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4th International Conference “Advances in Surgical Oncology”: Cytoreductive Surgery & Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Lublin

Volume 30 (2017): Issue 3 (December 2017)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-6676
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 28 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-6676
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

The influence of hydrophylic polymers on the release rate of calcium dobesilate in hydrogel formulation assessed in vitro using porcine ear skin

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 225 - 230

Abstract

Abstract

A shortage of available experimental data exists in the available bibliography on the release rate of calcium dobesilate (CD) from hydrogel formulations. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selected hydrophilic nonionic polymers and anionic polymers on the release rate of CD from formulation provided for dermal application, as compared to the reference product in the market. The work utilized excised pork skin, while, Methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and anionic polymers (copolymers of acrylic acid) were used as CD carriers. The release study was executed by the pharmacopoeial paddle method, with extraction cells and fresh excised porcine skin as a membrane. CD in aqueous acceptor fluid was quantified by UV-VIS spectrometry at 300 nm. Subsequently, the kinetic curves were fitted to a zero-order kinetics model, a first-order kinetics model, a second-order kinetics model, as well as to the Higuchi model. The work saw that porcine ear skin influences the release pattern of the CD, compared to the artificial membrane. In the study, the evaluated formulations with MC, polyacrylic acid (PA) and polyacrylate crosspolymer 11 (PC-11) deliver over 60% of the active component (AC), within 250 min, through the excised porcine ear skin, to the acceptor compartment. Moreover, the release observed via porcine ear skin to the aqueous acceptor compartment is congenial to zero-order or first-order kinetics. In addition, the formulations prepared on the basis of MC and PA appear to control AC delivery, independently of actual concentration of AC.

Keywords

  • porcine skin
  • release rate constant
  • extraction cell
  • calcium dobesilate
  • non-ionic polymers
  • anionic polymers
Open Access

In vitro study: binding of 99mTc-DPD to synthetic amyloid fibrils

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 231 - 235

Abstract

Abstract

This paper is an report of the investigation of the in vitro binding of 99mTc-DPD for synthetic amyloid fibrils used for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis (CA), as compared with the use of 99mTc-HMDP and 99mTc-PPI. It also includes an inquiry into the role played by Ca2+ ions and serum proteins on binding to amyloid like materials, as well as the saturability and specificity of DPD for fibrils versus amorphous precipitates (AP).

In the work, synthetic insulin fibrils (SIF) and AP were characterized by Congo red staining and TEM imaging. An equal amount of three radiopharmaceuticals were then added to fibrils in Ca2+ (0-4.2 mmol/L) or human serum (HS) adjoined samples and radiopharmaceutical uptake was assessed. To test the saturability of amyloid binding sites, a displacement assays with cold DPD was performed, while adding 50-1500 nmol of 99mTc-DPD to SIF or AP, saturation binding tests were subsequently carried out for evaluating its specificity for amyloid.

Herein, synthetic fibrils and AP showed conformational differences at TEM and polarized microscopy analysis. In our study, 99mTc-DPD fibrils uptake was seen to be the highest and increased with calcium ions concentration. What is more, serum proteins reduced the bound fraction to the amyloid deposits of about 15%, and the Kd values of 90 nM and 114 nM relative to SIF and AP, respectively, did not significantly differ.

We saw that 99mTc-DPD is the best seeker for amyloid fibrils in cardiac amyloidosis, and that Ca2+ concentration positively influenced DPD fibrils binding. Furthermore, the radioactivity bound to the serum protein clear up the idea of nuclide exchanging dynamic balance between amyloid and circulating proteins. Moreover, non-labeled DPD did not exert a competition for 99mTc-DPD binding sites, and, finally, DPD cannot be defined a radiopharmaceutical specific for amyloid deposits.

Keywords

  • nuclear medicine imaging
  • cardiac amyloidosis
  • 99mTc-diphosphonates
  • amyloid synthetic fibrils
Open Access

Serum leptin concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 236 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

With the increasing importance of early type 2 diabetes (DM2) and obesity detection, it is useful to reevaluate leptin role in these conditions. Our study aimed at investigating circulating leptin concentrations in a group of patients with DM2, and at assessing in detail whether leptin concentrations correlate with selected biochemical, clinical parameters and markers of systemic inflammation in patients with DM2 and in healthy volunteers. In our work, we analysed samples and data drawn from 71 patients aged 61.4 ± 11.7 years, who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, as well as from a healthy control group (HC) consisting of 51 healthy subjects with a mean age of 57.8 ± 13.7 years. Therein, the concentration of leptin in the DM2 patients was significantly higher than in the HC (p < 0.01), with median value of 16.59 (IQR 8.58-33.39) ng/ml in the DM2, vs median value of 6.66 (IQR 4.52-21.40) ng/ml in the HC. In the analysis of variance, higher leptin concentrations were revealed in the DM2 group as compared to the HC, and this figure remained significant after adjusting for gender and age (p < 0.001). Moreover, it was independent of HOMA-IR (p = 0.003). However, the differences in leptin levels between the groups disappeared when additional adjustments for anthropometric parameters (BMI, waist circumference) were applied (p = 0.088). Beyond the aforementioned, significant positive correlations were found in the DM 2 group between leptin level and CRP (r=0.256; p < 0.05) and IL-6 (r = 0.345; p < 0.01). Among the selected variables, only gender and BMI were included in the predictive model explaining the variability of leptin, and, in total, were responsible for 72.6% of the original variation of the studied adipocytokine. The results of this study have led to conclusion that leptin may participate in the complex pathogenesis of DM2 and be a predictor of the development of this disease. As higher concentrations of leptin coexist with obesity, and this situation correlates positively with markers of inflammation (CRP, IL-6), leptin level, hence, should be considered in the pathogenesis of DM2.

