Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 62 (2022): Issue 1 (May 2022)

Volume 61 (2021): Issue 2 (November 2021)

Volume 61 (2021): Issue 1 (May 2021)

Volume 60 (2020): Issue 2 (November 2020)

Volume 60 (2020): Issue 1 (May 2020)

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 2 (November 2019)

Volume 59 (2019): Issue 1 (May 2019)

Volume 58 (2018): Issue 2 (November 2018)

Volume 58 (2018): Issue 1 (May 2018)

Volume 57 (2017): Issue 2 (November 2017)

Volume 57 (2017): Issue 1 (May 2017)

Volume 56 (2016): Issue 2 (November 2016)

Volume 56 (2016): Issue 1 (May 2016)

Volume 55 (2015): Issue 2 (November 2015)

Volume 55 (2015): Issue 1 (May 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2585-8777
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 61 (2021): Issue 2 (November 2021)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2585-8777
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

11 Articles
Open Access

Return to Exercise After Covid-19: Which One is the Best Strategy?

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 122 - 132

Abstract

Summary

Coronavirus (Covid-19), which began in China as of 2019 and spread to almost all over the world in a short time; has shown that we need to plan our life with new strategies as well as changing our current lifestyle today. While we must implement new ways to prevent against Covid-19 and maintaining our healthy lives, we must also design new strategies for returning to sports and physical activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to reveal the return strategies for professional and recreational athletes during the quarantine periods in light of evidences. In this regard, firstly we examined the existing literature regarding return strategies to sports. As a result, individual performance and personal hygiene conditions should be considered, and athletic performance should be preserved while keeping a physical distance from teammates and others. The use of masks in sports should be encouraged, but new techniques should be developed by investigating the effect on performance. Consequently, for healthy individuals, low to moderate intensity (not high-intensity) exercise may be beneficial and recommend. However, due to the risk of spreading (person-to-person or contaminated surfaces), exercise is recommended in special places with good ventilation and the use of personal types of equipment.

Keywords

  • Covid19
  • Coronavirus
  • Exercise
  • Sports
  • Performance
Open Access

The Role of Recreational Sports Activities in Reducing Some Psychological Problems Caused by Covid-19 Pandemic

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 133 - 146

Abstract

Summary

This study is aimed at knowing the role of recreational sports activities in decreasing some psychological problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic among adolescents, and done on a sample of 400 adolescents chosen from the final year of the Intermediate education stage (Hamam bouhjar Middle school - Ain Temouchent state, Sig middle school – Mascara state), the questionnaire was applied as a tool for the study and it consisted of three axes: the axis of aggressive behavior, isolation, and self-confidence, and each axis consists of a group of questions. We used Frequencies, Percentage, and Chi-square goodness of fit test to analyze and interpret the results. In the end, we concluded that recreational sports activities have a role in alleviating some psychological problems resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents, and this is based on the results that we have researched which states that recreational sports alleviate the aggressive behavior caused by the COVID-19 and its major role in reducing the weakness of self-confidence caused by COVID-19 among adolescents, as well as mitigating the weakness of self-confidence under the COVID-19 pandemic Finally, the researchers recommend the necessity of practicing recreational sports activities in spare time.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Psychological problems
  • Recreational sports activity
Open Access

Application of Sport and Physical Education in the Period of Pandemic Covid-19 From the Point of View of Teachers

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 147 - 155

Abstract

Summary

The study aimed to identify the physical education and sports classes implementation in the light of the Corona pandemic, as seen by the teachers. To this end, the researchers used the descriptive approach based on the survey method. The sample included (60) teachers from high schools in the Wilaya of El Bayadh, chosen at random. The results of the study showed that the teachers experienced to a more than average degree, difficulties with the administrative organization, and moderate difficulties during the practice of the lesson of physical education and sports, and therefore the researchers recommended in this regard, the provision of national educational establishments with the material necessary for comprehensive prevention, as well as the need for mutual assistance between the administrative team and teachers.

