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Volume 14 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

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Volume 10 (2017): Issue 1 (October 2017)

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2066-7744
First Published
12 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 10 (2017): Issue 1 (October 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2066-7744
First Published
12 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

10 Articles
Open Access

Production of highly nutritious functional food with the supplementation of wheat flour with lysine

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 5 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

During our research, we added 0.5–2.0% L-lysine to wheat flour in order to increase the quantity of this essential amino acid and the biological value of the wheat protein, producing such a functional, health-protecting, and health-preserving foodstuff that is suitable for satisfying the lysine requirement of humans, assuming normal nutrition. Furthermore, by the increase of the biological value completing the wheat flour with a higher amount of lysine, we could produce such a functional, health-protecting and health-preserving food that is suitable for containing or preventing lysine malnutrition symptoms. During our work, we determined the quantity of the Maillard reaction products (hydroxymethyl-furfural) and the lysine content developed during the baking of the wheat flour used for bread baking and in the bread baked with supplemented or without supplemented lysine, and evaluated the sensory characteristics of the produced functional food and the bread supplemented with lysine.

Keywords

  • L-lysine
  • lysine supplementation
  • essential amino acid
  • biological value of protein
  • Maillard reaction
  • amino acid analysis
  • high-performance liquid chromatography
Open Access

Production of high-lysine-content biscuit and examination of the absorption of lysine in humans

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 21 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

In the Medical and Health Centre of the University of Debrecen, we examined the changes in the free amino acid content of the blood serum of control and experimental individuals after consumption of 2,000 mg of lysine-laden biscuits. We baked the biscuits at 130 °C, during which the greater part (70–75%) of the lysine was not converted into Maillard reaction products. After 30–60 minutes of consumption of the biscuits, the free lysine content of the blood serum increased significantly in the experimental and control group with 41–46%, and even after three hours of consumption the level was 20% higher than in the initial concentration. The free arginine content of the blood serum did not change after the consumption of control and lysine biscuits neither in the control nor in the experimental group. Therefore, the free lysine/free arginine ratio of the individuals consuming lysine increased significantly compared to the initial and the control group’s value. The antioxidant level of the blood serum in the control group remained unchanged after the consumption of the control biscuit, while in the case of the experimental individuals who consumed lysine-fortified biscuits it increased by 40–45% compared to the initial level. Summing up: After consumption of the biscuits with 2,000 mg of free lysine, the concentration of free lysine in the blood serum, its free lysine/free arginine ratio and antioxidant level increased significantly. Our researches have clearly demonstrated that the active substances of the biscuit got into the blood serum, so the investigation of the active substance and the evaluation of the physiological effects are definitely recommended in the long run.

Keywords

  • L-lysine
  • biscuit supplemented with lysine
  • Maillard reaction
  • amino acid analysis
  • absorption of lysine
  • ratio of lysine/arginine
  • herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • effect against herpes
Open Access

Production of a high-nutritional-value functional food, the Update1 bread, with the supplementation of the wheat flour with high-protein-content raw food materials

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 36 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

During our research, we added extracted soya bean meal, egg-white powder, gluten, wheat sourdough, and bamboo fibre to wheat flour in order to increase the quantity of the essential amino acid and the biological value of the wheat protein, producing such a functional, health-protecting, health-preservative food product which is suitable to satisfy the essential amino acid requirements of humans, assuming normal nutrition. Furthermore, we could produce such a food, which, on the one hand, was suitable to confine or prevent the essential amino acid’s malnutrition symptoms, while, on the other hand, when applied alone, to meet the consumers’ needs. During our work, we determined the protein content and amino acid composition of the wheat flour, of the additives used in bread baking, and in the bread both baked with supplementation (Update1 bread) and without supplementation (normal bread), as well as the quantity of the Maillard reaction products (hydroxymethylfurfural). We calculated the biological value of the protein of different breads and evaluated the sensory characteristics of the produced functional food and the fortified bread, supplemented with high essential-amino-acid-containing additives.