Keywords

  • leptin
  • adipocytokines
  • adipose tissue
  • type 2 diabetes
Open Access

A brief analysis of patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers in Almaty hospital №1

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 241 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

Peptic ulcers are a serious problem worldwide, and affect about 4 million people each year. Their etiology is connected with the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the act of smoking, drinking alcohol, being stress, and taking excessively nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as steroids. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, chest pain and fatigue, while less frequent symptoms include vomiting and weight loss. Helicobacter pylori is responsible for about 80% of gastric and 90% of duodenal ulcer cases. In this work, an analysis is made of a correlation between stomach or duodenal ulcer and gender, residence and number of patients hospitalized in the Almaty hospital №1, from 2009-2012, in order to learn about trends in the incidence of these diseases in Kazakhstan. A total number of 950 patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, in 2009-2012, were questioned. The patient’s residence, gender and stomach or duodenal ulcer problem were taken into account in the study. The result of this work reveals that the largest amount of hospitalized patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers came from urban areas. Moreover, more women than men suffered from peptic ulcers. Furthermore, the number of patients admitted to the hospital due to duodenal ulcers did not show any variation throughout the study. However, the least number of patients suffering from gastric ulcers was noticed in December 2009, and the greatest was in October and November 2011. The obtained data show that ulcers are a serious problem in Kazakhstan.

Keywords

  • stomach ulcer
  • duodenal ulcer
  • hospital
Open Access

BMI in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 244 - 246

Abstract

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI), on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index) value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each patient was first examine via a lateral cephalometric image of the skull, which served to measure the upper and lower diameter of the upper airways. BMI was also calculated for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Our work demonstrated a negative correlation between BMI and the diameter of the upper airways, and a positive correlation between BMI and AHI value. We thus put forward that the increase in body weight in patients with OSA can contribute to the severity of the disease, regardless of the fact that it may not lead to a reduction of the lumen of the upper airways.

Keywords

  • obstructive sleep apnea
  • cephalometric analysis
  • upper airways
  • body mass index
Open Access

Littoral cell angioma mimicking metastatic tumors

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 247 - 249

Abstract

Abstract

Littoral cell angioma is a rare primary, vascular tumor thought to originate from the endothelial cells lining the sinuses of the splenic red pulp (the “littoral cells”). It is a benign, usually asymptomatic lesion diagnosed incidentally. Ultrasound and tomography appearance is not characteristic and histopathological examination is required. This work provides a case-study of littoral cell angioma which was seen in a 55-year-old female who complained of non-specific upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed multiple hypo-attenuated splenic lesions suggestive for metastasis. A splenectomy was performed and routine microscopic examination supported by immunohistochemistry reactions with CD68, CD34 and CD31 showed littoral cell angioma.

Keywords

  • littoral cell angioma
  • spleen
  • splenic tumor
  • splenic metastasis
Open Access

The incidence of oral dryness in people over 65 years living in Lublin

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 250 - 253

Abstract

Abstract

Saliva plays an important part in naturally maintaining oral homeostasis. Dry mouth or 'xerostomia', is a serious problem connected with decreased saliva secretion which considerably limits the quality of life in elderly people. The aim of the study was the assessment of the subjective oral dryness in the oral mucosa in people over 65 living in Lublin, Poland. The study was conducted among 240 people aged 65 to 96. The patients were placed into two groups: I - 117 residents of nursing homes, II - 123 people living with their families. Assessment of the subjective oral dryness taking into account the place of residence, sex and drug administration was performed based on a questionnaire survey. In the group of nursing homes residents, 32.48% of the surveyed experienced subjective oral dryness, while among the seniors living with their families, 33.33% reported this kind of discomfort. The conducted analysis revealed that oral dryness was more common amongst women than men, and it can be very often a side-effect of administered medicine drugs.

Keywords

  • saliva
  • elderly people
  • xerostomia
Open Access

Determination of free and bounded phenolic acids in the rhizomes and herb of Sanguisorba officinalis L.

