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Volume 14 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 13 (2020): Issue 1 (October 2020)

Volume 12 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 11 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 10 (2017): Issue 1 (October 2017)

Volume 9 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 8 (2015): Issue 1 (January 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2066-7744
First Published
12 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 8 (2015): Issue 1 (January 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2066-7744
First Published
12 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

13 Articles
Open Access

Production of selenium-enriched milk and dairy products

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 5 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation.

After producing various products from the control milk (18 μg/kg selenium content) and the selenium-enriched milk (53 μg/kg) obtained from dairy cattle fed on a feed supplemented with 2 mg selenium/day, we concluded that the selenium content of selenium-enriched milk compared to the products produced from the control milk increased from the value of 18.6 to 58.5 μg/kg in the case of yogurt, from 66.0 to 138.1 μg/kg in the case of telemea, from 80.8 to 163.7 μg/kg in the case of orda (urdă) and from 88.6 to 200.0 μg/kg in the case of semi-hard cheese obtained by mixed-coagulation. The selenium content of whey also increased significantly (from 8.8-9.7 μg/kg to 20.1-25.8 μg/kg), which could also be used as a food for people or feed for animals. According to our calculations, the selenium requirements of the developing organism could be satisfied by the consumption of 2-3 dl selenium-enriched milk until the age of 8 and with 4-6 dl selenium-enriched milk until the age of 20.

Keywords

  • selenium
  • selenium-enriched milk
  • dairy products
  • different types of cheese
Open Access

Examination of the selenium content of wheat grasses produced in different soil types in Csik Basin

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 30 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

In the course of the research, we determined selenium and dry matter content of 35 wheat grass and 35 wheat seed samples. The selenium content of the preparation plant probes was measured by spectrofluorimetric determination (λexcitation = 380 nm, λemission = 519 nm) of the resulted piazselenol complex. It was established that between the selenium content of the wheat grass and wheat seed the correlation coefficient was 0.36 at p = 0.05 level, which indicates a medium-close correlation. Similarly, there was a medium-close correlation between the selenium content of the wheat grass calculated on dry-matter basis and total selenium content of the wheat, with a correlation coefficient of 0.40 at p = 0.02 level. Afterwards, beside the selenium content, we measured the selenomethionine content by ion-exchange chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography, and the organic selenium content was calculated. A very close correlation was established between the total selenium, selenomethionine and calculated organic selenium content of wheat (the correlation coefficients were between 0.92 and 0.99 at p = 0.01 level). The correlation between the selenomethionine content of wheat grass and wheat seed was very weak (r = 0.23).

Keywords

  • inorganic
  • organic selenium content
  • selenomethionine
  • wheat grass
  • wheat seed
  • soil types
Open Access

Somatic cell count of milk from different goat breeds

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 45 - 54

Abstract

Abstract

There is no standard limit value for somatic cell count (SCC) of raw goat milk in the EU despite that excellent hygienic quality milk is needed for the manufacture of fermented milk products or cheese varieties. Mastitis often results such high SCC - besides the potential risk for humans - that the clotting of milk will not be perfect, resulting slack curd with higher whey releasing; furthermore, wrong structure, ripening, bad sensory properties of cheese can also be its consequences. In this paper, we report the SCC of milk samples from five different goat breeds bred in Hungary, measured with two fast methods compared with the results from the reference method. Furthermore, we investigated the applicability and the accuracy of the MT-02 (Agro Legato Ltd., Hungary) instrument. We determined that the White Side test and the instrument MT were suitable for the estimation of possible risks and consequences in the case of the use of high SCC milk before production. The general summarized average milk SCC was 6.64 × 105 ml−1. The highest difference between the results from MT-02 and the fluorometric (reference) method was 5 × 105 ml−1, but it was a singular, extreme value. The r2 of the calculated linear calibration equation was 0.7819; consequently, this method seems to be applicable in the measurement of SCC with MT-02 instrument. Furthermore, the SCC of samples did not differ significantly by genotypes and by seasons (spring: 5.85 × 105 ml−1, autumn: 6.22 × 105 ml−1).

Keywords

  • SCC
  • goat milk
  • fast test
Open Access

Milling technological experiments to reduce Fusarium toxin contamination in wheat

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 55 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg) winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran) toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg), which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%), our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.