Keywords

  • physical education and sports lessons - Corona pandemic
Open Access

Gender Differences in Attitudes of Students Attending Non-Inclusive School Towards Inclusive Physical Education

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 156 - 171

Abstract

Summary

The objective of the study was to determine and compare the attitudes of high school students of the non-inclusive school towards inclusive physical education according to gender. This study deepened the knowledge about the students’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with physical and intellectual disabilities. The research sample comprised a total of 181 able-bodied high school students (56 boys and 125 girls) attending one non-inclusive high school in Bratislava, Slovakia. Modified Czech version of the CAIPE (Children’s Attitude toward Inclusive Physical Education) questionnaire was used as a primary research method. Girls presented higher levels of positive attitudes towards inclusive physical education (IPE) in goal achievement, motivation, and motor skills learning. Boys showed a higher level of positive attitudes in the self-confidence of students with disabilities through IPE. In the goal achievement, girls expressed a significantly higher positive attitude towards IPE in students with intellectual disabilities inclusion (U = 2817, p = 0.029, r = 0.168). The highest level of a positive attitude toward IPE declared both genders by society inclusion and the lowest level of positive attitude by motor skills acquisition. Slovak students of a non-inclusive high school showed a positive attitude toward IPE for the inclusion of pupils with physical as well as intellectual disabilities.

Keywords

  • inclusion
  • physical education
  • physical disability
  • intellectual disability
  • attitude
  • boys
  • girls
Open Access

Role of Fitness Program in a Health Improvement of Adolescents

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 172 - 187

Abstract

Summary

Since physical activities affect the quality of life and activate a complete locomotor system, sports and physical activities can be treated as a determinant for a harmonious development of all child’s characteristics and anthropological characteristics. Because, childhood and youth are the most important formative periods, and some segments of development, for example, specific motor skills can be developed only with means used in sports, this research was conducted to find out do the fitness program (aimed at improving strength) after eight weeks had a positive effect on body composition and mobility and stability of subjects. A control group consisted of 11 female subjects and experimental group were 11 female subjects aged 16 years. The effects of the program on the fitness condition of the subjects were determined by assessing the body composition parameters (data obtained using the Body composition analyser TANITA BC-418) - the total percentage of fat tissue (FAT), the percentage of fat tissue segmentally (percentage of fat tissue of the left leg (FATll), right leg (FATrl), left arm (FATla), right arm (FATra) and body (FATb)) and estimation of mobility and stability levels - based on the application of Functional movement screening (FMS) method (seven tests) before and after the program is implemented. The success of the implemented program was confirmed because the program showed a statistically significant difference between the mobility groups of the subjects in the experimental in relation to the control group (deep squat t=3,464 p=0,006, step over a hurdle t=2,390 p=0,038, active lift of a stretched leg t=2,887 p=0,016, rotatory body stability t=3,130 p=0,011 and FMS t=5,721 p=0,000), and a positive effect on the composition of the body in terms of reduction of the percentage of fatty body has been shown segmentally.

Keywords

  • fitness program
  • adolescents
  • body composition
  • FMS method
Open Access

Physiological Response of the Performance of Young Football Players During Small-Sided Games

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 188 - 202

Abstract

Summary

The main aim of the present study was to examine the cardiovascular response, time-motion characteristics, game performance and rated of perceived exertion (RPE) during small-sided games (SSGs) with different number of players. The research group consisted of elite youth male soccer players (n = 18) (aged 16.5 ±0.71 years, maximum heart rate (HRmax) 196.42 ±5.31 beats.min−1) from the FC DAC 1904 Dunajská Streda U17 soccer club. Cardiovascular response measurements included heart rate (HR) expressed in minimum, mean and maximum values and time spent in different intensity zones. Total distance covered, high intensity running and the number of accelerations and decelerations were captured by GPS. Individual game performance and the number of technical-tactical actions were recorded during every SSGs. After the game time we collected the ratings of perceived exertion scores from each player. Results showed that SSG with small number of players (3 vs. 3) triggered the highest HR response with mean value 168.00 ±8.48 beats.min−1, players spent the most time in maximal intensity zone 0:09:06 minutes, of SSG duration. This format of SSG was the mostintense for the players´ cardiovascular system, but we can’t find statistically significant differences between the HR values in SSGs. External load was the most demanding in SSG1 too, like in internal load. The highest scores in individual game performance were recorded in SSG2. In RPE scores SSG1 was the most difficult from the players point of view. In conclusion, the present research demonstrates the effectiveness of SSG1 in training sessions. Therefore, the coaching staff has the possibility to choose between SSGs during training sessions according to their physical, technical, tactical and psychological objectives.