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 254 - 256

Abstract

Abstract

An analysis of the fractions of free acids and phenolic acids liberated by way of hydrolysis in the rhizomes and herbaceous tissues of Sanguisorba officinalis L. was conducted through utilizing the 2D-TLC method. Fifteen phenolic acids were identified. Our work showed that ellagic, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, vannilic and ferulic acids were common in all tested fractions, and gallic and protocatechuic acids were dominant in fractions obtained from the rhizomes, while caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vannilic and ferulic acids were abundant in the herbaceous tissues. However, α and β - resorcylic acids were detected only in rhizome phenolic acid fractions liberated from their conjunction with sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid was present only in a free form in the herbaceous tissues, while p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was liberated from conjunction from a herbaceous extract.

Keywords

  • Sanguisorba officinalis L.
  • phenolic acids
  • 2D-thin layer chromatography
Open Access

Antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts from fruits of Seseli devenyense Simonk. and the herb of Peucedanum luxurians Tamam.

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 257 - 259

Abstract

Abstract

Plants of the Apiaceae family usually contain coumarins. These are used worldwide in traditional medicine, as well as in modern therapeutics. The aim of our study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of four extracts (methanolic and petroleum ether extracts) obtained from two Apiaceae species: Seseli devenyense (fruits) and Peucedanum luxurians (herb).

The activity of the investigated extracts was tested against 7 strains of Gram+ bacteria, and 7 strains of Gram-, as well as three of yeast. The results of this show that the best activity of such extracts (specifically, by way of petroleum ether) was seen as being against Staphylococcus aureus strains.

Keywords

  • Peucedanum luxurians
  • Seseli devenyense
  • coumarins
  • antimicrobial
  • Staphylococcus
Open Access

Do you know what you eat? Students of the Medical University of Lublin and food consumption awareness

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 260 - 263

Abstract

Abstract

At the present time, consumers are paying more attention to the food items they purchase, and, hence, organic products, more and more, are a popular choice. Furthermore, there is an increased awareness of the ingredients added as fixatives and taste modifiers. Medical students are assumed to have greater health awareness, and to recognize that proper nutrition has a significant impact on the overall physical well-being. Moreover, they are thought to be aware of the chemical composition of consumed foods. The aim of our study was to truly assess the degree of consumer awareness amongst students of the Medical University of Lublin.

The research study consisted of 301 students of the I and II years, the work being performed at the turn of the year 2014/2015. The research tool was an anonymous questionnaire. This contained questions regarding their degree of healthy food awareness of retailed food products.

The results of this study revealed that about 44% of the respondents always or often pay attention to the composition of the food products which they buy. Indeed, the highest percentage of all respondents declared that their purchase of food products is guided by the declared (labeled) composition (48.84% of the students coming from urban settings, and 55.81% coming from rural districts). Of note, regarding products labeled organic, from both urban and rural origin, such items were chosen by approximately 50% of the respondents. Finally, only a small percentage of students (about 9% overall) stated that they avoid foods stated to contain preservatives.

In summary, despite the increasing availability of healthy foods, such items are not too often chosen by UM students - Indeed, despite the large biomedical knowledge purportedly held, medical students, in particular, do not avoid foods containing preservatives.

Keywords

  • modified food
  • organic products
  • young people
Open Access

The effect of short-term lithium treatment on head twitches induced by 5-hydroxytryptophan in mice

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 264 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

The effectiveness of lithium in the treatment of affective disorders is well documented. However, the mechanism of this effect is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lithium on serotonergic neurons. The evaluation of the serotoninergic system activity was performed on the basis of an experimental model of head twitch response triggered by direct or indirect stimulation of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in the brain. The obtained results indicated that the lithium chloride co-applied with a direct precursor of serotonin - 5-hydroxytryptophan used in a threshold dose and with carbidopa, generated head twitch response in mice. What is more, an enhancement of head twitch response in mice was observed after repeated 5-hydroxytryptophan application in head twitch-evoking doses. Moreover, inhibition of the serotonine storage in nerve endings in mice was evoked by reserpine administration. Furthermore, lithium increased the effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan given in a threshold dose and a head twitchevoking dose, respectively. In addition, when P-chlorphenylalanine (pCPA), an inhibitor of the serotonin synthesis within the serotonergic neurons, was given simultaneously with the lithium chloride, carbidopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan in the threshold dose, as well as with the lithium chloride and 5-hydroxytryptophan given at head twitchevoking dosage, pCPA administration decreased the number of head twitches responses in both experimental models, as well as in the reserpinized mice subjected to the lithium chloride and 5-hydroxytryptophan application. Finally, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamineevoked serotoninergic nerve endings destruction led to absolute inhibition of headtwitch response when observed after the lithium and 5-hydroxytryptophan application. Moreover, the increase by lithium 5-hydroxytryptophan-evoke head twitch response was inhibited by administration of the ritanserine - a 5-HT2 serotonin receptor blocking agent.

In summary, our data show that lithium induced an enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission due to its action on presynaptic serotonergic terminals.