Keywords

  • wheat kernel
  • DON toxin
  • scalping
  • debranning
Open Access

Investigation of rheological properties of winter wheat varieties during storage

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 63 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

The paper shows the results of some experimental researches on the rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from the flour of three winter wheat varieties. We used valorigraph test to determine the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, because it determines the quality of the end-products. Winter wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag) were produced and their samples were collected on Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen in the crop year of 2011/2012. We have carried out a short-term storage experiment (from July to August, 2012). We analysed the changes in water absorption capacity, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number for 3 times (24.07.2012, 31.07.2012, 21.08.2012) during short-term storage. Our results showed that the baking quality of Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag improved during the storage period.

Keywords

  • winter wheat
  • rheological properties
  • storage
  • valorigraph test.
Open Access

Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 70 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage) 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L*) of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151); so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

Keywords

  • colour measurement
  • wheat grits
  • colour of wheat
Open Access

Investigation of colour agent content of paprika powders with added oleoresin

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 78 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is used often to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour agent content of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using two types of oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of the samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian and Hungarian paprika. The colour agent content of the samples was measured throughout 10 months. The measured values were analysed using ANOVA. The decrease of colour agent content varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The initial colour agent content of the paprika powder samples did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly. The effect of the quantity of added oleoresin did not influence either the colour agent content decrease significantly. The decrease of the colour agent content of the Hungarian paprika samples significantly differs from the Chinese and Peruvian paprika samples colour agent content decrease.

Keywords

  • paprika powder
  • colour agent content
  • storage.
Open Access

High hydrostatic pressure: Can we trust published data?

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 86 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

There are numerous new technologies whose implementation in food industry is hampered by the fact that people hesitate to invest in expensive systems which they cannot be sure will work or at least are questionable in terms of a given product. Until recently, preservation by HHP, high hydrostatic pressure, was such a technology, and still is today in some branches of the food industry. Investigations were conducted to answer the question of whether the literature, the laboratory, and the industrial (or at least pilot plant) measurements and results agree with one another. We compared the literature data with two HHP systems which were significantly different in terms of treatment capacity, but their efficiency in killing microbes was studied under the same treatment parameters. Our results show that in nearly all cases only minimal differences exist between the data in the literature and the measurements taken on the two appliances.

Keywords

  • high hydrostatic pressure
  • data comparison
Open Access

Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 95 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM) were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

Keywords

  • aluminium stress
  • plasma membrane H+-ATPase
  • phosphorus
  • Tricitum aestivum.
Open Access

Role of the farinograph test in the wheat flour quality determination

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 104 - 110

Abstract

Abstract

Most objectively, the dough rheological methods can characterize the quality of winter wheat. The Farinograph test is the traditionally used one in Hungary, but the importance of other methods, such as Alveograph and Extensograph tests, are getting more widely known due to the interest and requirements of the industry and export markets. The Hungarian Standard on wheat quality follows the changes in the global markets; this is why the falling number appeared in the MSZ (Hungarian Standard) 6383 in 1998. As the interest in the results of other rheological test increased from our accession to the European Union, the evaluation of these parameters on different varieties has become an important issue of qualification and in 2012 limit values for Alveograph and Extensograph parameters appear in the Hungarian wheat quality standard. Additionally, while the baking value was the only evaluated parameter of the Farinograph test earlier, the standard was supplemented with limit values for water absorption capacity and stability too.

In this study, we revised different diagrams of Farinograph tests again from the previous years to reveal whether the new limit values for these Farinograph parameters change the valuation of wheat flour samples, therefore whether the quality groups in which the samples were ranked change considering the new requirements.

Keywords

  • wheat
  • farinograph
  • Hungarian Standard
  • absorption capacity
  • stability.
Open Access

Lycopene and flesh colour differences in grafted and non-grafted watermelon

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 111 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

The experiment was carried out in three regions in Hungary (Jászszentandrás, Cece, Újkígyós) in 2013 to determine the fruit quality of grafted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.). The “RX 467” seedless watermelon variety was grafted on two commercial rootstocks “FR STRONG” [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] and “RS 841” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne). The lycopene and flesh colours are important quality characteristics even of the selfrooted and grafted watermelon. Some differences can be attributed to different environments, technological methods and to the type of rootstockscion combination. Lycopene is a strong antioxidant; therefore, we considered to examine the content change. Regardless of growing location, the lycopene concentration and the chroma (C*) showed the best result in the case of interspecific rootstock. The result also showed that in two regions (Jászszentandrás, Cece) we can find negative correlation between the lycopene concentration and the L* value of the flesh colour.

