction in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model, this may be considered as particularly favorable combinations in further clinical practice.

Keywords

  • 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model
  • antiepileptic drugs
  • drug interactions
  • gabapentin
  • levetiracetam
  • isobolographic analysis
Open Access

Temporomandibular joint assessment in patients with articular disc displacement by way of computed tomography - radiological parameters of shape, size and location of mandibular heads

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 208 - 211

Abstract

Abstract

Conventional and modern methods of radiological imaging are often used in the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, and the CT technique is particularly characterized by an excellent visualization of bony structures. The aim of the study was to show the importance and role of CT in the evaluation of TMJ bone structures in both patients with articular disc displacement and in a group of healthy subjects. Both study groups were assessed with the use of the transverse plane. Herein, multi-slice spiral computed tomography was performed in 47 subjects. These individuals were qualified for CT by way of magnetic resonance imaging, due to their being diagnosed with a displacement of their temporomandibular joint disc. The product of our study is presented as a set of tables. These are comparisons of radiological parameters based on the shape, size and location of the mandibular head, in the examined patients, in a control group, and with regard to sex. The results of our work indicate that CT can be successfully used in the imaging of TMJ bone structures, specifically, the condylar process of the mandibular head and the joint socket. However, statistically significant differences of the utilized parameters between patients with articular disc displacement and controls, warrant further analysis of this issue.

Keywords

  • multi-slice computed tomography
  • temporomandibular joint
  • functional disorders
Open Access

The influence of the viscosity of the ointment vehicles magisterial topical preparations, on the speed transfer of biologically active substances

Published Online: 26 Nov 2015
Page range: 212 - 218

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological parameters (viscosity, viscous elasticity and the rate of volatile component loss) of salicylic and boric acid-containing magisterial formulae (ointments). Moreover, the effects of these parameters on the diffusion rate of a therapeutic agent (salicylic acid) to an in vitro external compartment were analyzed. Finally, the applicatory properties of the ointments prepared by way of a conventional technique (in a mortar) and with the aid of an unguator, were compared. The rheological parameters of the analyzed ointments suggest that the preparations made with an aid of an unguator, irrespective of the physicochemical characteristics of their vehicles, are characterized by higher values of diffusion coefficient (D). In addition, conventionally-prepared formulae containing salicylic were shown to be characterized by better viscous elasticity. Surprisingly, irrespective of the preparation technique, the ointments based on an absorptive vehicle (containing lanolin) were characterized by similar viscous elasticity. The rate of volatile (water) component loss from ointments containing a 3% solution of boric acid suggests that such formulae lose no more than 2.3% of their mass when exposed at 37℃. Therefore, the viscosity of such ointments applied onto a patient’s skin should remain relatively stable.

Keywords

  • ointments
  • viscosity
  • viscous elasticity
  • volatile component loss

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