Keywords

  • lithium
  • serotonin
  • head twitches
  • mice
Open Access

The international normalized ratio (INR) as seen in a population of patients with atrial fibrillation and cerebral infarction undergoing long-term treatment with vitamin K antagonists

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 269 - 272

Abstract

Abstract

It is estimated that nearly 20% of all cerebral infarctions in the total population are the result of a complication of atrial fibrillation (AF). While oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (AVKs) substantially reduces this risk, this requires regular monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR) in order to achieve therapeutic levels (2,0-3,0). The aim of this study was to evaluate a group at high risk of cerebral infarction, among patients with AF undergoing long-term treatment with VKAs, taking into account the significance of therapeutic INR values. The analysed group consisted of 90 acute ischaemic stroke patients with paroxysmal or chronic “non-valvular” AF, receiving treatment with VKAs. As a result of the study, therapeutic INR values (≥ 2) were seen in thirty-five of these individuals (38,8%), while 55 (61,2%) showed non-therapeutic INR values. Moreover, there were no differences in demographics, vascular risk factors, biochemical and morphological blood parameters, mean CHA2DS2-VASc score and TOAST classification between either of the two groups. Furthermore, no additional factor that would increase their risk of cerebral infarction during the adequate treatment with VKAs was found. However, patients with non-therapeutic INR values had a statistically significantly higher frequency of concomitant moderate pathology of the bicuspid valve, p<0.05. Hence, a lack of proper control of INR can proved to be particularly dangerous for this subgroup of patients. Hence, this is a group with an elevated risk of cerebral infarction and therefore requires special oversight of VKA treatment or NOA treatment.

Keywords

  • atrial fibrillation
  • cerebral infarction
  • international normalized ratio (INR)
  • vitamin K antagonists
Open Access

The impact of non-pharmacological treatments for diseases of the locomotor system on the prescribed drug use and lifestyles of the patients in the sanatoria in Busko-Zdroj

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 273 - 277

Abstract

Abstract

The article is the result of research on the impact of non-pharmacological therapies for diseases of the locomotor system on the prescribed drug use and lifestyles of the patients of the sanatoria in Busko-Zdroj. The reported research uses primary and secondary measures. The former includes the assessment of the impact of non-pharmacological sanatorium treatments for locomotor system diseases on the use of prescribed drug regimes, while the latter is aimed at assessing the patients’ quality of life. The research was conducted on adult patients of both genders in the sanatoria in Busko-Zdroj. The subjects were patients suffering from disorders of the musculoskeletal system such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and discopathies. The research included two visits, the first at the start of the research and the second at the end of the research. The patients were examined for a period of three consecutive weeks. The study involved 170 patients, 50% of them were women and 50% men.

A decline in the use of painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs makes a very interesting finding. After the first week, as many as 38% of the examined patients limited the use of painkillers and/or anti-inflammatory drugs. After the second week, 62% of the patients reduced the use of the drugs, and after the third week of treatment, up to 90% of the patients did so. The improvement of patients’ lives is noticeable in the psychological, physical and motor fields.

Keywords

  • non-pharmacological treatments
  • locomotor system
  • anty-inflammatory drugs
Open Access

Back pain and physical activity: Students of the Medical University of Lublin

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 278 - 282

Abstract

Abstract

At the present time, back pain and posture problems affect a growing number of young people. This is probably due to a changing lifestyle which has led to less physical activity. The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence of pain associated with the spine, as well as to ascertain the relationship of these symptoms with the degree of physical activity among a group of students of the Medical University of Lublin. The research group consisted of 301 students (201 women and 100 men) aged between 19 and 27 years. The survey was performed at the turn of the year 2014/2015.

Based on an anonymous questionnaires, we found that treatment and advice obtained at the faulty posture and/or orthopedic clinic benefited slightly more than 32% of all respondents. In this group, about 20% were women, while among men, it was a little over 12%. Physical therapy to treat back problems was also entered into by about 29% of the respondents, while 5% of students undertook such treatment very frequently. What is more, 89% of all respondents stated they regularly attend physical education classes. Moreover, more than 81% of all students surveyed practiced some sport, in this group - about 51% of the respondents stating so were women, and a little over 29% were men. Although medical students are a group of people with high health issue awareness, they are not deprived of problems related to the musculoskeletal system.

Keywords

  • back pain
  • health behaviors
  • physical activity
  • young people
Open Access

Therapeutic management of an injury of the upper incisor within complete root formation

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 283 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

A 9.5 year-old patient, following an accident, suffered a comminuted lateral fracture of the root of tooth 21 at the neck level. The treatment consisted of immobilizing and maintaining tooth vitality. The presented case provides a basis for the conclusion that premature radical, surgical and endodontic actions should not always be performed.