Keywords

  • grafting
  • watermelon
  • lycopene
  • flesh colour.
Open Access

Effect of oil-seed pressing residue on bread colour and texture

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 118 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

Cold-pressing residue of walnut kernel (WKR) and brown linseed (BLR) was applied in wheat flour blends at 100:0, 95:5 and 90:10 ratios, of which enriched breads were baked, then stored for 3 days at ambient temperature. Colour parameters and firmness of bread crumb were measured daily. Bavarian rye-bread (BR) and wholemeal multigrain bread (WMMG) were used as competitive, marketable breads for comparing tests.

The studied oil-seed pressing residues (OSRs) resulted brown colour with different characteristics, depending both on the type of OSR and in comparison with marketed breads, too. The type and the ratio of OSR applied had no influence on the varying of crumb texture (P = 0.107). WKR and BLR enrichment provided stable texture for breads with a 3-day shelf-life, independently from their addition ratio. BLR resulted in softer crumb than WKR; however, this difference was considered to be negligible (P = 0.128). The WKR- and BLR-enriched breads stayed significantly softer at the end of storage time than the marketed breads (P = 0.000). Our results indicate that competitive bakery goods can be produced using oil-seed pressing residue/wheat flour blends.

Keywords

  • bread
  • walnut
  • linseed
  • pressing residue
  • by-product
  • colour
  • hardness
Open Access

Experiences of using the fruit waste of the modern Hungarian pálinka fermentation technology for the foraging of extensively kept grey cattle

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 125 - 135

Abstract

Abstract

In this article, the authors report on the experiences of six years of foraging, describing how the fruit wastes generated in the Pannonhalmi Pálinkárium are utilized for foraging Hungarian grey cattle. The goal is not the control or improvement of the cattle’s growth indices but the problem-free, continuous and eco-friendly disposal of the fruit waste. They have found that the fruit waste or pomace is virtually nothing else than protein-enriched sugar-free fruit, and that during the utilization of this they have to maximally adapt to the cattle’s life-cycle, biological nature and environmental factors, and they will repay you by eating the pomace. They conclude that the grey cattle are a skin-and-hairs-covered bioreactor, which provides an economical service for the distillery through the utilization of the fruit waste. Nowadays, 150,000-200,000 tons of fruit waste is produced every year, and only a few percent of this is utilized in ruminant forage. By writing this article, the authors would like to expand our very scarce knowledge on this topic.

Keywords

  • fruit wastes
  • Hungarian pálinka
  • Hungarian grey cattle
13 Articles
Open Access

Production of selenium-enriched milk and dairy products

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 5 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation.

After producing various products from the control milk (18 μg/kg selenium content) and the selenium-enriched milk (53 μg/kg) obtained from dairy cattle fed on a feed supplemented with 2 mg selenium/day, we concluded that the selenium content of selenium-enriched milk compared to the products produced from the control milk increased from the value of 18.6 to 58.5 μg/kg in the case of yogurt, from 66.0 to 138.1 μg/kg in the case of telemea, from 80.8 to 163.7 μg/kg in the case of orda (urdă) and from 88.6 to 200.0 μg/kg in the case of semi-hard cheese obtained by mixed-coagulation. The selenium content of whey also increased significantly (from 8.8-9.7 μg/kg to 20.1-25.8 μg/kg), which could also be used as a food for people or feed for animals. According to our calculations, the selenium requirements of the developing organism could be satisfied by the consumption of 2-3 dl selenium-enriched milk until the age of 8 and with 4-6 dl selenium-enriched milk until the age of 20.

Keywords

  • selenium
  • selenium-enriched milk
  • dairy products
  • different types of cheese
Open Access

Examination of the selenium content of wheat grasses produced in different soil types in Csik Basin

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 30 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

In the course of the research, we determined selenium and dry matter content of 35 wheat grass and 35 wheat seed samples. The selenium content of the preparation plant probes was measured by spectrofluorimetric determination (λexcitation = 380 nm, λemission = 519 nm) of the resulted piazselenol complex. It was established that between the selenium content of the wheat grass and wheat seed the correlation coefficient was 0.36 at p = 0.05 level, which indicates a medium-close correlation. Similarly, there was a medium-close correlation between the selenium content of the wheat grass calculated on dry-matter basis and total selenium content of the wheat, with a correlation coefficient of 0.40 at p = 0.02 level. Afterwards, beside the selenium content, we measured the selenomethionine content by ion-exchange chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography, and the organic selenium content was calculated. A very close correlation was established between the total selenium, selenomethionine and calculated organic selenium content of wheat (the correlation coefficients were between 0.92 and 0.99 at p = 0.01 level). The correlation between the selenomethionine content of wheat grass and wheat seed was very weak (r = 0.23).