Keywords

  • soccer
  • small-sided games
  • internal load
  • time-motion characteristics
  • individual game performance
  • RPE
Open Access

Intraindividual Evaluation of Reaction Time at the Women’s World Athletics Championships 1999 – 2019

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 203 - 213

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the article was the intraindividual evaluation of reaction time at the Women’s World Athletics Championships from 1999 to 2019.We generated the rating of sprinters from the age point of view with comparison of two periods with different false start rules. In the result section, we analysed the sprinters that took part at World Championships (WCH) at least 3 times and appeared in the final. We assessed the reaction speed from the ageing point of view, or more precisely with the changing conditions when judging the false start. The results confirm that the stricter start judging rules in sprint disciplines did not have a significant influence on the reaction speed. We also confirmed a research that the sprinters older than 30 years can achieve very low reaction time at the start.

Keywords

  • sprinters
  • reaction speed
  • age of competitors
  • change of rules at low start
  • World Championship
Open Access

12 Months of Balance Training Decreases Ankle-Joint Injury Frequency in Young Girl Basketball Players

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 214 - 227

Abstract

Summary

Aim: Balance training can help reduce the frequency of ankle joint injuries in adults, but data on young girls is relatively scant.

Methods: Out of 91 female basketball players (7-16 years), 40 players were assigned to an experimental balance training group, and 51 players were assigned to a control group. Both groups performed their typical basketball training but the experimental group performed additional balance-focused exercises during the warm-up of their basketball training sessions.

Results: A total of 47 girls (52 %) reported at least one ankle joint injury in their entire basketball history (52.5 % in the experimental, 50.9% in the control group). There was a positive correlation between the number of ankle joint injuries and age before the experiment (r = 0.34, p < 0.001). During the 12-month study period, girls who participated in balance training suffered significantly fewer ankle joint injuries than the control group (χ2 = 3.8423, df = 1, p-value < 0.05). Increased risk for ankle joint injury in the future was confirmed according to logistic regression for girls with previous ankle joint injury in history (4.33 times) and girls who did not participate in the balance training program (3.97 times).

Conclusions: A progressive, barefoot balance training program that is simple and short enough to be performed during normal warm-ups can reduce the likelihood of suffering an ankle joint injury in young girls basketball players, which may be useful for athletes in other sports as well.

Keywords

  • ankle sprain
  • female
  • instability
  • school age players
  • sensorimotor exercises
Open Access

Selected Goal – Scoring Characteristics in the National Hockey League

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 228 - 237

Abstract

Summary

The variables impacting the efficiency of the offensive phase of the game in ice hockey may be determining factor for both the training process and game strategies. The research aimed to acquire and expand the knowledge about selected goal-scoring characteristics in the National Hockey League. A total of 511 even-strength goals were recorded in 129 randomly selected games in a regular-season 2020/2021 by indirect observation. Goals were differentiated by selected variable dimensions: location of the offensive team’s puck possession gain before scoring a goal, game situation preceding a goal, and the number of passes of the offensive team preceding a goal. Data were analyzed by performing a one–way ANOVA. Post hoc multiple comparisons were performed using the Tukey HSD test. The significance level of p ≤ 0.05 was used. Significant differences were found within all variable dimensions (p= 0.00001). In terms of the puck possession gain location, zone 1 (along the boards in the offensive zone) was the zone with the significantly highest mean score (p= 0.00305). Offensive zone play was significantly the game situation preceding most of the goals (p= 0.00000). The interval of the passes that preceded most of the recorded goals was the interval of 1 – 2 passes (p= 0.00000). Acquired results point out the dominance of particular variables and may help coaches to determine the content of the training process and game strategies. Based on the assumption of the realization of similar research in different environments in terms of the quality and age category, if the analogy would be found between the results of the present study and the results of potential studies, we can state the trends applicable to youth training.

