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4th International Conference “Advances in Surgical Oncology”: Cytoreductive Surgery & Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Lublin

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-6676
ISSN
2084-980X
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 27 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-6676
ISSN
2084-980X
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

Identification of Bacillus spp. colonizing the nasal mucosa of healthy adults living in the suburban area using the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 137 - 141

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Bacillus spp. can be regarded as a rare component of the nasal mucosa microflora. The aim of this study was to identify Bacillus spp. from the nasal mucosa of healthy adults living in the suburban area near Lublin using the matrix-assisted laser desorptionionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system.

A total of 11 bacterial isolates from the nasal specimens were cultured. The following species were identified using the routine microbiological methods: Staphylococcus aureus (3 isolates), S. epidermidis (1 isolate), S. intermedius (1 isolate) and Staphylococcus spp. (1 isolate). Moreover, 2 strains of Escherichia coli were isolated. Besides, 3 isolates of Bacillus spp. were found. These isolates were characterized by means of MALDI-TOF MS, resulting in highly specific mass spectral fingerprints and these were identified as B. pumilus, B. safenis and B. licheniformis. It was observed that all studied Bacillus spp. isolates only had the masses in common at 3864 ± 2, 7727 ± 2, and 14301 ± 4. The spectra of B. safensis and B. pumilus showed peaks at m/z 4914 ± 3, 6621 ± 3 and 14291 ± 2, which were absent in the spectrum of B. licheniformis. For B. safenis and B. pumilus, other potential biomarkers could be found at m/z 12620 and 16668, respectively.

Keywords

  • Bacillus spp.
  • nasal mucosa
  • MALDI-TOF MS
Open Access

Identificatin and quantiative analysis of amyrins in Humulus lupulus L.

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 142 - 144

Abstract

ABSTRACT

In the paper, the identification and quantification of α- and β-amyrin in five varieties of Humulus lupulus is described. The plant samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed using of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with PAD detection. The separation was achieved on RP 18 column, at 2 mL/min flow rate and at temperature of 35°C. Acetonitrile was used as a mobile phase. The established calibration curves and the other validation parameters: linearity (correlation coefficient r > 0.9988) and precision (RSD values ranged from 0.14 to 1.81%) were found to be satisfactory for the proposed method. The content of α- and β-amyrin strongly depended on varieties of H. lupulus and amounted from 72.7 to 232.5 μg/g and from 77.9 to 176.9 μg/g of dry plant material, respectively.

Keywords

  • amyrin
  • Humulus lupulus
  • triterpenes
Open Access

Application of atomic absorption spectrometry with continuous light source to analyze selected metals important for human health in different parts of oranges

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 145 - 147

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The publication describes the application of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (H-R CS AAS) to determine some physiologically essential and toxic elements occurring in citrus fruits of different origins. Before analysis, the samples were mineralized using a mixture of deionized water and 69% nitric acid 3:1 (v/v) in high pressure microwave digestion at 188°C during one hour.

The obtained validation parameters for AAS such as high linearity (the correlation coefficient R > 0.997) and high precision expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD) were satisfactory for quantification.

Cadmium at concentration range from 0.29 to 0.43 mg/kg was determined in all tested samples, however the obtained values did not exceed Polish standards. The higher concentration of potassium comparing to sodium and calcium was noted in each investigated samples. The highest variation was observed for calcium, its concentration strongly depended on the country of origin.

Keywords

  • H-R CS AAS
  • metal ions
  • elements
  • trace analysis
  • oranges
Open Access

Application of low-level laser radiation with TiO2, Ag/TiO2 and S/TiO2 on Streptococcus salivarius isolated from the oral cavity

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 148 - 150

Abstract

ABSTRACT

In our research, we determine the effect of low-level laser irradiation with nanoparticles on Streptococcus salivarius. Photodynamic killing of periodontopathogenic bacteria may be an alternative to the systemic application of antibacterial drugs used in the treatment of periodontal diseases. The application of photosensitizing nanoparticles and their excitation by visible light of blue spectra enables effective killing of periodontopathogens. This data combined with the results demonstrates that TiO2, AgTiO2 and S/TiO2 can inhibit the proliferation of Streptococcus salivarius due to its high photocatalytic activity, which irreversibly damages the cell walls and membranes.