Keywords

  • inorganic
  • organic selenium content
  • selenomethionine
  • wheat grass
  • wheat seed
  • soil types
Open Access

Somatic cell count of milk from different goat breeds

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 45 - 54

Abstract

Abstract

There is no standard limit value for somatic cell count (SCC) of raw goat milk in the EU despite that excellent hygienic quality milk is needed for the manufacture of fermented milk products or cheese varieties. Mastitis often results such high SCC - besides the potential risk for humans - that the clotting of milk will not be perfect, resulting slack curd with higher whey releasing; furthermore, wrong structure, ripening, bad sensory properties of cheese can also be its consequences. In this paper, we report the SCC of milk samples from five different goat breeds bred in Hungary, measured with two fast methods compared with the results from the reference method. Furthermore, we investigated the applicability and the accuracy of the MT-02 (Agro Legato Ltd., Hungary) instrument. We determined that the White Side test and the instrument MT were suitable for the estimation of possible risks and consequences in the case of the use of high SCC milk before production. The general summarized average milk SCC was 6.64 × 105 ml−1. The highest difference between the results from MT-02 and the fluorometric (reference) method was 5 × 105 ml−1, but it was a singular, extreme value. The r2 of the calculated linear calibration equation was 0.7819; consequently, this method seems to be applicable in the measurement of SCC with MT-02 instrument. Furthermore, the SCC of samples did not differ significantly by genotypes and by seasons (spring: 5.85 × 105 ml−1, autumn: 6.22 × 105 ml−1).

Keywords

  • SCC
  • goat milk
  • fast test
Open Access

Milling technological experiments to reduce Fusarium toxin contamination in wheat

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 55 - 62

Abstract

Abstract

We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg) winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran) toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg), which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%), our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.

Keywords

  • wheat kernel
  • DON toxin
  • scalping
  • debranning
Open Access

Investigation of rheological properties of winter wheat varieties during storage

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 63 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

The paper shows the results of some experimental researches on the rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from the flour of three winter wheat varieties. We used valorigraph test to determine the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, because it determines the quality of the end-products. Winter wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag) were produced and their samples were collected on Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen in the crop year of 2011/2012. We have carried out a short-term storage experiment (from July to August, 2012). We analysed the changes in water absorption capacity, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number for 3 times (24.07.2012, 31.07.2012, 21.08.2012) during short-term storage. Our results showed that the baking quality of Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag improved during the storage period.

Keywords

  • winter wheat
  • rheological properties
  • storage
  • valorigraph test.
Open Access

Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 70 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage) 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L*) of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151); so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

Keywords

  • colour measurement
  • wheat grits
  • colour of wheat
Open Access

Investigation of colour agent content of paprika powders with added oleoresin

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 78 - 85

Abstract

Abstract

The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is used often to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour agent content of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using two types of oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of the samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian and Hungarian paprika. The colour agent content of the samples was measured throughout 10 months. The measured values were analysed using ANOVA. The decrease of colour agent content varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The initial colour agent content of the paprika powder samples did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly. The effect of the quantity of added oleoresin did not influence either the colour agent content decrease significantly. The decrease of the colour agent content of the Hungarian paprika samples significantly differs from the Chinese and Peruvian paprika samples colour agent content decrease.

Keywords

  • paprika powder
  • colour agent content
  • storage.
Open Access

High hydrostatic pressure: Can we trust published data?

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 86 - 94

Abstract

Abstract

There are numerous new technologies whose implementation in food industry is hampered by the fact that people hesitate to invest in expensive systems which they cannot be sure will work or at least are questionable in terms of a given product. Until recently, preservation by HHP, high hydrostatic pressure, was such a technology, and still is today in some branches of the food industry. Investigations were conducted to answer the question of whether the literature, the laboratory, and the industrial (or at least pilot plant) measurements and results agree with one another. We compared the literature data with two HHP systems which were significantly different in terms of treatment capacity, but their efficiency in killing microbes was studied under the same treatment parameters. Our results show that in nearly all cases only minimal differences exist between the data in the literature and the measurements taken on the two appliances.