Keywords

  • National Hockey League
  • ice hockey
  • game performance
  • trends
  • goals
Open Access

Social Media Fitness Challenge – Risks and Benefits

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 238 - 248

Abstract

Summary

Social media is part of the lives of young adults. Their influence extends to health behavior or nutrition. “Fitness challenges” often appear and they should affect the motivation to exercise, body composition changes, performance improvement. 67 healthy young adults (32 women, 20.3 years; 35 men, 20.8 years) took part in the “challenge”, where they completed 3 series of 12 – 15 push-ups every day for 30 days. After the intervention, both groups showed a statistically significant (α = 0.01) improvement, women 5.8 repetitions, men by 7 repetitions. The research was supplemented by a questionnaire, which showed a positive effect on increasing motivation for this activity. Furthermore, it has been shown that “fitness challenges” bring obvious health risks that need to be taken into account. It seems that with the optimal setting of the content of the exercise program, the “fitness challenge” can be a good instrument of increasing the physical acitivty, motivation to exercise, and positively influencing strength performance.

Keywords

  • push-up
  • exercise
  • motivation
  • performance
Open Access

Effect of using Weighted Balls on Performance Speed in Wheelchair Basketball Players

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 249 - 257

Abstract

Summary

The researchers seek to identify the impact of weighted balls on performance speed in wheelchair basketball players. An experimental method has been used in conformity with research nature between pre-tests and post-tests sample. The sample was selected by the intended manner and divided into two equal groups (10 players experimental sample, 10 players control sample) for the 2019/2020 sports season. A speed test (5 m and 20 m without ball), speed test (5 m and 20 m with ball) were used. After statistical treatment of the results, the researchers concluded: The weighted balls are important to develop performance speed in wheelchair basketball players, and the best improvement of the experimental group based on of weighted balls is marked comparing to the control group. A regular physical training with weighted balls is very important to improve of performance speed of persons with disabilities in basketball game.

Keywords

  • weighted balls
  • performance speed
  • wheelchair basketball players
11 Articles
Open Access

Return to Exercise After Covid-19: Which One is the Best Strategy?

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 122 - 132

Abstract

Summary

Coronavirus (Covid-19), which began in China as of 2019 and spread to almost all over the world in a short time; has shown that we need to plan our life with new strategies as well as changing our current lifestyle today. While we must implement new ways to prevent against Covid-19 and maintaining our healthy lives, we must also design new strategies for returning to sports and physical activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to reveal the return strategies for professional and recreational athletes during the quarantine periods in light of evidences. In this regard, firstly we examined the existing literature regarding return strategies to sports. As a result, individual performance and personal hygiene conditions should be considered, and athletic performance should be preserved while keeping a physical distance from teammates and others. The use of masks in sports should be encouraged, but new techniques should be developed by investigating the effect on performance. Consequently, for healthy individuals, low to moderate intensity (not high-intensity) exercise may be beneficial and recommend. However, due to the risk of spreading (person-to-person or contaminated surfaces), exercise is recommended in special places with good ventilation and the use of personal types of equipment.