Keywords

  • Streptococcus salivarius
  • oral cavity
  • low-level laser radiation
  • photodynamic treatment
  • nanoparticles
Open Access

Structure of non-reimbursed and reimbursed therapeutic procedures provided at a general dental care office

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 151 - 154

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Dental care in Poland is based both on the public system (reimbursement by the National Health Fund) and on the private funding (non-reimbursed). The aim of the paper was an analysis of the structure of non-reimbursed and reimbursed therapeutic procedures provided at a general dental care office. The study material was medical documentation of 669 patients treated for 3 months (the third quarter of 2013) at a general dental care office. The structure of therapeutic procedures, with the exception of orthodontic and prosthetic treatment, was analyzed, taking into account the patients’ gender, age, place of residence, the kind of procedure, and the payment type they made. The procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund constituted 60.1% of all the procedures provided to patients at a dental office. Both among the procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund and non-reimbursed procedures, the therapeutic procedures prevailed significantly over the prophylactic ones; in all age groups conservative treatment was predominant. An increase in the number of extractions in patients over 40 years of age, in comparison to younger patients, was found. The number of the dental procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund, compared to the number of the non-reimbursed ones, increased with the patients’ age.

Keywords

  • general dentistry
  • dental treatment
  • funding source
Open Access

Effect of intervertebral disc disease on scoliosis in the lumbar spine

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 155 - 158

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Lumbar intervertebral discopathy is a common clinical problem and a significant cause of low back pain. Usually it is associated with overload and damage to the intervertebral disc, which directly relates to the instability of the motion segment. Renal normal anatomy between tissues within the spinal canal is a cause of the reflex curvature of the spine, the goal is to increase the volume of the spinal channel and reduce the compression of the nerve tissue. Knee-jerk reaction to pain is an non physiological change of the setting of the spine in the frontal plane.

The aim of the study was to establish the relationship of migration of the intervertebral disc with reflex scoliosis in the lumbar region in patients with lumbar disc herniation.

Material and methods. The studies involved 78 patients aged 18-55 years with damaged intervertebral disc with annulus fibrosus of the bulge in the posterior-lateral direction. The study used multi-row spiral CT scanner.

Results. In the patients, reflex lateral curvature was observed. The angle of scoliosis was measured with Cobb method; it did not exceed 10 degrees. It was also established that spontaneously the shallowing of lumbar lordosis and vertical alignment of the sacrum occured.

Conclusion. The study shows that in most patients diagnosed with lateral migration of the intervertebral disc there develops a slight lateral curvature of the spine, which is a reflex reaction of axial musculoskeletal to discogenic pain.

Keywords

  • displacement of the intervertebral disc
  • lumbar curvature of the spine
  • CT
Open Access

Association between concentration of melatonin, and lipoproteins, LPO, hsCRP, NTproBNP in chronic heart failure patients

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 159 - 164

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to examine concentrations and relationships between melatonin levels assessed at 0:200 hrs and 0:700 hrs, lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) assessed at 0:200 hrs and 0:700 hrs, and apolipoprotein (apo)AI, apoAII, apoB, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and NT-proBNP, in 27 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) (17 patients - with NYHA class II and 10 - with NYHA class III). In the study, Lipoproteins apoAI, apoAII, apoB, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were determined by way of immunonephelometric methods, serum melatonin concentration was measured by using a competitive enzyme immunoassay technique, while serum LPO concentration was measured by using Cayman’s Lipid Hydroperoxide Assay Kit. In the study, CHF patients without acute inflammatory response demonstrated a decreased concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apoAI, apoAII levels, but an increased concentration of NT-proBNP, hsCRP and LPO at night, and LPO at daytime; however, the concentration of LPO at 0:700 was lower than at 0:200. Pearson’s correlation test and multiple ridge stepwise regression showed that melatonin administered at night exerts an effect on the composition of apoAI and apoAII of HDL particles, and induces decreased LPO at 0:700, but has no effect upon NT-proBNP levels in patients with NYHA class II. However, in patients with NYHA class III, melatonin administered at night induces an increase in the content of apoAII and apoAI, which further decreases hsCRP, and this, together with the administered melatonin, brings about daytime decreases in NT-proBNP and hsCRP levels. The results indicated that the content of apoAII and apoAI in HDL particles and melatonin demonstrate an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and together, have a cardio-protective effect on patients with advanced CHF. Hence, the results support melatonin being a cardio-protective agent. These relationships, however, need to be confirmed in further studies.