Keywords

  • high hydrostatic pressure
  • data comparison
Open Access

Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 95 - 103

Abstract

Abstract

Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM) were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

Keywords

  • aluminium stress
  • plasma membrane H+-ATPase
  • phosphorus
  • Tricitum aestivum.
Open Access

Role of the farinograph test in the wheat flour quality determination

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 104 - 110

Abstract

Abstract

Most objectively, the dough rheological methods can characterize the quality of winter wheat. The Farinograph test is the traditionally used one in Hungary, but the importance of other methods, such as Alveograph and Extensograph tests, are getting more widely known due to the interest and requirements of the industry and export markets. The Hungarian Standard on wheat quality follows the changes in the global markets; this is why the falling number appeared in the MSZ (Hungarian Standard) 6383 in 1998. As the interest in the results of other rheological test increased from our accession to the European Union, the evaluation of these parameters on different varieties has become an important issue of qualification and in 2012 limit values for Alveograph and Extensograph parameters appear in the Hungarian wheat quality standard. Additionally, while the baking value was the only evaluated parameter of the Farinograph test earlier, the standard was supplemented with limit values for water absorption capacity and stability too.

In this study, we revised different diagrams of Farinograph tests again from the previous years to reveal whether the new limit values for these Farinograph parameters change the valuation of wheat flour samples, therefore whether the quality groups in which the samples were ranked change considering the new requirements.

Keywords

  • wheat
  • farinograph
  • Hungarian Standard
  • absorption capacity
  • stability.
Open Access

Lycopene and flesh colour differences in grafted and non-grafted watermelon

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 111 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

The experiment was carried out in three regions in Hungary (Jászszentandrás, Cece, Újkígyós) in 2013 to determine the fruit quality of grafted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.). The “RX 467” seedless watermelon variety was grafted on two commercial rootstocks “FR STRONG” [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] and “RS 841” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne). The lycopene and flesh colours are important quality characteristics even of the selfrooted and grafted watermelon. Some differences can be attributed to different environments, technological methods and to the type of rootstockscion combination. Lycopene is a strong antioxidant; therefore, we considered to examine the content change. Regardless of growing location, the lycopene concentration and the chroma (C*) showed the best result in the case of interspecific rootstock. The result also showed that in two regions (Jászszentandrás, Cece) we can find negative correlation between the lycopene concentration and the L* value of the flesh colour.

Keywords

  • grafting
  • watermelon
  • lycopene
  • flesh colour.
Open Access

Effect of oil-seed pressing residue on bread colour and texture

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 118 - 124

Abstract

Abstract

Cold-pressing residue of walnut kernel (WKR) and brown linseed (BLR) was applied in wheat flour blends at 100:0, 95:5 and 90:10 ratios, of which enriched breads were baked, then stored for 3 days at ambient temperature. Colour parameters and firmness of bread crumb were measured daily. Bavarian rye-bread (BR) and wholemeal multigrain bread (WMMG) were used as competitive, marketable breads for comparing tests.

The studied oil-seed pressing residues (OSRs) resulted brown colour with different characteristics, depending both on the type of OSR and in comparison with marketed breads, too. The type and the ratio of OSR applied had no influence on the varying of crumb texture (P = 0.107). WKR and BLR enrichment provided stable texture for breads with a 3-day shelf-life, independently from their addition ratio. BLR resulted in softer crumb than WKR; however, this difference was considered to be negligible (P = 0.128). The WKR- and BLR-enriched breads stayed significantly softer at the end of storage time than the marketed breads (P = 0.000). Our results indicate that competitive bakery goods can be produced using oil-seed pressing residue/wheat flour blends.

Keywords

  • bread
  • walnut
  • linseed
  • pressing residue
  • by-product
  • colour
  • hardness
Open Access

Experiences of using the fruit waste of the modern Hungarian pálinka fermentation technology for the foraging of extensively kept grey cattle

Published Online: 03 Jul 2015
Page range: 125 - 135

Abstract

Abstract

In this article, the authors report on the experiences of six years of foraging, describing how the fruit wastes generated in the Pannonhalmi Pálinkárium are utilized for foraging Hungarian grey cattle. The goal is not the control or improvement of the cattle’s growth indices but the problem-free, continuous and eco-friendly disposal of the fruit waste. They have found that the fruit waste or pomace is virtually nothing else than protein-enriched sugar-free fruit, and that during the utilization of this they have to maximally adapt to the cattle’s life-cycle, biological nature and environmental factors, and they will repay you by eating the pomace. They conclude that the grey cattle are a skin-and-hairs-covered bioreactor, which provides an economical service for the distillery through the utilization of the fruit waste. Nowadays, 150,000-200,000 tons of fruit waste is produced every year, and only a few percent of this is utilized in ruminant forage. By writing this article, the authors would like to expand our very scarce knowledge on this topic.

Keywords

  • fruit wastes
  • Hungarian pálinka
  • Hungarian grey cattle

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