Keywords

  • injuries of teeth
  • root fractures
  • dental injury epidemiology
  • complications of dental injury
15 Articles
Open Access

The influence of hydrophylic polymers on the release rate of calcium dobesilate in hydrogel formulation assessed in vitro using porcine ear skin

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 225 - 230

Abstract

Abstract

A shortage of available experimental data exists in the available bibliography on the release rate of calcium dobesilate (CD) from hydrogel formulations. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selected hydrophilic nonionic polymers and anionic polymers on the release rate of CD from formulation provided for dermal application, as compared to the reference product in the market. The work utilized excised pork skin, while, Methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and anionic polymers (copolymers of acrylic acid) were used as CD carriers. The release study was executed by the pharmacopoeial paddle method, with extraction cells and fresh excised porcine skin as a membrane. CD in aqueous acceptor fluid was quantified by UV-VIS spectrometry at 300 nm. Subsequently, the kinetic curves were fitted to a zero-order kinetics model, a first-order kinetics model, a second-order kinetics model, as well as to the Higuchi model. The work saw that porcine ear skin influences the release pattern of the CD, compared to the artificial membrane. In the study, the evaluated formulations with MC, polyacrylic acid (PA) and polyacrylate crosspolymer 11 (PC-11) deliver over 60% of the active component (AC), within 250 min, through the excised porcine ear skin, to the acceptor compartment. Moreover, the release observed via porcine ear skin to the aqueous acceptor compartment is congenial to zero-order or first-order kinetics. In addition, the formulations prepared on the basis of MC and PA appear to control AC delivery, independently of actual concentration of AC.

Keywords

  • porcine skin
  • release rate constant
  • extraction cell
  • calcium dobesilate
  • non-ionic polymers
  • anionic polymers
Open Access

In vitro study: binding of 99mTc-DPD to synthetic amyloid fibrils

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 231 - 235

Abstract

Abstract

This paper is an report of the investigation of the in vitro binding of 99mTc-DPD for synthetic amyloid fibrils used for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis (CA), as compared with the use of 99mTc-HMDP and 99mTc-PPI. It also includes an inquiry into the role played by Ca2+ ions and serum proteins on binding to amyloid like materials, as well as the saturability and specificity of DPD for fibrils versus amorphous precipitates (AP).

In the work, synthetic insulin fibrils (SIF) and AP were characterized by Congo red staining and TEM imaging. An equal amount of three radiopharmaceuticals were then added to fibrils in Ca2+ (0-4.2 mmol/L) or human serum (HS) adjoined samples and radiopharmaceutical uptake was assessed. To test the saturability of amyloid binding sites, a displacement assays with cold DPD was performed, while adding 50-1500 nmol of 99mTc-DPD to SIF or AP, saturation binding tests were subsequently carried out for evaluating its specificity for amyloid.

Herein, synthetic fibrils and AP showed conformational differences at TEM and polarized microscopy analysis. In our study, 99mTc-DPD fibrils uptake was seen to be the highest and increased with calcium ions concentration. What is more, serum proteins reduced the bound fraction to the amyloid deposits of about 15%, and the Kd values of 90 nM and 114 nM relative to SIF and AP, respectively, did not significantly differ.

We saw that 99mTc-DPD is the best seeker for amyloid fibrils in cardiac amyloidosis, and that Ca2+ concentration positively influenced DPD fibrils binding. Furthermore, the radioactivity bound to the serum protein clear up the idea of nuclide exchanging dynamic balance between amyloid and circulating proteins. Moreover, non-labeled DPD did not exert a competition for 99mTc-DPD binding sites, and, finally, DPD cannot be defined a radiopharmaceutical specific for amyloid deposits.

Keywords

  • nuclear medicine imaging
  • cardiac amyloidosis
  • 99mTc-diphosphonates
  • amyloid synthetic fibrils
Open Access

Serum leptin concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 236 - 240

Abstract

Abstract

With the increasing importance of early type 2 diabetes (DM2) and obesity detection, it is useful to reevaluate leptin role in these conditions. Our study aimed at investigating circulating leptin concentrations in a group of patients with DM2, and at assessing in detail whether leptin concentrations correlate with selected biochemical, clinical parameters and markers of systemic inflammation in patients with DM2 and in healthy volunteers. In our work, we analysed samples and data drawn from 71 patients aged 61.4 ± 11.7 years, who have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, as well as from a healthy control group (HC) consisting of 51 healthy subjects with a mean age of 57.8 ± 13.7 years. Therein, the concentration of leptin in the DM2 patients was significantly higher than in the HC (p < 0.01), with median value of 16.59 (IQR 8.58-33.39) ng/ml in the DM2, vs median value of 6.66 (IQR 4.52-21.40) ng/ml in the HC. In the analysis of variance, higher leptin concentrations were revealed in the DM2 group as compared to the HC, and this figure remained significant after adjusting for gender and age (p < 0.001). Moreover, it was independent of HOMA-IR (p = 0.003). However, the differences in leptin levels between the groups disappeared when additional adjustments for anthropometric parameters (BMI, waist circumference) were applied (p = 0.088). Beyond the aforementioned, significant positive correlations were found in the DM 2 group between leptin level and CRP (r=0.256; p < 0.05) and IL-6 (r = 0.345; p < 0.01). Among the selected variables, only gender and BMI were included in the predictive model explaining the variability of leptin, and, in total, were responsible for 72.6% of the original variation of the studied adipocytokine. The results of this study have led to conclusion that leptin may participate in the complex pathogenesis of DM2 and be a predictor of the development of this disease. As higher concentrations of leptin coexist with obesity, and this situation correlates positively with markers of inflammation (CRP, IL-6), leptin level, hence, should be considered in the pathogenesis of DM2.