Keywords

  • Covid19
  • Coronavirus
  • Exercise
  • Sports
  • Performance
Open Access

The Role of Recreational Sports Activities in Reducing Some Psychological Problems Caused by Covid-19 Pandemic

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 133 - 146

Abstract

Summary

This study is aimed at knowing the role of recreational sports activities in decreasing some psychological problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic among adolescents, and done on a sample of 400 adolescents chosen from the final year of the Intermediate education stage (Hamam bouhjar Middle school - Ain Temouchent state, Sig middle school – Mascara state), the questionnaire was applied as a tool for the study and it consisted of three axes: the axis of aggressive behavior, isolation, and self-confidence, and each axis consists of a group of questions. We used Frequencies, Percentage, and Chi-square goodness of fit test to analyze and interpret the results. In the end, we concluded that recreational sports activities have a role in alleviating some psychological problems resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents, and this is based on the results that we have researched which states that recreational sports alleviate the aggressive behavior caused by the COVID-19 and its major role in reducing the weakness of self-confidence caused by COVID-19 among adolescents, as well as mitigating the weakness of self-confidence under the COVID-19 pandemic Finally, the researchers recommend the necessity of practicing recreational sports activities in spare time.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Psychological problems
  • Recreational sports activity
Open Access

Application of Sport and Physical Education in the Period of Pandemic Covid-19 From the Point of View of Teachers

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 147 - 155

Abstract

Summary

The study aimed to identify the physical education and sports classes implementation in the light of the Corona pandemic, as seen by the teachers. To this end, the researchers used the descriptive approach based on the survey method. The sample included (60) teachers from high schools in the Wilaya of El Bayadh, chosen at random. The results of the study showed that the teachers experienced to a more than average degree, difficulties with the administrative organization, and moderate difficulties during the practice of the lesson of physical education and sports, and therefore the researchers recommended in this regard, the provision of national educational establishments with the material necessary for comprehensive prevention, as well as the need for mutual assistance between the administrative team and teachers.

Keywords

  • physical education and sports lessons - Corona pandemic
Open Access

Gender Differences in Attitudes of Students Attending Non-Inclusive School Towards Inclusive Physical Education

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 156 - 171

Abstract

Summary

The objective of the study was to determine and compare the attitudes of high school students of the non-inclusive school towards inclusive physical education according to gender. This study deepened the knowledge about the students’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with physical and intellectual disabilities. The research sample comprised a total of 181 able-bodied high school students (56 boys and 125 girls) attending one non-inclusive high school in Bratislava, Slovakia. Modified Czech version of the CAIPE (Children’s Attitude toward Inclusive Physical Education) questionnaire was used as a primary research method. Girls presented higher levels of positive attitudes towards inclusive physical education (IPE) in goal achievement, motivation, and motor skills learning. Boys showed a higher level of positive attitudes in the self-confidence of students with disabilities through IPE. In the goal achievement, girls expressed a significantly higher positive attitude towards IPE in students with intellectual disabilities inclusion (U = 2817, p = 0.029, r = 0.168). The highest level of a positive attitude toward IPE declared both genders by society inclusion and the lowest level of positive attitude by motor skills acquisition. Slovak students of a non-inclusive high school showed a positive attitude toward IPE for the inclusion of pupils with physical as well as intellectual disabilities.

Keywords

  • inclusion
  • physical education
  • physical disability
  • intellectual disability
  • attitude
  • boys
  • girls
Open Access

Role of Fitness Program in a Health Improvement of Adolescents

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 172 - 187

Abstract

Summary

Since physical activities affect the quality of life and activate a complete locomotor system, sports and physical activities can be treated as a determinant for a harmonious development of all child’s characteristics and anthropological characteristics. Because, childhood and youth are the most important formative periods, and some segments of development, for example, specific motor skills can be developed only with means used in sports, this research was conducted to find out do the fitness program (aimed at improving strength) after eight weeks had a positive effect on body composition and mobility and stability of subjects. A control group consisted of 11 female subjects and experimental group were 11 female subjects aged 16 years. The effects of the program on the fitness condition of the subjects were determined by assessing the body composition parameters (data obtained using the Body composition analyser TANITA BC-418) - the total percentage of fat tissue (FAT), the percentage of fat tissue segmentally (percentage of fat tissue of the left leg (FATll), right leg (FATrl), left arm (FATla), right arm (FATra) and body (FATb)) and estimation of mobility and stability levels - based on the application of Functional movement screening (FMS) method (seven tests) before and after the program is implemented. The success of the implemented program was confirmed because the program showed a statistically significant difference between the mobility groups of the subjects in the experimental in relation to the control group (deep squat t=3,464 p=0,006, step over a hurdle t=2,390 p=0,038, active lift of a stretched leg t=2,887 p=0,016, rotatory body stability t=3,130 p=0,011 and FMS t=5,721 p=0,000), and a positive effect on the composition of the body in terms of reduction of the percentage of fatty body has been shown segmentally.