Keywords

  • defatted soya bean meal
  • egg-white powder
  • gluten
  • supplementation
  • essential amino acids
  • biological value of protein
  • Maillard reaction
  • amino acid analysis
  • fortified bread with high essential amino acid content
Open Access

Toxicity of selenium, application of selenium in fertilizers, selenium treatment of seeds, and selenium in edible parts of plants

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 61 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

Agronomic biofortification is one of the approaches which have been successfully adopted for improving the nutritional content of plant-based foods and is mainly focused on optimizing the application of mineral fertilizers and/or the improvement of the solubilization and mobilization of mineral elements in the soil. In general, mineral elements with a good dynamism in the soil and in the plant are good candidates for a prosperous agronomic biofortification. Selenium deficiency occurs in areas where soil Se is low, including parts of Europe, China, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Southern Africa. Selenium toxicity occurs in areas where soil Se is naturally high, including areas of China, India, and the United States. Toxicity from naturally occurring Se may be intensified by irrigation of seleniferous soils, mining, and use of Se-rich fossil fuels. Then, management practices benefit from a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of plant Se uptake and the fate of Se in different plant species.

Keywords

  • selenium
  • toxicity of selenium
  • selenium–sulphur interrelation
  • selenium in plants
  • selenium in fertilizers
Open Access

The essentiality of selenium for humans, animals, and plants, and the role of selenium in plant metabolism and physiology

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 75 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

After its discovery, selenium was most noted for its harmful effects. Selenium was the first element identified to occur in native vegetation at levels toxic to animals. Poisoning of animals can occur through consumption of plants containing toxic levels of selenium. Livestock consuming excessive amounts of selenized forages are afflicted with “alkali disease” and “blind staggers”. Typical symptoms of these diseases include loss of hair, deformed hooves, blindness, colic, diarrhoea, lethargy, increased heart and respiration rates, and eventually death. On the other hand, selenium deficiency in animal feeds can cause “white muscle disease”, a degenerative disease of the cardiac and skeletal muscles. In this regard, this review paper attempts to summarize the essentiality of selenium for humans, animals, and plants and the role of selenium in plant metabolism and physiology.

Keywords

  • selenium deficiency
  • essentiality of selenium
  • selenium in plant metabolism and physiology
Open Access

Selenium in soil–plant–food systems

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 91 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

Humans and animals require a multitude of nutrients in order to have a properly functioning body for purposes of growth, development and metabolism. Plant-based foods have represented one of the most important nutrient sources in human diet since the beginning of mankind. But nowadays the amount of arable land is being reduced and much of the natural resources already in use show signs of degradation. Also, staple crops (i.e. plants that constitute the main food in the diets of people in developing countries, e.g. wheat, rice, maize, and cassava) regrettably contain low amounts of micronutrients, making them insufficient to meet the minimum daily requirements. Shortages in mineral micronutrients, including iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and iodine (I), are affecting more than half of the world’s population. In this case, it is fundamental to improve strategies that let us make plant foods more efficient and with higher micronutrient amounts and bioavailability concerning their edible textures. In this regard, in this review paper, we tried to summarize selenium availability and its application in the soil, plant and food systems to understand the place of selenium in plant-based foods.

Keywords

  • selenium
  • soil–plant–food systems
  • mineral micronutrients
  • selenium cycling
Open Access

Effect of different levels of nitrogen on the total polyphenol and total flavonoid content of sorghum and millet flours

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 107 - 115

Abstract

Abstract

Cereals are the most important food sources worldwide. Nowadays, there is an increase in the interest for sorghum and millet grains due to their nutritional quality and health benefits. Our aim was to determine the total polyphenol (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of sorghum and millet flours, influenced with different levels of nitrogen. The TPC of flours varied between 38.45 and 375.80 mg GAE/100g of the selected cereal flours. The TFC ranged from 106.26 to 117.93 mg CE/100g in sorghum and millet flours.

