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Volume 15 (2022): Issue 1 (December 2022)

Volume 14 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 13 (2020): Issue 1 (October 2020)

Volume 12 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 11 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 10 (2017): Issue 1 (October 2017)

Volume 9 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 8 (2015): Issue 1 (January 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2066-7744
First Published
12 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 9 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2066-7744
First Published
12 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

9 Articles
Open Access

Simple utilization of lactic acid whey in dairy processing

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 5 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

The use of ultra-filtered lactic acid whey retentate was investigated for the making of sour cream. The utilization of lactic acid whey is limited due to its special properties, so the logical utilization way is to use it in fermented products. First, we concentrated lactic acid whey collected from cottage cheese making by ultrafiltration (UF), then UF Whey Retentate (UFWR) was added (by 2, 5, and 10%) into fat standardized cream for sour cream making. We investigated the texture and sensory properties of the sour cream samples compared with the industrial products. Generally, we can state that the use of small portion of UF whey retentate did not result noticeable changes and did not reduce the sensory value of sour creams. Higher UF whey retentate addition improved some texture properties of experimental samples, but the summarized evaluation of UFWR addition was not unequivocal. Control samples showed better results. Based on our results, the sample, which contained 5% UF whey retentate, had good texture and acceptable sensory properties. Furthermore, more than 5% UF lactic acid whey retentate (coming from our own ultrafiltration process) resulted remarkably worse sensory properties than the other samples. Further investigation is needed to find the optimal composition and sensory properties of UFWR. Furthermore, we have to perform technological investigation to reach a higher concentration factor using pre-treatment of whey and to avoid the precipitation of whey proteins during the high temperature pasteurization of cream, cream mixed with UFWR or diafiltered whey retentate. We guess that the use of one-stage diafiltration would already decrease the unfavourable sensory properties of lactic acid whey retentate.

Keywords

  • whey utilization
  • sour cream
  • ultrafiltration
Open Access

Market orientation of the Hungarian SMEs working in the meat processing and dairy industries

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 18 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

We are looking for the answer as to what tendencies were indicative of the future development of required marketing activity of the SMEs in the article dealing with the marketing activity of the SMEs working in the food industry. The article is based on a nationwide survey among 200 SMEs working in the food processing industry. In this article, we focus on the SMEs working in the dairy and meat processing industries. The results of the nationwide research and some domestic references refer to that there is a latent demand of effective marketing activity among small and medium-sized enterprises. It manifests itself in specifying marketing-related fields to be improved in the future. The marketing itself is believed not to be an important field at the same time. This apparent opposition is the small enterprise marketing paradox in the background of which is the lack of knowledge about the marketing instruments. It can be stated that these small businesses collect mainly general market information and have no information about particular products. Therefore, the presence of marketing planning is really rare and where there is some kind of planning it is not connected to available funds and follow-up control. The marketing strategy can be characterized by products processed mainly at low or medium level. Therefore, market position is deffned by “lower price-good quality”. They mainly use the traditional distribution channels and their communication is accidental and has a low level.

The marketing-oriented way of thinking still exists among the factors affecting entrepreneurial behaviour, which cannot be found at the level of clusters, according to our results. We could identify 8.3% of the enterprises as having satisfactory marketing activity.

Keywords

  • market orientation
  • food industry
  • SME
Open Access

Flour quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 33 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains.

The aim of our research was to determine the possible relationship between kernel hardness and various other parameters of the our (dough visco-elastic characteristics, wet gluten, water absorption, our recovery, alveograph). We used Perten SKCS 4100 to determine the kernel hardness, while the Perten 3303 mill was used to establish Particle Size Index (PSI). Registered and widely used Hungarian wheat varieties (7 of HRWW and 4 of SRWW) were applied in the study. Twin correlations were used to determine the relationship among the various traits.

According to the results, there is a very strong correlation between milling energy and kernel hardness (r = 0:99): The correlation between hardness index and the examined our parameters was also significant (r = 0:81–0:87). We found strong correlation between the milling energy and water absorption (r = 0:88) of our. The associations found in this study will help the better understanding of the technological aspects concerning wheat grain and our quality.