Keywords

  • lipoproteins
  • hsCRP
  • melatonin
  • oxidative stress
  • chronic heart failure
Open Access

Comparison of the free and total light chain assays in serum and urine samples with immunofixation electrophoresis for detecting monoclonal proteins in patients with monoclonal gammopathy

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 165 - 170

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal protein (M-protein) is produced by a malignant clone of plasma cells. Detected in serum and/or urine, this typically indicates multiple myeloma (MM) or other monoclonal gammopathy (MG). In a majority of MM cases, with the production of intact monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig), malignant plasmocytes and/or B lymphocytes often produce excessive amounts of free light chains (FLCs). Excessive synthesis of FLCs lowers the ability of renal proximal tubules to re-absorb FLCs, which results in abnormally high levels of FLCs in the urine (Bence Jones protein, BJP). In laboratory practice, there are tests available for the quantitative measurement of only FLCs κ and λ or for total light chains (TLCs). These tests measure both free forms and bound in the (Ig) molecules forms as light chains that are evident in the serum and in urine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the FLCs and TLCs approaches in screening serum and urine samples of patients with MM, doing so in comparison to the results of immunofixation (IFE) assessment. A second purpose was to assess the suitability of the collected material for obtaining the most reliable results. The results of serum FLCs (sFLCs) assays suggest that this approach is of the highest reliability and diagnostic usefulness in the detection of MG with excess production of FLCs, in comparison to other available tests. In our work, when κ band light chains were detected in serum IFE (sIFE), 91% patients had their FLCs concentrations beyond the reference range, whereas 89% patients had increased λ FLCs when λ band light chains were detected in sIFE. We also found abnormal sFLC κ/λ ratios in 86.4% and 88.9% of all subject patients who had κ or λ band light chains detected in their sIFE, respectively.

Keywords

  • free light chains
  • total light chains
  • monoclonal gammopathy
  • multiple myeloma
  • immunofixation
Open Access

The origin of the inferior epigastric artery in relation to the inguinal ligament in various periods of human life

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 171 - 174

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the origin of the inferior epigastric artery, in relation to the inguinal ligament, in various stages of human life. The study was conducted on randomly selected 220 non-fixed cadavers, including 110 males and 110 females, from the age of the 7th month of prenatal life, to 82 years. In all examined bodies, the inferior epigastric artery originated mostly from the external iliac, or less commonly, from the femoral artery. Three types of origin were observed: above, at the level or below the ligament. In males, the lowest incidence of typical anatomical origin, over the ligament, was observed in the group aged 60-69 years. Herein, the artery departed usually on the level of the ligament. The highest incidence of typical anatomical origin was found during the prenatal period and among children. Similar data, but with higher asymmetry, was revealed among females. The lowest incidence of typical origin was seen on the left side in the group aged 60-69. Less commonly, the artery originated at the level or occasionally below the ligament. In conclusion, the origin of the inferior epigastric artery differs throughout prenatal and postnatal life, in both sexes. However, it is usually located above the inguinal ligament.

Keywords

  • inferior epigastric artery
  • external iliac artery
  • pelvis
  • inguinal ligament
Open Access

Consumption and awareness of students about nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 175 - 178

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used by millions of people worldwide to neutralize pain that is of different origin, as well as to treat fever and inflammation. However, NSAIDs misuse/overuse can induce many adverse effects and some potentially serious complications. The aim of the our study was to ascertain young people’s knowledge about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The research tool was a questionnaire. This study was carried out among students of the Medical University in Lublin, and it involved 236 persons of an average age of 20 years. The questions were intended to assess the frequency of NSAIDs use and the general knowledge that is held with respect to them. The results of this work show that more than 77% of the respondents confirmed that they use NSAIDs. Our results revealed no statistical correlation between the place of living or origin and the use of this drug. Hence, it can be said that while young adults quite often use NSAIDs, their knowledge about the dangers associated with the use of NSAIDs is low. Therefore, it is necessary to more intensively disseminate knowledge on the potential adverse effects of NSAID utilization.

Keywords

  • NSAIDs
  • pain
  • inflammation
  • fever
  • adverse effects
Open Access

The expression BIRC6 gene in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia – a preliminary study

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 179 - 182

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The BIRC6 gene encodes the Bruce (Apollon) protein. This belongs to the III class of Inhibitors of the Apoptosis Protein (IAP) and demonstrates anti-apoptotic activity (binding, inhibiting and degrading the caspases). Moreover, the Bruce protein shows multilevel activities and additional functions. The Bruce protein is involved in the maintenance of cell viability, and it is also suggested that it plays an important role in cell proliferation and diversification. Many researchers have noticed elevated BIRC6 gene expression in cell lines of brain cancer and ovarian carcinoma, leukemia, breast cancer and even in colorectal cancer tissues. Resistance to chemotherapy-inducted apoptosis in cancers characterized by BIRC6 gene over-expression was also reported. The aim of the study was to assess the BIRC6 gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Keywords