Keywords

  • leptin
  • adipocytokines
  • adipose tissue
  • type 2 diabetes
Open Access

A brief analysis of patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers in Almaty hospital №1

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 241 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

Peptic ulcers are a serious problem worldwide, and affect about 4 million people each year. Their etiology is connected with the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the act of smoking, drinking alcohol, being stress, and taking excessively nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as steroids. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, chest pain and fatigue, while less frequent symptoms include vomiting and weight loss. Helicobacter pylori is responsible for about 80% of gastric and 90% of duodenal ulcer cases. In this work, an analysis is made of a correlation between stomach or duodenal ulcer and gender, residence and number of patients hospitalized in the Almaty hospital №1, from 2009-2012, in order to learn about trends in the incidence of these diseases in Kazakhstan. A total number of 950 patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, in 2009-2012, were questioned. The patient’s residence, gender and stomach or duodenal ulcer problem were taken into account in the study. The result of this work reveals that the largest amount of hospitalized patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers came from urban areas. Moreover, more women than men suffered from peptic ulcers. Furthermore, the number of patients admitted to the hospital due to duodenal ulcers did not show any variation throughout the study. However, the least number of patients suffering from gastric ulcers was noticed in December 2009, and the greatest was in October and November 2011. The obtained data show that ulcers are a serious problem in Kazakhstan.

Keywords

  • stomach ulcer
  • duodenal ulcer
  • hospital
Open Access

BMI in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 244 - 246

Abstract

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease of multicasual etiology. The risk factors include obesity, among other issues. Hence, it is extremely important to determine the effect of body weight on the severity of OSA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the body weight expressed as body mass index (BMI), on the value of upper airways diameter and on the AHI (Apnea-Hypopnea Index) value. The study was comprised of 41 patients diagnosed with OSA by way of polysomnography. Each patient was first examine via a lateral cephalometric image of the skull, which served to measure the upper and lower diameter of the upper airways. BMI was also calculated for each patient. Statistical analysis was carried out in accordance with Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Our work demonstrated a negative correlation between BMI and the diameter of the upper airways, and a positive correlation between BMI and AHI value. We thus put forward that the increase in body weight in patients with OSA can contribute to the severity of the disease, regardless of the fact that it may not lead to a reduction of the lumen of the upper airways.

Keywords

  • obstructive sleep apnea
  • cephalometric analysis
  • upper airways
  • body mass index
Open Access

Littoral cell angioma mimicking metastatic tumors

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 247 - 249

Abstract

Abstract

Littoral cell angioma is a rare primary, vascular tumor thought to originate from the endothelial cells lining the sinuses of the splenic red pulp (the “littoral cells”). It is a benign, usually asymptomatic lesion diagnosed incidentally. Ultrasound and tomography appearance is not characteristic and histopathological examination is required. This work provides a case-study of littoral cell angioma which was seen in a 55-year-old female who complained of non-specific upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed multiple hypo-attenuated splenic lesions suggestive for metastasis. A splenectomy was performed and routine microscopic examination supported by immunohistochemistry reactions with CD68, CD34 and CD31 showed littoral cell angioma.

Keywords

  • littoral cell angioma
  • spleen
  • splenic tumor
  • splenic metastasis
Open Access

The incidence of oral dryness in people over 65 years living in Lublin

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 250 - 253

Abstract

Abstract

Saliva plays an important part in naturally maintaining oral homeostasis. Dry mouth or 'xerostomia', is a serious problem connected with decreased saliva secretion which considerably limits the quality of life in elderly people. The aim of the study was the assessment of the subjective oral dryness in the oral mucosa in people over 65 living in Lublin, Poland. The study was conducted among 240 people aged 65 to 96. The patients were placed into two groups: I - 117 residents of nursing homes, II - 123 people living with their families. Assessment of the subjective oral dryness taking into account the place of residence, sex and drug administration was performed based on a questionnaire survey. In the group of nursing homes residents, 32.48% of the surveyed experienced subjective oral dryness, while among the seniors living with their families, 33.33% reported this kind of discomfort. The conducted analysis revealed that oral dryness was more common amongst women than men, and it can be very often a side-effect of administered medicine drugs.

Keywords

  • saliva
  • elderly people
  • xerostomia
Open Access

Determination of free and bounded phenolic acids in the rhizomes and herb of Sanguisorba officinalis L.