Keywords

  • wheat kernel
  • our parameters
  • SKCS 4100
Open Access

Investigation of wheat grits during storage

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 41 - 49

Abstract

Abstract

The change of the quality of wheat milling products was investigated in our work. We analysed different types of wheat grists that are used in household (BL-55, BL-196, BFF-55 and AD). The grists were stored in three type of packages (paper bag, transparent PE bag, and woven PP bag) and in two different places (bright/warm and dark/cool place) for 6 months. The titre and colour characteristics of samples were measured monthly. Colour measurements were performed with a Hunter MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The values of titre were analysed using ANOVA. The type of package did not have significant influence on the titre. In the case of the BL-55, BL-196, and BFF-55 type of ours, the storage conditions had a significant effect on titre: it was smaller for samples that were stored in the dark/cool place. The value of titre rose significantly during storage for all samples.

To determine the change of colour, we calculated the ΔE*ab colour differences between colour coordinates measured at the beginning and during storage. The colour of the BL-55 and BL-196 our samples did not change perceptibly. The variation of colour of the BFF-55 and AD type of ours was imperceptible for samples stored in the dark/cool place. The changing of the colour was well perceptible in the case of samples stored in the bright/warm place using paper bag or PP bag.

Keywords

  • wheat milling product
  • colour
  • storage
  • titre
Open Access

The effect of storage on the colour of paprika powders with added oleoresin

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 50 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

The use of natural food colours is preferred to that of arti­ficial dyestuffs for modern alimentary purposes. Paprika is a spice plant grown and consumed in considerable quantities worldwide and also used as a natural food colour, so the colouring power of powders is very important. The colour of paprika powder is highly relevant too because the consumer concludes its colouring power based on its colour. The colouring power of paprika powders is directly determined by the quality and quantity of the colouring agent of paprika. The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is suitable to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour and the characteristics of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian, and Hungarian paprika. Colour measurements were performed with a HunterLab MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The colour agent content and the colour coordinates of samples were measured throughout 9 months. The decrease of colour agent con­tent varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The quantity of added oleoresin did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly.

The values of colour difference changed between 2 and 4.5 units. The initial paprika powder influenced the variation significantly, but the quantity of added oleoresin did not have a significant effect.

Keywords

  • paprika powder
  • colour
  • storage
Open Access

Effect of drying methods for inner parameters of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.)

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 60 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

In compliance with consumer expectations, careful processing and preservation are increasingly used with fruits and vegetables. The aim is that during these treatments the valuable nutritional characteristics of the raw materials change as little as possible. Drying has been used for the preservation of raw materials for a long time, which can distinguish two different groups based upon pressure. These are the atmospheric and the more careful vacuum drying.

During the research, Alto F1 beetroots were being dried in vacuum and under atmospheric pressure at different temperatures. Vacuum drying took place at 40, 50, and 60 °C, while atmospheric drying at 60, 70, and 80 °C. All drying processes lasted 150 minutes. During drying, changes of moisture content and water activity were monitored. After drying, colour measurement was realized and the inner parameters were investigated, such as polyphenol, betalain, and antioxidant capacity. These measured parameters were compared in the ease of atmospheric and vacuum drying.

Keywords

  • beetroot
  • atmospheric drying
  • vacuum drying
Open Access

Alternative grains in nutrition

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 69 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

Many people suffer from gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance. They have to avoid or limit their gluten intake. Sorghum and millet are gluten-free cereals, wherefore persons with gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance could consume them. Moreover, they have a lot of positive effects due to their phenolic compounds as phenol acid or flavonoid. Antioxidant activity in sorghum is especially high in comparison with other cereals. Our aim was to compare literature data about the chemical compositions of sorghum and millet with other grains.