  • apoptosis
  • BIRC6 gene
  • Apollon
  • Bruce
  • CLL
  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Open Access

An adverse events potential costs analysis based on Drug Programs in Poland. Dermatology focus

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 183 - 186

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The aim of the project, carried out within the Polish Society for Pharmacoeconomics (PTFE), was to estimate the potential costs of treatment of the side effects which (theoretically) may occur as a result of treatments for the selected diseases. This paper deals solely with dermatology related events. Herein, several Drug Programs financed by the National Health Fund in Poland, in 2012, were analyzed. The adverse events were selected based on the Summary of Product Characteristics of the chosen products. We focused the project on those potential adverse events which were defined in SPC as frequent and very frequent. The results are presented according to their therapeutic areas, and in this paper, the focus is upon that which is related to dermatology. The events described as ‘very common’ had an incidence of ≥ 1/10, and that which is ‘common’ - ≥ 1/100, <1 /10. In order to identify the resources used, we, with the engagement of clinical experts, performed a survey. In our work, we employed only the total direct costs incurred by the public payer, based on valid individual cost data in February 2014. Moreover, we calculated the total spending from the public payer’s perspective, as well as the patient’s perspective, and the percentage of each component of the total cost in detail. The paper, thus, informs the reader of the estimated costs of treatment of side effects related to the dermatologic symptoms and reactions. Based on our work, we can state that the treatment of skin adverse drug reactions generates a significant cost - one incurred by both the public payer and the patient.

Keywords

  • the cost treatment
  • adverse events
  • dermatology
Open Access

Compressional, mechanical and release properties of a novel gum in paracetamol tablet formulations

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 187 - 194

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The binding properties of Eucalyptus gum obtained from the incised trunk of Eucalyptus tereticornis, were evaluated in paracetamol tablet formulations, in comparison with that of Gelatin B.P. In so doing, the compression properties were analyzed using density measurements and the compression equations of Heckel, Kawakita and Gurham. In our work, the mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using the crushing strength and friability of the tablets, while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times. The results of the study reveal that tablet formulations incorporating Eucalyptus gum as binder, exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing gelatin. What is more, the Gurnham equation could be used as a substitute for the Kawakita equation in describing the compression properties of pharmaceutical tablets. Furthermore, the crushing strength, disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets increased with binder concentration, while friability values decreased. We noted that no significant differences in properties exist between formulations derived from the two binders (p > 0.05) exist. While tablets incorporating gelatin exhibited higher values for mechanical properties, Eucalyptus gum tablets had better balance between mechanical and release properties - as seen from the CSFR/Dt values. Tablets of good mechanical and release properties were prepared using Eucalyptus gum as a binder, and, therefore, it could serve as an alternative binder in producing tablets with good mechanical strength and fast drug release.

Keywords

  • Eucalyptus gum
  • binding agent
  • compression properties
  • drug release
Open Access

Selected caries diagnostic methods

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 195 - 198

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Standard caries diagnostic methods include a visual tactile method, as well as several radiographic methods. The former is a subjective method, while bitewing radiographs and digital radiographs (radiovisiography) enable detection of caries lesions only after 30% of hard dental tissue mineral substances have been lost. The paper presents methods based on electrical and optical phenomena that allow early caries diagnosis. Strengths and weaknesses of each presented method are discussed, basing this on recent literature review. The methods of caries detection generally used in daily clinical practice, combined with alternative methods, make it possible to significantly increase the effectiveness of dental caries diagnosis.

Keywords

  • dental caries
  • caries detection
  • diagnostic methods
Open Access

The prevalence of enteroviruses that cause respiratory infections in patients with influenzavirus A/H1N1 hospitalized in the Lublin province

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 199 - 201

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Viruses that cause respiratory tract infections are the most common agents of infectious diseases in humans throughout the world. A virus that infects the respiratory system, may induce various clinical symptoms. What is more, the same symptoms may be caused by different viruses. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of enteroviruses that cause respiratory infections in patients with influenzavirus A/H1N1 hospitalized in the Lublin province. The experimental material was throat and nose swabs taken from patients hospitalized in Lublin and Tomaszow Lubelski. In the group of 44 patients (20 women and 24 men) infected with influenza A/H1N1, the genetic material of enteroviruses was detected in 13 patients (29.5%). Respiratory viruses co-infections are very common in hospitalized patients. Studies show that co-infection with influenza virus and enterovirus are more common in children than in adults. Moreover, viral respiratory tract infections are independent from the patients’ gender.