Keywords

  • polyphenol
  • flavonoid
  • cereal flours
  • fertilizer
Open Access

Effects of pectolytic enzyme treatment and microfiltration on antioxidant components of elderberry juice

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 116 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, pectolytic enzymes (Pectinex BE XXL, Trenolin Rot, and Fructozym P) were investigated for their influence on phenolic, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activities of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) pulps during juice processing. Prior to pressing the berries, three different enzymes were added to pulps in order to evaluate the effect of different pectolytic enzyme treatments on the valuable components of elderberry juice. Control sample was prepared without enzyme. After treatment, squeezing, and clarification steps, microfiltration was carried out with ceramic membrane. The effect of this technology on the antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, and total anthocyanin content of the clarified elderberry juices has been evaluated in permeate and retentate samples, and membrane retention was calculated. Significantly lower antioxidant capacity was detected in the case of control sample than that obtained using enzyme-treated juices. Retention of antioxidant content on the microfiltration membrane was greatly reduced by using the enzymes. Higher valuable component yield was obtained using Fructozym P enzyme compared with Pectinex BE XXL used in industry.

Keywords

  • sambucus nigra
  • elderberry
  • antioxidant
  • enzyme treatment
  • microfiltration
Open Access

The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly I. Fat-soluble vitamins

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 127 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

Following a discussion on the daily energy and protein requirements of elderly people, the authors will go on to talk about vitamin needs and the role of the four fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). They point out that vitamin requirements in old age do not essentially differ from adult people’s, but they must take account of the fact that the body’s vitamin stores might get filled up, which may reduce vitamin needs, on the one part, but the altered physiological processes may increase them, on the other. Regarding the case of fat-soluble vitamins, reduced fat absorption, decreased vitamin storage capacity of the liver, reduced dietary intake, partial deficiency of digestive enzymes, and absorption disorders in the intestines may all lead to vitamin deficiencies. Problems may also arise due to multiple vitamin overdose developed either as a consequence of overconsumption of vitamin tablets or because the body’s vitamin stores are constantly filled up to maximum capacity. Positive and negative changes resulting from the consumption of several times the daily dose recommendations are covered as well. The authors show that A, D, E, or K vitamin deficiency occurs very rarely in the case of a normal diet; however, great care must be taken in order to meet vitamin D and, simultaneously, calcium requirements so that to avoid osteoporosis and an increased risk of bone fractures in elderly people. The paper discusses the fat-soluble vitamin needs of the elderly and, where necessary, specifies the requirements for men and women separately, while also touching upon those foodstuffs and methods that can contribute to the optimal satisfaction of the elderly people’s vitamin needs.

Keywords

  • vitamin A
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin E
  • vitamin K
  • fat-soluble vitamins
  • vitamin needs
  • vitamin requirements of the elderly
Open Access

The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly II. Water-soluble vitamins

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 146 - 166

Abstract

Abstract

Following a presentation of humans’ water-soluble vitamin requirements, the authors will discuss in detail the role these vitamins play in human organism and outline those major biochemical processes that are negatively affected in the body in case of vitamin deficiency. They point out that in the elderly population of developed countries cases of water-soluble vitamin deficiency are extremely rare and they are due to the lack of dietary vitamin, but mostly to the vitamin being released from its bindings, the difficulty of free vitamin absorption, gastrointestinal problems, medication, and often alcoholism. Among water-soluble vitamins, B12 is the only one with a sufficient storage level in the body, capable of preventing deficiency symptoms for a long period of time in cases of vitamin-deficient nutrition. Each type of vitamin is dealt with separately in discussing the beneficial outcomes of their overconsumption regarding health, while the authors of the article also present cases with contradictory results. Daily requirements are set forth for every water-soluble vitamin and information is provided on the types of nutrients that help us to the water-soluble vitamins essential for the organism.