Keywords

  • gluten
  • sorghum
  • millet
  • chemical compositions
Open Access

Impact of DDGS-supplemented diet with or without vitamin E and selenium supplementation on the fatty acid profile of beef

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 77 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

The impact of supplementation of vitamin E or organic selenium in DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles) diet on fatty acid composition in two meat cuts of finishing Holstein bulls was investigated. Twenty-four Holstein bulls were allotted to treatments in three groups of eight bulls per group for a 100-day trial. The treatments were adequate Se and vitamin E supplementation in control group (C), supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in vitamin Group E (E), supranutritional Se supplementation in selenium group (Se). At similar age, slaughtering Group C had higher slaughter/carcass weight and EUROP fat score than Se counterparts. The killing out percentage and proximate composition of muscles differed among treatments. Inclusion of the vitamin E or Se supplement led to expected increases (P < 0.05) in vitamin E and Se contents of the brisket and loin. Higher vitamin E concentration caused significant lower SFA and greater PUFA. Higher Se level influenced significant SFA in brisket and PUFA in both muscles. Vitamin E or Se dietary treatments in DDGS-supplemented diet resulted in beef meat cuts considerably beneficial PUFA/SFA but markedly higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and even higher health index in both meat samples opposite to Group C.

Keywords

  • vitamin E
  • Selenium
  • DDGS
  • cattle
  • fatty acid profile
Open Access

Antioxidant activity as indicator of UV radiation and other abiotic stress factors on Agaricus bisporus (Lange/Imbach) and Sedum hybridum (L.)

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 90 - 100

Abstract

Abstract

Investigation of stress level might be facilitated also in plant and horticultural sciences, but currently mainly morphological parameters are in use. Antioxidant activity routinely measured in food-oriented researches and several studies indirectly indicated that stress factors can influence this parameter. Our aim was to assess the potential direct indicator role of antioxidant activity in stress conditions. We measured the effects of UVB and soil-delivered stress on Agaricus bisporus and Sedum hybridum. Our results indicate that UVB slightly decreases, while the inadequate soil conditions increase antioxidant activity; hence these measurements are suitable for determining the level of stress in different living samples.

Keywords

  • free radicals
  • redox adaptation
  • button mushroom
  • extensive green roof
9 Articles
Open Access

Simple utilization of lactic acid whey in dairy processing

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 5 - 17

Abstract

Abstract

The use of ultra-filtered lactic acid whey retentate was investigated for the making of sour cream. The utilization of lactic acid whey is limited due to its special properties, so the logical utilization way is to use it in fermented products. First, we concentrated lactic acid whey collected from cottage cheese making by ultrafiltration (UF), then UF Whey Retentate (UFWR) was added (by 2, 5, and 10%) into fat standardized cream for sour cream making. We investigated the texture and sensory properties of the sour cream samples compared with the industrial products. Generally, we can state that the use of small portion of UF whey retentate did not result noticeable changes and did not reduce the sensory value of sour creams. Higher UF whey retentate addition improved some texture properties of experimental samples, but the summarized evaluation of UFWR addition was not unequivocal. Control samples showed better results. Based on our results, the sample, which contained 5% UF whey retentate, had good texture and acceptable sensory properties. Furthermore, more than 5% UF lactic acid whey retentate (coming from our own ultrafiltration process) resulted remarkably worse sensory properties than the other samples. Further investigation is needed to find the optimal composition and sensory properties of UFWR. Furthermore, we have to perform technological investigation to reach a higher concentration factor using pre-treatment of whey and to avoid the precipitation of whey proteins during the high temperature pasteurization of cream, cream mixed with UFWR or diafiltered whey retentate. We guess that the use of one-stage diafiltration would already decrease the unfavourable sensory properties of lactic acid whey retentate.

Keywords

  • whey utilization
  • sour cream
  • ultrafiltration
Open Access

Market orientation of the Hungarian SMEs working in the meat processing and dairy industries

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 18 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

We are looking for the answer as to what tendencies were indicative of the future development of required marketing activity of the SMEs in the article dealing with the marketing activity of the SMEs working in the food industry. The article is based on a nationwide survey among 200 SMEs working in the food processing industry. In this article, we focus on the SMEs working in the dairy and meat processing industries. The results of the nationwide research and some domestic references refer to that there is a latent demand of effective marketing activity among small and medium-sized enterprises. It manifests itself in specifying marketing-related fields to be improved in the future. The marketing itself is believed not to be an important field at the same time. This apparent opposition is the small enterprise marketing paradox in the background of which is the lack of knowledge about the marketing instruments. It can be stated that these small businesses collect mainly general market information and have no information about particular products. Therefore, the presence of marketing planning is really rare and where there is some kind of planning it is not connected to available funds and follow-up control. The marketing strategy can be characterized by products processed mainly at low or medium level. Therefore, market position is deffned by “lower price-good quality”. They mainly use the traditional distribution channels and their communication is accidental and has a low level.