Keywords

  • influenzavirus
  • enterovirus
  • rhinovirus
  • respiratory infections
  • coinfection
15 Articles
Open Access

Identification of Bacillus spp. colonizing the nasal mucosa of healthy adults living in the suburban area using the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 137 - 141

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Bacillus spp. can be regarded as a rare component of the nasal mucosa microflora. The aim of this study was to identify Bacillus spp. from the nasal mucosa of healthy adults living in the suburban area near Lublin using the matrix-assisted laser desorptionionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system.

A total of 11 bacterial isolates from the nasal specimens were cultured. The following species were identified using the routine microbiological methods: Staphylococcus aureus (3 isolates), S. epidermidis (1 isolate), S. intermedius (1 isolate) and Staphylococcus spp. (1 isolate). Moreover, 2 strains of Escherichia coli were isolated. Besides, 3 isolates of Bacillus spp. were found. These isolates were characterized by means of MALDI-TOF MS, resulting in highly specific mass spectral fingerprints and these were identified as B. pumilus, B. safenis and B. licheniformis. It was observed that all studied Bacillus spp. isolates only had the masses in common at 3864 ± 2, 7727 ± 2, and 14301 ± 4. The spectra of B. safensis and B. pumilus showed peaks at m/z 4914 ± 3, 6621 ± 3 and 14291 ± 2, which were absent in the spectrum of B. licheniformis. For B. safenis and B. pumilus, other potential biomarkers could be found at m/z 12620 and 16668, respectively.

Keywords

  • Bacillus spp.
  • nasal mucosa
  • MALDI-TOF MS
Open Access

Identificatin and quantiative analysis of amyrins in Humulus lupulus L.

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 142 - 144

Abstract

ABSTRACT

In the paper, the identification and quantification of α- and β-amyrin in five varieties of Humulus lupulus is described. The plant samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed using of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with PAD detection. The separation was achieved on RP 18 column, at 2 mL/min flow rate and at temperature of 35°C. Acetonitrile was used as a mobile phase. The established calibration curves and the other validation parameters: linearity (correlation coefficient r > 0.9988) and precision (RSD values ranged from 0.14 to 1.81%) were found to be satisfactory for the proposed method. The content of α- and β-amyrin strongly depended on varieties of H. lupulus and amounted from 72.7 to 232.5 μg/g and from 77.9 to 176.9 μg/g of dry plant material, respectively.

Keywords

  • amyrin
  • Humulus lupulus
  • triterpenes
Open Access

Application of atomic absorption spectrometry with continuous light source to analyze selected metals important for human health in different parts of oranges

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 145 - 147

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The publication describes the application of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (H-R CS AAS) to determine some physiologically essential and toxic elements occurring in citrus fruits of different origins. Before analysis, the samples were mineralized using a mixture of deionized water and 69% nitric acid 3:1 (v/v) in high pressure microwave digestion at 188°C during one hour.

The obtained validation parameters for AAS such as high linearity (the correlation coefficient R > 0.997) and high precision expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD) were satisfactory for quantification.

Cadmium at concentration range from 0.29 to 0.43 mg/kg was determined in all tested samples, however the obtained values did not exceed Polish standards. The higher concentration of potassium comparing to sodium and calcium was noted in each investigated samples. The highest variation was observed for calcium, its concentration strongly depended on the country of origin.

Keywords

  • H-R CS AAS
  • metal ions
  • elements
  • trace analysis
  • oranges
Open Access

Application of low-level laser radiation with TiO2, Ag/TiO2 and S/TiO2 on Streptococcus salivarius isolated from the oral cavity

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 148 - 150

Abstract

ABSTRACT

In our research, we determine the effect of low-level laser irradiation with nanoparticles on Streptococcus salivarius. Photodynamic killing of periodontopathogenic bacteria may be an alternative to the systemic application of antibacterial drugs used in the treatment of periodontal diseases. The application of photosensitizing nanoparticles and their excitation by visible light of blue spectra enables effective killing of periodontopathogens. This data combined with the results demonstrates that TiO2, AgTiO2 and S/TiO2 can inhibit the proliferation of Streptococcus salivarius due to its high photocatalytic activity, which irreversibly damages the cell walls and membranes.