Keywords

  • B vitamins
  • vitamin B
  • B
  • B
  • B
  • B
  • thiamine
  • riboflavin
  • niacin
  • folic acid
  • biotin
  • pantothenic acid
  • vitamin C
  • ascorbic acid
  • vitamin U
  • water-soluble vitamins
  • vitamin requirements
  • vitamin requirements of the elderly
10 Articles
Open Access

Production of highly nutritious functional food with the supplementation of wheat flour with lysine

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 5 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

During our research, we added 0.5–2.0% L-lysine to wheat flour in order to increase the quantity of this essential amino acid and the biological value of the wheat protein, producing such a functional, health-protecting, and health-preserving foodstuff that is suitable for satisfying the lysine requirement of humans, assuming normal nutrition. Furthermore, by the increase of the biological value completing the wheat flour with a higher amount of lysine, we could produce such a functional, health-protecting and health-preserving food that is suitable for containing or preventing lysine malnutrition symptoms. During our work, we determined the quantity of the Maillard reaction products (hydroxymethyl-furfural) and the lysine content developed during the baking of the wheat flour used for bread baking and in the bread baked with supplemented or without supplemented lysine, and evaluated the sensory characteristics of the produced functional food and the bread supplemented with lysine.

Keywords

  • L-lysine
  • lysine supplementation
  • essential amino acid
  • biological value of protein
  • Maillard reaction
  • amino acid analysis
  • high-performance liquid chromatography
Open Access

Production of high-lysine-content biscuit and examination of the absorption of lysine in humans

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 21 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

In the Medical and Health Centre of the University of Debrecen, we examined the changes in the free amino acid content of the blood serum of control and experimental individuals after consumption of 2,000 mg of lysine-laden biscuits. We baked the biscuits at 130 °C, during which the greater part (70–75%) of the lysine was not converted into Maillard reaction products. After 30–60 minutes of consumption of the biscuits, the free lysine content of the blood serum increased significantly in the experimental and control group with 41–46%, and even after three hours of consumption the level was 20% higher than in the initial concentration. The free arginine content of the blood serum did not change after the consumption of control and lysine biscuits neither in the control nor in the experimental group. Therefore, the free lysine/free arginine ratio of the individuals consuming lysine increased significantly compared to the initial and the control group’s value. The antioxidant level of the blood serum in the control group remained unchanged after the consumption of the control biscuit, while in the case of the experimental individuals who consumed lysine-fortified biscuits it increased by 40–45% compared to the initial level. Summing up: After consumption of the biscuits with 2,000 mg of free lysine, the concentration of free lysine in the blood serum, its free lysine/free arginine ratio and antioxidant level increased significantly. Our researches have clearly demonstrated that the active substances of the biscuit got into the blood serum, so the investigation of the active substance and the evaluation of the physiological effects are definitely recommended in the long run.

Keywords

  • L-lysine
  • biscuit supplemented with lysine
  • Maillard reaction
  • amino acid analysis
  • absorption of lysine
  • ratio of lysine/arginine
  • herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • effect against herpes
Open Access

Production of a high-nutritional-value functional food, the Update1 bread, with the supplementation of the wheat flour with high-protein-content raw food materials

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 36 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

During our research, we added extracted soya bean meal, egg-white powder, gluten, wheat sourdough, and bamboo fibre to wheat flour in order to increase the quantity of the essential amino acid and the biological value of the wheat protein, producing such a functional, health-protecting, health-preservative food product which is suitable to satisfy the essential amino acid requirements of humans, assuming normal nutrition. Furthermore, we could produce such a food, which, on the one hand, was suitable to confine or prevent the essential amino acid’s malnutrition symptoms, while, on the other hand, when applied alone, to meet the consumers’ needs. During our work, we determined the protein content and amino acid composition of the wheat flour, of the additives used in bread baking, and in the bread both baked with supplementation (Update1 bread) and without supplementation (normal bread), as well as the quantity of the Maillard reaction products (hydroxymethylfurfural). We calculated the biological value of the protein of different breads and evaluated the sensory characteristics of the produced functional food and the fortified bread, supplemented with high essential-amino-acid-containing additives.