Keywords

  • fitness program
  • adolescents
  • body composition
  • FMS method
Open Access

Physiological Response of the Performance of Young Football Players During Small-Sided Games

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 188 - 202

Abstract

Summary

The main aim of the present study was to examine the cardiovascular response, time-motion characteristics, game performance and rated of perceived exertion (RPE) during small-sided games (SSGs) with different number of players. The research group consisted of elite youth male soccer players (n = 18) (aged 16.5 ±0.71 years, maximum heart rate (HRmax) 196.42 ±5.31 beats.min−1) from the FC DAC 1904 Dunajská Streda U17 soccer club. Cardiovascular response measurements included heart rate (HR) expressed in minimum, mean and maximum values and time spent in different intensity zones. Total distance covered, high intensity running and the number of accelerations and decelerations were captured by GPS. Individual game performance and the number of technical-tactical actions were recorded during every SSGs. After the game time we collected the ratings of perceived exertion scores from each player. Results showed that SSG with small number of players (3 vs. 3) triggered the highest HR response with mean value 168.00 ±8.48 beats.min−1, players spent the most time in maximal intensity zone 0:09:06 minutes, of SSG duration. This format of SSG was the mostintense for the players´ cardiovascular system, but we can’t find statistically significant differences between the HR values in SSGs. External load was the most demanding in SSG1 too, like in internal load. The highest scores in individual game performance were recorded in SSG2. In RPE scores SSG1 was the most difficult from the players point of view. In conclusion, the present research demonstrates the effectiveness of SSG1 in training sessions. Therefore, the coaching staff has the possibility to choose between SSGs during training sessions according to their physical, technical, tactical and psychological objectives.

Keywords

  • soccer
  • small-sided games
  • internal load
  • time-motion characteristics
  • individual game performance
  • RPE
Open Access

Intraindividual Evaluation of Reaction Time at the Women’s World Athletics Championships 1999 – 2019

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 203 - 213

Abstract

Summary

The aim of the article was the intraindividual evaluation of reaction time at the Women’s World Athletics Championships from 1999 to 2019.We generated the rating of sprinters from the age point of view with comparison of two periods with different false start rules. In the result section, we analysed the sprinters that took part at World Championships (WCH) at least 3 times and appeared in the final. We assessed the reaction speed from the ageing point of view, or more precisely with the changing conditions when judging the false start. The results confirm that the stricter start judging rules in sprint disciplines did not have a significant influence on the reaction speed. We also confirmed a research that the sprinters older than 30 years can achieve very low reaction time at the start.

Keywords

  • sprinters
  • reaction speed
  • age of competitors
  • change of rules at low start
  • World Championship
Open Access

12 Months of Balance Training Decreases Ankle-Joint Injury Frequency in Young Girl Basketball Players

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 214 - 227

Abstract

Summary

Aim: Balance training can help reduce the frequency of ankle joint injuries in adults, but data on young girls is relatively scant.

Methods: Out of 91 female basketball players (7-16 years), 40 players were assigned to an experimental balance training group, and 51 players were assigned to a control group. Both groups performed their typical basketball training but the experimental group performed additional balance-focused exercises during the warm-up of their basketball training sessions.

Results: A total of 47 girls (52 %) reported at least one ankle joint injury in their entire basketball history (52.5 % in the experimental, 50.9% in the control group). There was a positive correlation between the number of ankle joint injuries and age before the experiment (r = 0.34, p < 0.001). During the 12-month study period, girls who participated in balance training suffered significantly fewer ankle joint injuries than the control group (χ2 = 3.8423, df = 1, p-value < 0.05). Increased risk for ankle joint injury in the future was confirmed according to logistic regression for girls with previous ankle joint injury in history (4.33 times) and girls who did not participate in the balance training program (3.97 times).