Keywords

  • Streptococcus salivarius
  • oral cavity
  • low-level laser radiation
  • photodynamic treatment
  • nanoparticles
Open Access

Structure of non-reimbursed and reimbursed therapeutic procedures provided at a general dental care office

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 151 - 154

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Dental care in Poland is based both on the public system (reimbursement by the National Health Fund) and on the private funding (non-reimbursed). The aim of the paper was an analysis of the structure of non-reimbursed and reimbursed therapeutic procedures provided at a general dental care office. The study material was medical documentation of 669 patients treated for 3 months (the third quarter of 2013) at a general dental care office. The structure of therapeutic procedures, with the exception of orthodontic and prosthetic treatment, was analyzed, taking into account the patients’ gender, age, place of residence, the kind of procedure, and the payment type they made. The procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund constituted 60.1% of all the procedures provided to patients at a dental office. Both among the procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund and non-reimbursed procedures, the therapeutic procedures prevailed significantly over the prophylactic ones; in all age groups conservative treatment was predominant. An increase in the number of extractions in patients over 40 years of age, in comparison to younger patients, was found. The number of the dental procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund, compared to the number of the non-reimbursed ones, increased with the patients’ age.

Keywords

  • general dentistry
  • dental treatment
  • funding source
Open Access

Effect of intervertebral disc disease on scoliosis in the lumbar spine

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 155 - 158

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Lumbar intervertebral discopathy is a common clinical problem and a significant cause of low back pain. Usually it is associated with overload and damage to the intervertebral disc, which directly relates to the instability of the motion segment. Renal normal anatomy between tissues within the spinal canal is a cause of the reflex curvature of the spine, the goal is to increase the volume of the spinal channel and reduce the compression of the nerve tissue. Knee-jerk reaction to pain is an non physiological change of the setting of the spine in the frontal plane.

The aim of the study was to establish the relationship of migration of the intervertebral disc with reflex scoliosis in the lumbar region in patients with lumbar disc herniation.

Material and methods. The studies involved 78 patients aged 18-55 years with damaged intervertebral disc with annulus fibrosus of the bulge in the posterior-lateral direction. The study used multi-row spiral CT scanner.

Results. In the patients, reflex lateral curvature was observed. The angle of scoliosis was measured with Cobb method; it did not exceed 10 degrees. It was also established that spontaneously the shallowing of lumbar lordosis and vertical alignment of the sacrum occured.

Conclusion. The study shows that in most patients diagnosed with lateral migration of the intervertebral disc there develops a slight lateral curvature of the spine, which is a reflex reaction of axial musculoskeletal to discogenic pain.

Keywords

  • displacement of the intervertebral disc
  • lumbar curvature of the spine
  • CT
Open Access

Association between concentration of melatonin, and lipoproteins, LPO, hsCRP, NTproBNP in chronic heart failure patients

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 159 - 164

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to examine concentrations and relationships between melatonin levels assessed at 0:200 hrs and 0:700 hrs, lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) assessed at 0:200 hrs and 0:700 hrs, and apolipoprotein (apo)AI, apoAII, apoB, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and NT-proBNP, in 27 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) (17 patients - with NYHA class II and 10 - with NYHA class III). In the study, Lipoproteins apoAI, apoAII, apoB, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were determined by way of immunonephelometric methods, serum melatonin concentration was measured by using a competitive enzyme immunoassay technique, while serum LPO concentration was measured by using Cayman’s Lipid Hydroperoxide Assay Kit. In the study, CHF patients without acute inflammatory response demonstrated a decreased concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apoAI, apoAII levels, but an increased concentration of NT-proBNP, hsCRP and LPO at night, and LPO at daytime; however, the concentration of LPO at 0:700 was lower than at 0:200. Pearson’s correlation test and multiple ridge stepwise regression showed that melatonin administered at night exerts an effect on the composition of apoAI and apoAII of HDL particles, and induces decreased LPO at 0:700, but has no effect upon NT-proBNP levels in patients with NYHA class II. However, in patients with NYHA class III, melatonin administered at night induces an increase in the content of apoAII and apoAI, which further decreases hsCRP, and this, together with the administered melatonin, brings about daytime decreases in NT-proBNP and hsCRP levels. The results indicated that the content of apoAII and apoAI in HDL particles and melatonin demonstrate an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and together, have a cardio-protective effect on patients with advanced CHF. Hence, the results support melatonin being a cardio-protective agent. These relationships, however, need to be confirmed in further studies.