The marketing-oriented way of thinking still exists among the factors affecting entrepreneurial behaviour, which cannot be found at the level of clusters, according to our results. We could identify 8.3% of the enterprises as having satisfactory marketing activity.

Keywords

  • market orientation
  • food industry
  • SME
Open Access

Flour quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 33 - 40

Abstract

Abstract

Kernel hardness is controlled by friabilin protein and it depends on the relation between protein matrix and starch granules. Friabilin is present in high concentration in soft grain varieties and in low concentration in hard grain varieties. The high gluten, hard wheat our generally contains about 12.0–13.0% crude protein under Mid-European conditions. The relationship between wheat protein content and kernel texture is usually positive and kernel texture influences the power consumption during milling. Hard-textured wheat grains require more grinding energy than soft-textured grains.

The aim of our research was to determine the possible relationship between kernel hardness and various other parameters of the our (dough visco-elastic characteristics, wet gluten, water absorption, our recovery, alveograph). We used Perten SKCS 4100 to determine the kernel hardness, while the Perten 3303 mill was used to establish Particle Size Index (PSI). Registered and widely used Hungarian wheat varieties (7 of HRWW and 4 of SRWW) were applied in the study. Twin correlations were used to determine the relationship among the various traits.

According to the results, there is a very strong correlation between milling energy and kernel hardness (r = 0:99): The correlation between hardness index and the examined our parameters was also significant (r = 0:81–0:87). We found strong correlation between the milling energy and water absorption (r = 0:88) of our. The associations found in this study will help the better understanding of the technological aspects concerning wheat grain and our quality.

Keywords

  • wheat kernel
  • our parameters
  • SKCS 4100
Open Access

Investigation of wheat grits during storage

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 41 - 49

Abstract

Abstract

The change of the quality of wheat milling products was investigated in our work. We analysed different types of wheat grists that are used in household (BL-55, BL-196, BFF-55 and AD). The grists were stored in three type of packages (paper bag, transparent PE bag, and woven PP bag) and in two different places (bright/warm and dark/cool place) for 6 months. The titre and colour characteristics of samples were measured monthly. Colour measurements were performed with a Hunter MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The values of titre were analysed using ANOVA. The type of package did not have significant influence on the titre. In the case of the BL-55, BL-196, and BFF-55 type of ours, the storage conditions had a significant effect on titre: it was smaller for samples that were stored in the dark/cool place. The value of titre rose significantly during storage for all samples.

To determine the change of colour, we calculated the ΔE*ab colour differences between colour coordinates measured at the beginning and during storage. The colour of the BL-55 and BL-196 our samples did not change perceptibly. The variation of colour of the BFF-55 and AD type of ours was imperceptible for samples stored in the dark/cool place. The changing of the colour was well perceptible in the case of samples stored in the bright/warm place using paper bag or PP bag.

Keywords

  • wheat milling product
  • colour
  • storage
  • titre
Open Access

The effect of storage on the colour of paprika powders with added oleoresin

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 50 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

The use of natural food colours is preferred to that of arti­ficial dyestuffs for modern alimentary purposes. Paprika is a spice plant grown and consumed in considerable quantities worldwide and also used as a natural food colour, so the colouring power of powders is very important. The colour of paprika powder is highly relevant too because the consumer concludes its colouring power based on its colour. The colouring power of paprika powders is directly determined by the quality and quantity of the colouring agent of paprika. The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is suitable to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour and the characteristics of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian, and Hungarian paprika. Colour measurements were performed with a HunterLab MiniScan colour-measuring instrument. The CIELab colour system was used for colour characterization. The colour agent content and the colour coordinates of samples were measured throughout 9 months. The decrease of colour agent con­tent varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The quantity of added oleoresin did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly.