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 254 - 256

Abstract

Abstract

An analysis of the fractions of free acids and phenolic acids liberated by way of hydrolysis in the rhizomes and herbaceous tissues of Sanguisorba officinalis L. was conducted through utilizing the 2D-TLC method. Fifteen phenolic acids were identified. Our work showed that ellagic, protocatechuic, gentisic, p-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, vannilic and ferulic acids were common in all tested fractions, and gallic and protocatechuic acids were dominant in fractions obtained from the rhizomes, while caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vannilic and ferulic acids were abundant in the herbaceous tissues. However, α and β - resorcylic acids were detected only in rhizome phenolic acid fractions liberated from their conjunction with sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, chlorogenic acid was present only in a free form in the herbaceous tissues, while p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was liberated from conjunction from a herbaceous extract.

Keywords

  • Sanguisorba officinalis L.
  • phenolic acids
  • 2D-thin layer chromatography
Open Access

Antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether and methanolic extracts from fruits of Seseli devenyense Simonk. and the herb of Peucedanum luxurians Tamam.

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 257 - 259

Abstract

Abstract

Plants of the Apiaceae family usually contain coumarins. These are used worldwide in traditional medicine, as well as in modern therapeutics. The aim of our study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of four extracts (methanolic and petroleum ether extracts) obtained from two Apiaceae species: Seseli devenyense (fruits) and Peucedanum luxurians (herb).

The activity of the investigated extracts was tested against 7 strains of Gram+ bacteria, and 7 strains of Gram-, as well as three of yeast. The results of this show that the best activity of such extracts (specifically, by way of petroleum ether) was seen as being against Staphylococcus aureus strains.

Keywords

  • Peucedanum luxurians
  • Seseli devenyense
  • coumarins
  • antimicrobial
  • Staphylococcus
Open Access

Do you know what you eat? Students of the Medical University of Lublin and food consumption awareness

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 260 - 263

Abstract

Abstract

At the present time, consumers are paying more attention to the food items they purchase, and, hence, organic products, more and more, are a popular choice. Furthermore, there is an increased awareness of the ingredients added as fixatives and taste modifiers. Medical students are assumed to have greater health awareness, and to recognize that proper nutrition has a significant impact on the overall physical well-being. Moreover, they are thought to be aware of the chemical composition of consumed foods. The aim of our study was to truly assess the degree of consumer awareness amongst students of the Medical University of Lublin.

The research study consisted of 301 students of the I and II years, the work being performed at the turn of the year 2014/2015. The research tool was an anonymous questionnaire. This contained questions regarding their degree of healthy food awareness of retailed food products.

The results of this study revealed that about 44% of the respondents always or often pay attention to the composition of the food products which they buy. Indeed, the highest percentage of all respondents declared that their purchase of food products is guided by the declared (labeled) composition (48.84% of the students coming from urban settings, and 55.81% coming from rural districts). Of note, regarding products labeled organic, from both urban and rural origin, such items were chosen by approximately 50% of the respondents. Finally, only a small percentage of students (about 9% overall) stated that they avoid foods stated to contain preservatives.

In summary, despite the increasing availability of healthy foods, such items are not too often chosen by UM students - Indeed, despite the large biomedical knowledge purportedly held, medical students, in particular, do not avoid foods containing preservatives.

Keywords

  • modified food
  • organic products
  • young people
Open Access

The effect of short-term lithium treatment on head twitches induced by 5-hydroxytryptophan in mice

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 264 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

The effectiveness of lithium in the treatment of affective disorders is well documented. However, the mechanism of this effect is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lithium on serotonergic neurons. The evaluation of the serotoninergic system activity was performed on the basis of an experimental model of head twitch response triggered by direct or indirect stimulation of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in the brain. The obtained results indicated that the lithium chloride co-applied with a direct precursor of serotonin - 5-hydroxytryptophan used in a threshold dose and with carbidopa, generated head twitch response in mice. What is more, an enhancement of head twitch response in mice was observed after repeated 5-hydroxytryptophan application in head twitch-evoking doses. Moreover, inhibition of the serotonine storage in nerve endings in mice was evoked by reserpine administration. Furthermore, lithium increased the effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan given in a threshold dose and a head twitchevoking dose, respectively. In addition, when P-chlorphenylalanine (pCPA), an inhibitor of the serotonin synthesis within the serotonergic neurons, was given simultaneously with the lithium chloride, carbidopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan in the threshold dose, as well as with the lithium chloride and 5-hydroxytryptophan given at head twitchevoking dosage, pCPA administration decreased the number of head twitches responses in both experimental models, as well as in the reserpinized mice subjected to the lithium chloride and 5-hydroxytryptophan application. Finally, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamineevoked serotoninergic nerve endings destruction led to absolute inhibition of headtwitch response when observed after the lithium and 5-hydroxytryptophan application. Moreover, the increase by lithium 5-hydroxytryptophan-evoke head twitch response was inhibited by administration of the ritanserine - a 5-HT2 serotonin receptor blocking agent.

In summary, our data show that lithium induced an enhancement of serotonergic neurotransmission due to its action on presynaptic serotonergic terminals.