Keywords

  • lipoproteins
  • hsCRP
  • melatonin
  • oxidative stress
  • chronic heart failure
Open Access

Comparison of the free and total light chain assays in serum and urine samples with immunofixation electrophoresis for detecting monoclonal proteins in patients with monoclonal gammopathy

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 165 - 170

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal protein (M-protein) is produced by a malignant clone of plasma cells. Detected in serum and/or urine, this typically indicates multiple myeloma (MM) or other monoclonal gammopathy (MG). In a majority of MM cases, with the production of intact monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig), malignant plasmocytes and/or B lymphocytes often produce excessive amounts of free light chains (FLCs). Excessive synthesis of FLCs lowers the ability of renal proximal tubules to re-absorb FLCs, which results in abnormally high levels of FLCs in the urine (Bence Jones protein, BJP). In laboratory practice, there are tests available for the quantitative measurement of only FLCs κ and λ or for total light chains (TLCs). These tests measure both free forms and bound in the (Ig) molecules forms as light chains that are evident in the serum and in urine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the FLCs and TLCs approaches in screening serum and urine samples of patients with MM, doing so in comparison to the results of immunofixation (IFE) assessment. A second purpose was to assess the suitability of the collected material for obtaining the most reliable results. The results of serum FLCs (sFLCs) assays suggest that this approach is of the highest reliability and diagnostic usefulness in the detection of MG with excess production of FLCs, in comparison to other available tests. In our work, when κ band light chains were detected in serum IFE (sIFE), 91% patients had their FLCs concentrations beyond the reference range, whereas 89% patients had increased λ FLCs when λ band light chains were detected in sIFE. We also found abnormal sFLC κ/λ ratios in 86.4% and 88.9% of all subject patients who had κ or λ band light chains detected in their sIFE, respectively.

Keywords

  • free light chains
  • total light chains
  • monoclonal gammopathy
  • multiple myeloma
  • immunofixation
Open Access

The origin of the inferior epigastric artery in relation to the inguinal ligament in various periods of human life

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 171 - 174

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the origin of the inferior epigastric artery, in relation to the inguinal ligament, in various stages of human life. The study was conducted on randomly selected 220 non-fixed cadavers, including 110 males and 110 females, from the age of the 7th month of prenatal life, to 82 years. In all examined bodies, the inferior epigastric artery originated mostly from the external iliac, or less commonly, from the femoral artery. Three types of origin were observed: above, at the level or below the ligament. In males, the lowest incidence of typical anatomical origin, over the ligament, was observed in the group aged 60-69 years. Herein, the artery departed usually on the level of the ligament. The highest incidence of typical anatomical origin was found during the prenatal period and among children. Similar data, but with higher asymmetry, was revealed among females. The lowest incidence of typical origin was seen on the left side in the group aged 60-69. Less commonly, the artery originated at the level or occasionally below the ligament. In conclusion, the origin of the inferior epigastric artery differs throughout prenatal and postnatal life, in both sexes. However, it is usually located above the inguinal ligament.

Keywords

  • inferior epigastric artery
  • external iliac artery
  • pelvis
  • inguinal ligament
Open Access

Consumption and awareness of students about nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 175 - 178

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used by millions of people worldwide to neutralize pain that is of different origin, as well as to treat fever and inflammation. However, NSAIDs misuse/overuse can induce many adverse effects and some potentially serious complications. The aim of the our study was to ascertain young people’s knowledge about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The research tool was a questionnaire. This study was carried out among students of the Medical University in Lublin, and it involved 236 persons of an average age of 20 years. The questions were intended to assess the frequency of NSAIDs use and the general knowledge that is held with respect to them. The results of this work show that more than 77% of the respondents confirmed that they use NSAIDs. Our results revealed no statistical correlation between the place of living or origin and the use of this drug. Hence, it can be said that while young adults quite often use NSAIDs, their knowledge about the dangers associated with the use of NSAIDs is low. Therefore, it is necessary to more intensively disseminate knowledge on the potential adverse effects of NSAID utilization.

Keywords

  • NSAIDs
  • pain
  • inflammation
  • fever
  • adverse effects
Open Access

The expression BIRC6 gene in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia – a preliminary study

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 179 - 182

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The BIRC6 gene encodes the Bruce (Apollon) protein. This belongs to the III class of Inhibitors of the Apoptosis Protein (IAP) and demonstrates anti-apoptotic activity (binding, inhibiting and degrading the caspases). Moreover, the Bruce protein shows multilevel activities and additional functions. The Bruce protein is involved in the maintenance of cell viability, and it is also suggested that it plays an important role in cell proliferation and diversification. Many researchers have noticed elevated BIRC6 gene expression in cell lines of brain cancer and ovarian carcinoma, leukemia, breast cancer and even in colorectal cancer tissues. Resistance to chemotherapy-inducted apoptosis in cancers characterized by BIRC6 gene over-expression was also reported. The aim of the study was to assess the BIRC6 gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Keywords

  • apoptosis
  • BIRC6 gene
  • Apollon
  • Bruce
  • CLL
  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Open Access