Keywords

  • defatted soya bean meal
  • egg-white powder
  • gluten
  • supplementation
  • essential amino acids
  • biological value of protein
  • Maillard reaction
  • amino acid analysis
  • fortified bread with high essential amino acid content
Open Access

Toxicity of selenium, application of selenium in fertilizers, selenium treatment of seeds, and selenium in edible parts of plants

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 61 - 74

Abstract

Abstract

Agronomic biofortification is one of the approaches which have been successfully adopted for improving the nutritional content of plant-based foods and is mainly focused on optimizing the application of mineral fertilizers and/or the improvement of the solubilization and mobilization of mineral elements in the soil. In general, mineral elements with a good dynamism in the soil and in the plant are good candidates for a prosperous agronomic biofortification. Selenium deficiency occurs in areas where soil Se is low, including parts of Europe, China, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Southern Africa. Selenium toxicity occurs in areas where soil Se is naturally high, including areas of China, India, and the United States. Toxicity from naturally occurring Se may be intensified by irrigation of seleniferous soils, mining, and use of Se-rich fossil fuels. Then, management practices benefit from a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of plant Se uptake and the fate of Se in different plant species.

Keywords

  • selenium
  • toxicity of selenium
  • selenium–sulphur interrelation
  • selenium in plants
  • selenium in fertilizers
Open Access

The essentiality of selenium for humans, animals, and plants, and the role of selenium in plant metabolism and physiology

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 75 - 90

Abstract

Abstract

After its discovery, selenium was most noted for its harmful effects. Selenium was the first element identified to occur in native vegetation at levels toxic to animals. Poisoning of animals can occur through consumption of plants containing toxic levels of selenium. Livestock consuming excessive amounts of selenized forages are afflicted with “alkali disease” and “blind staggers”. Typical symptoms of these diseases include loss of hair, deformed hooves, blindness, colic, diarrhoea, lethargy, increased heart and respiration rates, and eventually death. On the other hand, selenium deficiency in animal feeds can cause “white muscle disease”, a degenerative disease of the cardiac and skeletal muscles. In this regard, this review paper attempts to summarize the essentiality of selenium for humans, animals, and plants and the role of selenium in plant metabolism and physiology.

Keywords

  • selenium deficiency
  • essentiality of selenium
  • selenium in plant metabolism and physiology
Open Access

Selenium in soil–plant–food systems

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 91 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

Humans and animals require a multitude of nutrients in order to have a properly functioning body for purposes of growth, development and metabolism. Plant-based foods have represented one of the most important nutrient sources in human diet since the beginning of mankind. But nowadays the amount of arable land is being reduced and much of the natural resources already in use show signs of degradation. Also, staple crops (i.e. plants that constitute the main food in the diets of people in developing countries, e.g. wheat, rice, maize, and cassava) regrettably contain low amounts of micronutrients, making them insufficient to meet the minimum daily requirements. Shortages in mineral micronutrients, including iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and iodine (I), are affecting more than half of the world’s population. In this case, it is fundamental to improve strategies that let us make plant foods more efficient and with higher micronutrient amounts and bioavailability concerning their edible textures. In this regard, in this review paper, we tried to summarize selenium availability and its application in the soil, plant and food systems to understand the place of selenium in plant-based foods.

Keywords

  • selenium
  • soil–plant–food systems
  • mineral micronutrients
  • selenium cycling
Open Access

Effect of different levels of nitrogen on the total polyphenol and total flavonoid content of sorghum and millet flours

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 107 - 115

Abstract

Abstract

Cereals are the most important food sources worldwide. Nowadays, there is an increase in the interest for sorghum and millet grains due to their nutritional quality and health benefits. Our aim was to determine the total polyphenol (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of sorghum and millet flours, influenced with different levels of nitrogen. The TPC of flours varied between 38.45 and 375.80 mg GAE/100g of the selected cereal flours. The TFC ranged from 106.26 to 117.93 mg CE/100g in sorghum and millet flours.