Keywords

  • lithium
  • serotonin
  • head twitches
  • mice
Open Access

The international normalized ratio (INR) as seen in a population of patients with atrial fibrillation and cerebral infarction undergoing long-term treatment with vitamin K antagonists

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 269 - 272

Abstract

Abstract

It is estimated that nearly 20% of all cerebral infarctions in the total population are the result of a complication of atrial fibrillation (AF). While oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (AVKs) substantially reduces this risk, this requires regular monitoring of the international normalized ratio (INR) in order to achieve therapeutic levels (2,0-3,0). The aim of this study was to evaluate a group at high risk of cerebral infarction, among patients with AF undergoing long-term treatment with VKAs, taking into account the significance of therapeutic INR values. The analysed group consisted of 90 acute ischaemic stroke patients with paroxysmal or chronic “non-valvular” AF, receiving treatment with VKAs. As a result of the study, therapeutic INR values (≥ 2) were seen in thirty-five of these individuals (38,8%), while 55 (61,2%) showed non-therapeutic INR values. Moreover, there were no differences in demographics, vascular risk factors, biochemical and morphological blood parameters, mean CHA2DS2-VASc score and TOAST classification between either of the two groups. Furthermore, no additional factor that would increase their risk of cerebral infarction during the adequate treatment with VKAs was found. However, patients with non-therapeutic INR values had a statistically significantly higher frequency of concomitant moderate pathology of the bicuspid valve, p<0.05. Hence, a lack of proper control of INR can proved to be particularly dangerous for this subgroup of patients. Hence, this is a group with an elevated risk of cerebral infarction and therefore requires special oversight of VKA treatment or NOA treatment.

Keywords

  • atrial fibrillation
  • cerebral infarction
  • international normalized ratio (INR)
  • vitamin K antagonists
Open Access

The impact of non-pharmacological treatments for diseases of the locomotor system on the prescribed drug use and lifestyles of the patients in the sanatoria in Busko-Zdroj

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 273 - 277

Abstract

Abstract

The article is the result of research on the impact of non-pharmacological therapies for diseases of the locomotor system on the prescribed drug use and lifestyles of the patients of the sanatoria in Busko-Zdroj. The reported research uses primary and secondary measures. The former includes the assessment of the impact of non-pharmacological sanatorium treatments for locomotor system diseases on the use of prescribed drug regimes, while the latter is aimed at assessing the patients’ quality of life. The research was conducted on adult patients of both genders in the sanatoria in Busko-Zdroj. The subjects were patients suffering from disorders of the musculoskeletal system such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and discopathies. The research included two visits, the first at the start of the research and the second at the end of the research. The patients were examined for a period of three consecutive weeks. The study involved 170 patients, 50% of them were women and 50% men.

A decline in the use of painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs makes a very interesting finding. After the first week, as many as 38% of the examined patients limited the use of painkillers and/or anti-inflammatory drugs. After the second week, 62% of the patients reduced the use of the drugs, and after the third week of treatment, up to 90% of the patients did so. The improvement of patients’ lives is noticeable in the psychological, physical and motor fields.

Keywords

  • non-pharmacological treatments
  • locomotor system
  • anty-inflammatory drugs
Open Access

Back pain and physical activity: Students of the Medical University of Lublin

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 278 - 282

Abstract

Abstract

At the present time, back pain and posture problems affect a growing number of young people. This is probably due to a changing lifestyle which has led to less physical activity. The aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence of pain associated with the spine, as well as to ascertain the relationship of these symptoms with the degree of physical activity among a group of students of the Medical University of Lublin. The research group consisted of 301 students (201 women and 100 men) aged between 19 and 27 years. The survey was performed at the turn of the year 2014/2015.

Based on an anonymous questionnaires, we found that treatment and advice obtained at the faulty posture and/or orthopedic clinic benefited slightly more than 32% of all respondents. In this group, about 20% were women, while among men, it was a little over 12%. Physical therapy to treat back problems was also entered into by about 29% of the respondents, while 5% of students undertook such treatment very frequently. What is more, 89% of all respondents stated they regularly attend physical education classes. Moreover, more than 81% of all students surveyed practiced some sport, in this group - about 51% of the respondents stating so were women, and a little over 29% were men. Although medical students are a group of people with high health issue awareness, they are not deprived of problems related to the musculoskeletal system.

Keywords

  • back pain
  • health behaviors
  • physical activity
  • young people
Open Access

Therapeutic management of an injury of the upper incisor within complete root formation

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Page range: 283 - 284

Abstract

Abstract

A 9.5 year-old patient, following an accident, suffered a comminuted lateral fracture of the root of tooth 21 at the neck level. The treatment consisted of immobilizing and maintaining tooth vitality. The presented case provides a basis for the conclusion that premature radical, surgical and endodontic actions should not always be performed.

Keywords

  • injuries of teeth
  • root fractures
  • dental injury epidemiology
  • complications of dental injury

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