Conclusions: A progressive, barefoot balance training program that is simple and short enough to be performed during normal warm-ups can reduce the likelihood of suffering an ankle joint injury in young girls basketball players, which may be useful for athletes in other sports as well.

Keywords

  • ankle sprain
  • female
  • instability
  • school age players
  • sensorimotor exercises
Open Access

Selected Goal – Scoring Characteristics in the National Hockey League

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 228 - 237

Abstract

Summary

The variables impacting the efficiency of the offensive phase of the game in ice hockey may be determining factor for both the training process and game strategies. The research aimed to acquire and expand the knowledge about selected goal-scoring characteristics in the National Hockey League. A total of 511 even-strength goals were recorded in 129 randomly selected games in a regular-season 2020/2021 by indirect observation. Goals were differentiated by selected variable dimensions: location of the offensive team’s puck possession gain before scoring a goal, game situation preceding a goal, and the number of passes of the offensive team preceding a goal. Data were analyzed by performing a one–way ANOVA. Post hoc multiple comparisons were performed using the Tukey HSD test. The significance level of p ≤ 0.05 was used. Significant differences were found within all variable dimensions (p= 0.00001). In terms of the puck possession gain location, zone 1 (along the boards in the offensive zone) was the zone with the significantly highest mean score (p= 0.00305). Offensive zone play was significantly the game situation preceding most of the goals (p= 0.00000). The interval of the passes that preceded most of the recorded goals was the interval of 1 – 2 passes (p= 0.00000). Acquired results point out the dominance of particular variables and may help coaches to determine the content of the training process and game strategies. Based on the assumption of the realization of similar research in different environments in terms of the quality and age category, if the analogy would be found between the results of the present study and the results of potential studies, we can state the trends applicable to youth training.

Keywords

  • National Hockey League
  • ice hockey
  • game performance
  • trends
  • goals
Open Access

Social Media Fitness Challenge – Risks and Benefits

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 238 - 248

Abstract

Summary

Social media is part of the lives of young adults. Their influence extends to health behavior or nutrition. “Fitness challenges” often appear and they should affect the motivation to exercise, body composition changes, performance improvement. 67 healthy young adults (32 women, 20.3 years; 35 men, 20.8 years) took part in the “challenge”, where they completed 3 series of 12 – 15 push-ups every day for 30 days. After the intervention, both groups showed a statistically significant (α = 0.01) improvement, women 5.8 repetitions, men by 7 repetitions. The research was supplemented by a questionnaire, which showed a positive effect on increasing motivation for this activity. Furthermore, it has been shown that “fitness challenges” bring obvious health risks that need to be taken into account. It seems that with the optimal setting of the content of the exercise program, the “fitness challenge” can be a good instrument of increasing the physical acitivty, motivation to exercise, and positively influencing strength performance.

Keywords

  • push-up
  • exercise
  • motivation
  • performance
Open Access

Effect of using Weighted Balls on Performance Speed in Wheelchair Basketball Players

Published Online: 30 Oct 2021
Page range: 249 - 257

Abstract

Summary

The researchers seek to identify the impact of weighted balls on performance speed in wheelchair basketball players. An experimental method has been used in conformity with research nature between pre-tests and post-tests sample. The sample was selected by the intended manner and divided into two equal groups (10 players experimental sample, 10 players control sample) for the 2019/2020 sports season. A speed test (5 m and 20 m without ball), speed test (5 m and 20 m with ball) were used. After statistical treatment of the results, the researchers concluded: The weighted balls are important to develop performance speed in wheelchair basketball players, and the best improvement of the experimental group based on of weighted balls is marked comparing to the control group. A regular physical training with weighted balls is very important to improve of performance speed of persons with disabilities in basketball game.

Keywords

  • weighted balls
  • performance speed
  • wheelchair basketball players

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