The values of colour difference changed between 2 and 4.5 units. The initial paprika powder influenced the variation significantly, but the quantity of added oleoresin did not have a significant effect.

Keywords

  • paprika powder
  • colour
  • storage
Open Access

Effect of drying methods for inner parameters of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.)

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 60 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

In compliance with consumer expectations, careful processing and preservation are increasingly used with fruits and vegetables. The aim is that during these treatments the valuable nutritional characteristics of the raw materials change as little as possible. Drying has been used for the preservation of raw materials for a long time, which can distinguish two different groups based upon pressure. These are the atmospheric and the more careful vacuum drying.

During the research, Alto F1 beetroots were being dried in vacuum and under atmospheric pressure at different temperatures. Vacuum drying took place at 40, 50, and 60 °C, while atmospheric drying at 60, 70, and 80 °C. All drying processes lasted 150 minutes. During drying, changes of moisture content and water activity were monitored. After drying, colour measurement was realized and the inner parameters were investigated, such as polyphenol, betalain, and antioxidant capacity. These measured parameters were compared in the ease of atmospheric and vacuum drying.

Keywords

  • beetroot
  • atmospheric drying
  • vacuum drying
Open Access

Alternative grains in nutrition

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 69 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

Many people suffer from gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance. They have to avoid or limit their gluten intake. Sorghum and millet are gluten-free cereals, wherefore persons with gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance could consume them. Moreover, they have a lot of positive effects due to their phenolic compounds as phenol acid or flavonoid. Antioxidant activity in sorghum is especially high in comparison with other cereals. Our aim was to compare literature data about the chemical compositions of sorghum and millet with other grains.

Keywords

  • gluten
  • sorghum
  • millet
  • chemical compositions
Open Access

Impact of DDGS-supplemented diet with or without vitamin E and selenium supplementation on the fatty acid profile of beef

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 77 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

The impact of supplementation of vitamin E or organic selenium in DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles) diet on fatty acid composition in two meat cuts of finishing Holstein bulls was investigated. Twenty-four Holstein bulls were allotted to treatments in three groups of eight bulls per group for a 100-day trial. The treatments were adequate Se and vitamin E supplementation in control group (C), supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in vitamin Group E (E), supranutritional Se supplementation in selenium group (Se). At similar age, slaughtering Group C had higher slaughter/carcass weight and EUROP fat score than Se counterparts. The killing out percentage and proximate composition of muscles differed among treatments. Inclusion of the vitamin E or Se supplement led to expected increases (P < 0.05) in vitamin E and Se contents of the brisket and loin. Higher vitamin E concentration caused significant lower SFA and greater PUFA. Higher Se level influenced significant SFA in brisket and PUFA in both muscles. Vitamin E or Se dietary treatments in DDGS-supplemented diet resulted in beef meat cuts considerably beneficial PUFA/SFA but markedly higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and even higher health index in both meat samples opposite to Group C.

Keywords

  • vitamin E
  • Selenium
  • DDGS
  • cattle
  • fatty acid profile
Open Access

Antioxidant activity as indicator of UV radiation and other abiotic stress factors on Agaricus bisporus (Lange/Imbach) and Sedum hybridum (L.)

Published Online: 25 Nov 2016
Page range: 90 - 100

Abstract

Abstract

Investigation of stress level might be facilitated also in plant and horticultural sciences, but currently mainly morphological parameters are in use. Antioxidant activity routinely measured in food-oriented researches and several studies indirectly indicated that stress factors can influence this parameter. Our aim was to assess the potential direct indicator role of antioxidant activity in stress conditions. We measured the effects of UVB and soil-delivered stress on Agaricus bisporus and Sedum hybridum. Our results indicate that UVB slightly decreases, while the inadequate soil conditions increase antioxidant activity; hence these measurements are suitable for determining the level of stress in different living samples.

Keywords

  • free radicals
  • redox adaptation
  • button mushroom
  • extensive green roof

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