Keywords

  • polyphenol
  • flavonoid
  • cereal flours
  • fertilizer
Open Access

Effects of pectolytic enzyme treatment and microfiltration on antioxidant components of elderberry juice

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 116 - 126

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, pectolytic enzymes (Pectinex BE XXL, Trenolin Rot, and Fructozym P) were investigated for their influence on phenolic, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activities of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) pulps during juice processing. Prior to pressing the berries, three different enzymes were added to pulps in order to evaluate the effect of different pectolytic enzyme treatments on the valuable components of elderberry juice. Control sample was prepared without enzyme. After treatment, squeezing, and clarification steps, microfiltration was carried out with ceramic membrane. The effect of this technology on the antioxidant capacity, total polyphenol content, and total anthocyanin content of the clarified elderberry juices has been evaluated in permeate and retentate samples, and membrane retention was calculated. Significantly lower antioxidant capacity was detected in the case of control sample than that obtained using enzyme-treated juices. Retention of antioxidant content on the microfiltration membrane was greatly reduced by using the enzymes. Higher valuable component yield was obtained using Fructozym P enzyme compared with Pectinex BE XXL used in industry.

Keywords

  • sambucus nigra
  • elderberry
  • antioxidant
  • enzyme treatment
  • microfiltration
Open Access

The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly I. Fat-soluble vitamins

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 127 - 145

Abstract

Abstract

Following a discussion on the daily energy and protein requirements of elderly people, the authors will go on to talk about vitamin needs and the role of the four fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). They point out that vitamin requirements in old age do not essentially differ from adult people’s, but they must take account of the fact that the body’s vitamin stores might get filled up, which may reduce vitamin needs, on the one part, but the altered physiological processes may increase them, on the other. Regarding the case of fat-soluble vitamins, reduced fat absorption, decreased vitamin storage capacity of the liver, reduced dietary intake, partial deficiency of digestive enzymes, and absorption disorders in the intestines may all lead to vitamin deficiencies. Problems may also arise due to multiple vitamin overdose developed either as a consequence of overconsumption of vitamin tablets or because the body’s vitamin stores are constantly filled up to maximum capacity. Positive and negative changes resulting from the consumption of several times the daily dose recommendations are covered as well. The authors show that A, D, E, or K vitamin deficiency occurs very rarely in the case of a normal diet; however, great care must be taken in order to meet vitamin D and, simultaneously, calcium requirements so that to avoid osteoporosis and an increased risk of bone fractures in elderly people. The paper discusses the fat-soluble vitamin needs of the elderly and, where necessary, specifies the requirements for men and women separately, while also touching upon those foodstuffs and methods that can contribute to the optimal satisfaction of the elderly people’s vitamin needs.

Keywords

  • vitamin A
  • vitamin D
  • vitamin E
  • vitamin K
  • fat-soluble vitamins
  • vitamin needs
  • vitamin requirements of the elderly
Open Access

The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly II. Water-soluble vitamins

Published Online: 10 Oct 2017
Page range: 146 - 166

Abstract

Abstract

Following a presentation of humans’ water-soluble vitamin requirements, the authors will discuss in detail the role these vitamins play in human organism and outline those major biochemical processes that are negatively affected in the body in case of vitamin deficiency. They point out that in the elderly population of developed countries cases of water-soluble vitamin deficiency are extremely rare and they are due to the lack of dietary vitamin, but mostly to the vitamin being released from its bindings, the difficulty of free vitamin absorption, gastrointestinal problems, medication, and often alcoholism. Among water-soluble vitamins, B12 is the only one with a sufficient storage level in the body, capable of preventing deficiency symptoms for a long period of time in cases of vitamin-deficient nutrition. Each type of vitamin is dealt with separately in discussing the beneficial outcomes of their overconsumption regarding health, while the authors of the article also present cases with contradictory results. Daily requirements are set forth for every water-soluble vitamin and information is provided on the types of nutrients that help us to the water-soluble vitamins essential for the organism.

Keywords

  • B vitamins
  • vitamin B
  • B
  • B
  • B
  • B
  • thiamine
  • riboflavin
  • niacin
  • folic acid
  • biotin
  • pantothenic acid
  • vitamin C
  • ascorbic acid
  • vitamin U
  • water-soluble vitamins
  • vitamin requirements
  • vitamin requirements of the elderly

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