An adverse events potential costs analysis based on Drug Programs in Poland. Dermatology focus

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 183 - 186

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The aim of the project, carried out within the Polish Society for Pharmacoeconomics (PTFE), was to estimate the potential costs of treatment of the side effects which (theoretically) may occur as a result of treatments for the selected diseases. This paper deals solely with dermatology related events. Herein, several Drug Programs financed by the National Health Fund in Poland, in 2012, were analyzed. The adverse events were selected based on the Summary of Product Characteristics of the chosen products. We focused the project on those potential adverse events which were defined in SPC as frequent and very frequent. The results are presented according to their therapeutic areas, and in this paper, the focus is upon that which is related to dermatology. The events described as ‘very common’ had an incidence of ≥ 1/10, and that which is ‘common’ - ≥ 1/100, <1 /10. In order to identify the resources used, we, with the engagement of clinical experts, performed a survey. In our work, we employed only the total direct costs incurred by the public payer, based on valid individual cost data in February 2014. Moreover, we calculated the total spending from the public payer’s perspective, as well as the patient’s perspective, and the percentage of each component of the total cost in detail. The paper, thus, informs the reader of the estimated costs of treatment of side effects related to the dermatologic symptoms and reactions. Based on our work, we can state that the treatment of skin adverse drug reactions generates a significant cost - one incurred by both the public payer and the patient.

Keywords

  • the cost treatment
  • adverse events
  • dermatology
Open Access

Compressional, mechanical and release properties of a novel gum in paracetamol tablet formulations

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 187 - 194

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The binding properties of Eucalyptus gum obtained from the incised trunk of Eucalyptus tereticornis, were evaluated in paracetamol tablet formulations, in comparison with that of Gelatin B.P. In so doing, the compression properties were analyzed using density measurements and the compression equations of Heckel, Kawakita and Gurham. In our work, the mechanical properties of the tablets were assessed using the crushing strength and friability of the tablets, while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times. The results of the study reveal that tablet formulations incorporating Eucalyptus gum as binder, exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing gelatin. What is more, the Gurnham equation could be used as a substitute for the Kawakita equation in describing the compression properties of pharmaceutical tablets. Furthermore, the crushing strength, disintegration and dissolution times of the tablets increased with binder concentration, while friability values decreased. We noted that no significant differences in properties exist between formulations derived from the two binders (p > 0.05) exist. While tablets incorporating gelatin exhibited higher values for mechanical properties, Eucalyptus gum tablets had better balance between mechanical and release properties - as seen from the CSFR/Dt values. Tablets of good mechanical and release properties were prepared using Eucalyptus gum as a binder, and, therefore, it could serve as an alternative binder in producing tablets with good mechanical strength and fast drug release.

Keywords

  • Eucalyptus gum
  • binding agent
  • compression properties
  • drug release
Open Access

Selected caries diagnostic methods

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 195 - 198

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Standard caries diagnostic methods include a visual tactile method, as well as several radiographic methods. The former is a subjective method, while bitewing radiographs and digital radiographs (radiovisiography) enable detection of caries lesions only after 30% of hard dental tissue mineral substances have been lost. The paper presents methods based on electrical and optical phenomena that allow early caries diagnosis. Strengths and weaknesses of each presented method are discussed, basing this on recent literature review. The methods of caries detection generally used in daily clinical practice, combined with alternative methods, make it possible to significantly increase the effectiveness of dental caries diagnosis.

Keywords

  • dental caries
  • caries detection
  • diagnostic methods
Open Access

The prevalence of enteroviruses that cause respiratory infections in patients with influenzavirus A/H1N1 hospitalized in the Lublin province

Published Online: 03 Mar 2015
Page range: 199 - 201

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Viruses that cause respiratory tract infections are the most common agents of infectious diseases in humans throughout the world. A virus that infects the respiratory system, may induce various clinical symptoms. What is more, the same symptoms may be caused by different viruses. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of enteroviruses that cause respiratory infections in patients with influenzavirus A/H1N1 hospitalized in the Lublin province. The experimental material was throat and nose swabs taken from patients hospitalized in Lublin and Tomaszow Lubelski. In the group of 44 patients (20 women and 24 men) infected with influenza A/H1N1, the genetic material of enteroviruses was detected in 13 patients (29.5%). Respiratory viruses co-infections are very common in hospitalized patients. Studies show that co-infection with influenza virus and enterovirus are more common in children than in adults. Moreover, viral respiratory tract infections are independent from the patients’ gender.

Keywords

  • influenzavirus
  • enterovirus
  • rhinovirus
  • respiratory infections
  • coinfection

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